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1.
Rev. argent. dermatol ; 101(1): 31-40, mar. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1092407

RESUMO

RESUMEN Las metástasis cutáneas (MC) constituyen una manifestación infrecuente de neoplasias internas. Su diagnóstico requiere un alto índice de sospecha clínica, pues los hallazgos pueden ser sutiles. Estas ponen de manifiesto la presencia de un tumor maligno diseminado y pueden permitir el diagnóstico de neoplasias internas no conocidas, o indicar la diseminación o recurrencia de otras ya diagnosticadas. La MC del carcinoma de ovario suele aparecer en enfermedad avanzada e indican un mal pronóstico.Su reconocimiento temprano puede llevar a un diagnóstico preciso y rápido, con el consiguiente tratamiento oportuno, aunque en la mayoría de los casos son indicativas de un pronóstico infausto.


SUMMARY Cutaneous metastases are an infrequent manifestation of internal neoplasms. Its diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion, since the findings can be subtle. These reveal the presence of a disseminated malignant tumor and can allow the diagnosis of unknown internal neoplasms, or indicate the dissemination or recurrence of others already diagnosed. MC of ovarian carcinoma usually appears in advanced disease and may indicate a poor prognosis. Early recovery can carry out an accurate and rapid diagnosis, with timely emergency treatment, although in most cases they are indicators of an unfortunate prognosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Metástase Neoplásica/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/complicações
2.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 64-68, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782138

RESUMO

A schwannoma can develop anywhere along the course of nerves. However, a schwannoma presenting as a scalp nodule is rare. Here, we present a rare case of schwannoma on the scalp with a review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, which was initially misdiagnosed as an epidermal cyst or vascular malformation despite various radiologic examinations. Recognition of characteristic MRI features of schwannomas, such as low signal margin, target, entering-and-exiting-nerve, and fascicular signs, may result in an accurate diagnosis and proper management of tumors. In this report, we summarized differential characteristics of a schwannoma with an epidermal cyst and a lipoma.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico , Cisto Epidérmico , Lipoma , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural , Neurilemoma , Couro Cabeludo , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Malformações Vasculares
3.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-810981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in differentiating between cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (cBCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) in the head and neck region.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among patients with cutaneous head and neck cancers, 14 with primary cBCCs and 15 with primary cSCCs with a histologic tumor height of ≥ 4 mm underwent MR examinations; the findings were then examined for correlations.RESULTS: cBCCs (71%) occurred more frequently on the nose than cSCCs (13%) (p < 0.01). The maximum diameter (23.5 ± 7.2 mm vs. 12.7 ± 4.5 mm; p < 0.01) and diameter-to-height ratio (2.8 ± 0.9 vs. 1.7 ± 0.4; p < 0.01) were significantly greater in cSCCs than in cBCCs. Superficial ulcer formation (67% vs. 21%; p < 0.05), protrusion into the subcutaneous tissue (60% vs. 21%; p < 0.05), ill-demarcated deep tumor margins (60% vs. 7%; p < 0.01), and peritumoral fat stranding (93% vs. 7%; p < 0.01) were more frequently observed in cSCCs than in cBCCs. Intratumoral T2-hyperintense foci (57% vs. 13%; p < 0.05) were more frequently observed in cBCCs than in cSCCs.CONCLUSION: cBCCs predominantly occurred on the nose with intratumoral T2-hyperintense foci, whereas cSCCs predominantly exhibited a flattened configuration, superficial ulcer formation, protrusion into the subcutaneous tissue, ill-demarcated deep tumor margin, and peritumoral fat stranding.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Células Epiteliais , Cabeça , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pescoço , Nariz , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Tela Subcutânea , Úlcera
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 99 p. figuras, tabelas.
Tese em Português | LILACS (Américas), Inca | ID: biblio-1102465

RESUMO

A síndrome do Xeroderma Pigmentoso (XP) ocorre frente à herança monogênica e bialélica de variantes germinativas patogênicas de perda ou redução de função em genes das vias de reparo por excisão de nucleotídeos ou síntese translesão. Consequentemente, é estabelecida deficiência na correção de lesões induzidas, principalmente por radiação ultravioleta, favorecendo alta sensibilidade à radiação solar e risco aumentado para o desenvolvimento de múltiplas lesões cutâneas pré-malignas e malignas. Visto que a heterogeneidade na manifestação clínica da síndrome é uma questão em discussão na literatura, para investigar este aspecto propusemos avaliar o perfil de variantes germinativas e variantes somáticas de tumores cutâneos e não cutâneos de indivíduos portadores de XP. Foi realizado o sequenciamento de alto desempenho utilizando a plataforma NextSeq (Illumina) para avaliar as regiões codificantes de 114 genes selecionados pela sua relevância em desordens dermatológicas, tumorigênese e fisiologia cutânea e resposta de dano ao DNA. Seis pacientes com fenótipo clínico da síndrome do XP e portadores de variantes germinativas clinicamente relevantes nos genes XPC ou POLH/XPV foram avaliados no estudo. Variantes germinativas de significado incerto foram identificadas, em heterozigose, no DNA de leucócito de cinco dos seis pacientes avaliados ocorrendo nos genes DNAH11, PCDHB3, RGS22, SLC27A5, TTN e UGT2B10 e nenhuma das variantes identificadas apresentou perda de heterozigose do alelo selvagem nos tecidos tumorais. O polimorfismo de risco para carcinoma basocelular de pele (CBC) rs3769823[A] no gene CASP8 não foi identificado em apenas um caso do estudo, o qual desenvolveu o menor número de tumores. O polimorfismo de risco rs1126809[A] no gene TYR foi detectado apenas no caso que apresentou o maior número de CBC. Amostras de DNA de nove CBCs de tecido armazenado em parafina e duas amostras de tumor gástrico de uma mesma peça cirúrgica, de tecido armazenado em parafina e congelado a fresco, foram avaliadas de forma pareada com o DNA de leucócito correspondente, para pesquisa de variantes somáticas. Variantes somáticas não foram identificadas na amostra de CBC da paciente XP-C com fenótipo menos agressivo da síndrome. O total de 235 variantes missense e 29 variantes de perda de função foram identificadas em 71 genes para sete amostras de CBC, mínimo de 11 e máximo de 127 variantes por amostra, com 85,2% destas apresentando frequência alélica ≥20%. Com exceção de um CBC, mais de 95% das variantes somáticas identificadas representam alterações tipicamente fotoinduzidas (C:G>T:A e G:C>T:A). Embora pacientes XP acumulem maior número de mutações devido deficiência no mecanismo de reparo, não observamos carga mutacional diferente do observado em CBCs esporádicos. Vinte e sete genes apresentaram variantes somáticas em mais de uma amostra de CBC. Nenhum gene foi compartilhado entre as sete amostras de CBC. Entre os genes alterados em maior número de tumores estão incluídos genes drivers de CBC (LATS1, NOTCH2, PTCH1, PTPN14 e TP53), bem como genes não clássicos na carcinogênese do CBC (APC, FLG e TTN). Uma variante driver em SMO foi recorrente em três CBCs de um mesmo paciente. Duas variantes somáticas foram identificadas no tumor gástrico de tecido congelado a fresco ocorrendo nos genes GLI3 e RB1, não sendo as mesmas detectadas no tecido armazenado em parafina. Nesse trabalho, ressalta-se a heterogeneidade na manifestação clínica da síndrome do XP e a identificação de dois polimorfismos de risco, bem como destaca-se o papel central das vias Sonic Hedgehog e Hippo na carcinogênese do CBC de pacientes XP (AU)


The Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) syndrome occurs on base of biallelic inheritance of pathogenic germline variants of loss of function or function reduction in genes that plays role in nucleotide excision repair and translesion synthesis. Consequently, patients are deficient in correct DNA lesions mainly induced by ultraviolet radiation, present high sensitivity to solar radiation and increased risk for the development of multiple premalignant and malignant skin lesions. Since the heterogeneity in the clinical manifestation is under constantly discussion in the literature, to investigate it we proposed to explore the profile of germline variants and somatic variants in skin and non-skin tumors from XP patients. High-performance sequencing using the NextSeq (Illumina) platform was performed to assess the coding regions of 114 genes selected for their relevance in dermatological disorders, skin carcinogenesis, cutaneous physiology and DNA damage response. Six patients with clinical phenotype of XP syndrome and carriers of clinically relevant germline variants in the XPC or POLH/XPV genes were evaluated in the study. Heterozygous germline variants of uncertain significance were identified in the leukocyte DNA from five of the six patients occurring in DNAH11, PCDHB3, RGS22, SLC27A5, TTN and UGT2B10 genes. None of the identified variants showed loss of heterozygosity of the wild allele in tumor tissues. The CASP8 risk polymorphism for basal cell carcinoma of the skin (BCC) rs3769823[A] was not identified in only one case of the study which developed the minor number of tumors. The TYR risk polymorphism rs1126809[A] was detected only in the case with the highest number of BCC. Somatic variants were investigated in DNA from nine samples of BCCs (tissue stored in paraffin) and two samples of gastric tumor from the same surgical (tissue stored in paraffin and fresh frozen), all paired with the corresponding leukocyte DNA. Somatic variants were not identified in the BCC sample of XP-C patient with a less aggressive syndrome phenotype. A total of 235 missense variants and 29 loss of function variants were identified in 71 genes for seven BCC samples. A minimum of 11 and a maximum of 127 variants per sample were detected, with 85.2% showing an allelic frequency ≥20%. Except for one BCC, more than 95% of the identified somatic variants represented typically photoinduced mutations (C:G>T:A and G:C>T:A). Although XP patients accumulate a greater number of mutations due to deficiency in the repair mechanism, we did not observe different mutational load compared with sporadic BCCs. Twenty-seven genes showed somatic variants in more than one BCC sample. Genes shared between the seven BCC samples were not found. Among the altered genes in a greater number of tumors, it was identified BCC driver genes (LATS1, NOTCH2, PTCH1, PTPN14 and TP53), as well as genes non-classical for BCC carcinogenesis (APC, FLG and TTN). A driver variant in SMO was recurrent in three BCCs from the same patient. Two somatic variants in GLI3 and RB1 genes were identified occurring only in the fresh frozen tissue of gastric tumor, not in the tissue stored in paraffin. In this work, the heterogeneous clinical manifestation of XP syndrome is highlighted, as well as the identification of two risk polymorphisms. In addition, this work emphasizes the central role of the Sonic Hedgehog and Hippo pathways in BCC carcinogenesis of XP patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Xeroderma Pigmentoso , Carcinoma Basocelular , Reparo do DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Raios Ultravioleta
5.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(4): 561-566, oct.-dec. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1047928

RESUMO

Introdução: O couro cabeludo é uma área de difícil reconstrução devido à sua pouca elasticidade e por sobrepor-se a uma estrutura rígida e convexa. Existem diferentes técnicas cirúrgicas para reparação dos defeitos, que podem ser produto de diversas etiologias, como: traumas, deformidades e consequência de doenças, principalmente oncológicas, como é o caso do paciente apresentada neste trabalho. O angiossarcoma cutâneo é um tumor vascular maligno raro e extremamente agressivo, que afeta principalmente idosos. É caracterizado clinicamente pelo aparecimento de placas eritêmato-violáceas e de rápida evolução. O tratamento depende da extensão da doença. A maioria dos casos são tratados com ampla ressecção cirúrgica e reconstrução. O objetivo é relatar um caso de reconstrução de grande defeito do couro cabeludo depois de uma dissecção oncológica, realizado no Hospital Central do Exército (HCE) - RJ. Métodos: O caso foi tratado com enxerto autólogo e uso de matriz dérmica, em 2 tempos cirúrgicos, até a total cobertura da área lesionada. Resultados: Obteve-se resultado satisfatório após as cirurgias de enxertia de pele na área ressecada. Conclusão: O enxerto autólogo, juntamente a matriz dérmica mostrou-se uma opção viável na reconstrução do couro cabeludo.


Introduction: It is difficult to reconstruct the scalp due to its poor elasticity and presence of layers over a rigid convex structure. Different surgical techniques are used to repair defects that may develop due to several etiologies, such as trauma, deformities, and disease sequelae, especially cancer, as noted in the present case. Cutaneous angiosarcoma, a rare and extremely aggressive malignant vascular tumor that mainly develops in elderly individuals, is clinically characterized by the onset of rapidly evolving erythematous purple plaques. The treatment depends on disease extent. Most patients are treated with wide surgical resection and reconstruction. The objective is to report a case of reconstruction of a major scalp defect after an oncologic dissection performed at the Hospital Central do Exército in Rio de Janeiro. Methods: An autologous graft and dermal matrices were applied during two surgical periods till the damaged area was fully covered. Results: Satisfactory results were obtained after performing skin grafting surgery in the resected area. Conclusion: The autologous graft and dermal matrix proved to be a viable option for scalp reconstruction.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , História do Século XXI , Reabilitação , Couro Cabeludo , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Hemangiossarcoma , Neoplasias de Tecido Vascular , Reabilitação/métodos , Reabilitação/psicologia , Couro Cabeludo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Hemangiossarcoma/cirurgia , Hemangiossarcoma/terapia , Neoplasias de Tecido Vascular/cirurgia , Neoplasias de Tecido Vascular/terapia
6.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 132(4): 4-8, dic. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1087163

RESUMO

El dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) es un tumor cutáneo, de baja frecuencia, fibrohistiocítico, infiltrante, de lento crecimiento, de agresividad local, de malignidad intermedia; con escasas probabilidades de metástasis pero con alto índice de recurrencia local. El diagnóstico debe sospecharse y confirmarse con histología e inmunohistoquímica. El tratamiento de elección es con cirugía convencional y/o cirugía micrográfica de Mohs, con márgenes de 2-4 cm. Se considera que la prevalencia del DFSP en la edad pediátrica es baja, debido al escaso índice de sospecha. En el presente trabajo compartimos cinco casos de DFSP en la edad pediátrica, estudiados en el Hospital General de Niños Pedro de Elizalde. (AU)


Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a cutaneous, low frequency, fibrohistiocytic, infiltrating, slow growing, local aggressiveness, intermediate malignancy tumor; with little chance of metastasis but with a high rate of local recurrence. The diagnosis should be suspected and confirmed with histology and immunohistochemistry. The treatment of choice is with conventional surgery and / or Mohs micrographic surgery, with margins of 2-4 cm. The prevalence of DFSP in pediatric age is considered to be low, due to the low index of suspicion. In this paper we share five cases of DFSP in the pediatric age, studied at the Pedro de Elizalde Children's General Hospital. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Dermatofibrossarcoma/cirurgia , Dermatofibrossarcoma/diagnóstico , Pediatria , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Dermatofibrossarcoma/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 698-703, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1054877

RESUMO

Abstract Background: A skin field cancerization is a cutaneous area with subclinical changes resultant from chronic sun exposure, with a higher predisposition to development of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. So far, there are no well-defined objective parameters that can indicate their degree of activity. Objectives: To describe and compare morphometric aspects and expression of factors related to apoptosis and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis (AK), in both photoexposed and photoprotected epidermis. Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with actinic keratosis in the forearms, biopsied at two points: the actinic keratosis and the axillary region. The biopsies of the actinic keratosis, perilesional area, and axilla were evaluated through keratinocyte intraepithelial neoplasia (KIN), and immunohistochemistry of p53, survivin, and Ki67. Nuclear morphometry of basal layer cells was performed through digital image analysis: entropy, area, perimeter, Ra, fractal dimension, circularity, color intensity, and largest diameter. Results: There were 13 patients included and 38 actinic keratosis biopsied. In morphometry, 1039 nuclei were analyzed, of which 228 represented axillary skin, 396 demonstrated actinic keratosis, and 415 represented the perilesional area to the actinic keratosis. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in all variables tested for the topographies evaluated. A significant correlation was identified between nucellar morphometric elements, KIN, proliferation markers, and apoptosis. Joint patterns of p53, Ki67, and KIN discriminated the topographies sampled. Study limitations: This was a cross-sectional study with a small number of patients. Conclusions: There are patterns of proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and different cellular morphometrics between photoprotected skin and photoexposed skin. The joint expression of p53, Ki67, and KIN can characterize skin field cancerization activity.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Ceratose Actínica/patologia , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 717-720, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1054891

RESUMO

Abstract Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis of Gougerot and Carteaud is a rare dermatosis with onset during puberty, more prevalent in females than in males. The pathogenesis is unknown, but some theories suggest either a keratinization or endocrine disorder. The lesions are verrucous, brownish, hyperkeratotic papules or spots that coalesce in a confluent and/or reticulated pattern. This report presents a case with extensive cutaneous involvement associated with acanthosis nigricans and good response to treatment with methotrexate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Papiloma/patologia , Papiloma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Resultado do Tratamento , Eritema/patologia
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 671-676, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1054890

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Mohs micrographic surgery is a surgical technique for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Surgery begins by removing the visible tumor before excision of the tissue specimens for evaluation of the tumor margins. Objectives: To present a new way to evaluate the material obtained from debulking, by horizontal histological analysis of the fragment. Methods: Descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study based on the medical records and histological lamellae of patients with primary basal cell carcinomas smaller than 1.5 cm submitted to Mohs micrographic surgery and who had the visible tumor analyzed by horizontal histological sections. Results: The sample evaluated included 16 patients with lesions located on the face. Comparing the histopathological examinations of incisional biopsy in vertical sections and debulking in horizontal sections, there was agreement in seven cases. The histological analysis performed in horizontal sections allowed identification of the tumor site in 13 cases, and the relation between tumor and margin showed that in 11 cases, the lateral margin was compromised.Study limitations: The technique was better-applied in lesions smaller than 2 cm. Conclusion: Horizontal histological analysis of debulking has advantages for Mohs surgery, since it allows visualization of almost all tumor extension in the same view plane of the dermatoscopy, allowing better definition of the histological subtype, tumor site, and tumor/margin of lesions less than 1.5 cm.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/cirurgia , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Cirurgia de Mohs/métodos , Biópsia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Dermoscopia , Carga Tumoral
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 721-723, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1054886

RESUMO

Abstract Primary male genital melanomas are very rare; they are associated with high mortality and late detection. Scrotal melanoma is the least common presentation and only 23 cases have been reported. Herein, the authors present a 30-year-old patient with stage IIIC (T4b, N2a, M0) scrotal melanoma in order to report the characteristics, treatment, and outcome, as well as to emphasize the importance of examination of the genitals, education of patients about self-examination and destigmatizing genital lesions to increase the likelihood of earlier detection.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Escroto/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Biópsia , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 747-750, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1054880

RESUMO

Abstract Melanoacanthoma is a rare variant of seborrheic keratosis, which is notable for dark pigmentation and fast radial growth, making it difficult to distinguish from melanoma. Histologically, it is characterized by proliferation of keratinocytes and dendritic melanocytes. The authors report a scalp lesion, fast growing, suspected by dermoscopy and confocal microscopy examination, with dendritic cells distributed throughout the lesion. Based on these findings, it was not possible to classify this lesion as clearly benign, so it was excised. Histopathologic evaluation and immunostain were consistent with melanoacanthoma.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Ceratose Seborreica/patologia , Acantoma/patologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Dermoscopia , Melanócitos/patologia
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 637-657, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1054878

RESUMO

Abstract Actinic keratoses are dysplastic proliferations of keratinocytes with potential for malignant transformation. Clinically, actinic keratoses present as macules, papules, or hyperkeratotic plaques with an erythematous background that occur on photoexposed areas. At initial stages, they may be better identified by palpation rather than by visual inspection. They may also be pigmented and show variable degrees of infiltration; when multiple they then constitute the so-called field cancerization. Their prevalence ranges from 11% to 60% in Caucasian individuals above 40 years. Ultraviolet radiation is the main factor involved in pathogenesis, but individual factors also play a role in the predisposing to lesions appearance. Diagnosis of lesions is based on clinical and dermoscopic examination, but in some situations histopathological analysis may be necessary. The risk of transformation into squamous cell carcinoma is the major concern regarding actinic keratoses. Therapeutic modalities for actinic keratoses include topical medications, and ablative and surgical methods; the best treatment option should always be individualized according to the patient.


Assuntos
Humanos , Dermoscopia/métodos , Ceratose Actínica/terapia , Ceratose Actínica/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Ceratose Actínica/patologia
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 532-541, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1054868

RESUMO

Abstract Background The knowledge of general practitioners about photoprotection is unknown. Objectives To develop and validate an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of general practitioners and pediatricians about photoprotection, gauging the knowledge of these professionals. Methods The study followed the steps: (1) Literature identification and item elaboration related to the theme; (2) Content validation; (3) Apparent validation; (4) Construct validation: internal consistency analysis and discriminatory analysis; (5) Reliability analysis. In Step 4, the instrument was applied to 217 general practitioners and pediatricians who worked in the host city of the study; the scores were compared with dermatologists scores. Results The final instrument had 41 items and showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.780), satisfactory reproducibility and good test-retest reliability (good-to-excellent kappa statistic in more than 60% of items). The discriminatory analysis registered a mean score of 54.1 points for dermatologists and 31.1 points for generalists and pediatricians, from a total of 82 possible points, representing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). Generalists and pediatricians demonstrated an understanding of the relationship between excessive sun exposure and skin cancer, but they revealed lack of technical information necessary for their professional practice. Study limitations The instrument evaluates only knowledge, without evaluating the conduct of the participants. Conclusion The results show that the instrument has good internal consistency and good reproducibility. It could be useful in the identification of general practitioners and pediatricians knowledge gaps on the subject, for the subsequent development of training and educational strategies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Energia Solar , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatras/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 590-593, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1054865

RESUMO

Abstract The correct identification of pigmented nodular lesions of the scalp is often challenging. Despite the importance of clinical patterns and dermoscopy, important adjuvant tools that are usually helpful, their interpretation sometimes is not clear-cut. Here, the authors discuss a case of sebaceoma mimicking a malignant pigmented neoplasia, with conclusive histopathology.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Sebáceas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Sebáceas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Biópsia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Dermoscopia , Diagnóstico Diferencial
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 503-520, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1054862

RESUMO

Abstract Oculocutaneous albinism is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the complete absence or decrease of melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes. Due to the reduction or absence of melanin, albinos are highly susceptible to the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation and are at increased risk of actinic damage and skin cancer. In Brazil, as in other parts of the world, albinism remains a little known disorder, both in relation to epidemiological data and to phenotypic and genotypic variation. In several regions of the country, individuals with albinism have no access to resources or specialized medical care, and are often neglected and deprived of social inclusion. Brazil is a tropical country, with a high incidence of solar radiation during the year nationwide. Consequently, actinic damage and skin cancer occur early and have a high incidence in this population, often leading to premature death. Skin monitoring of these patients and immediate therapeutic interventions have a positive impact in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. Health education is important to inform albinos and their families, the general population, educators, medical professionals, and public agencies about the particularities of this genetic condition. The aim of this article is to present a review of the epidemiological, clinical, genetic, and psychosocial characteristics of albinism, with a focus in skin changes caused by this rare pigmentation disorder.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Albinismo/genética , Albinismo/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/fisiopatologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Albinismo/complicações , Albinismo/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ceratose Actínica/etiologia , Ceratose Actínica/patologia , Melaninas/deficiência
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 567-573, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1054861

RESUMO

Abstract Background One of the main prevention methods against skin cancer is the use of sunscreen; however, incidence of this disease has not declined despite prevention campaigns. Objective Investigate the prevalence of non-use of sunscreen and its associated factors. Method A population-based cross-sectional study with individuals aged 18 years or over living in the urban area. Conducted between April and July of 2016. Participants were interviewed about socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral questions. Non-use of sunscreen was considered as the outcome. For multivariate analysis, Poisson regression with robust adjustment for variance was used. Results Among the 1300 participants, prevalence of non-use of sunscreen was 38.2% (95% CI: 34.6-41.8). The variables independently associated with the outcome were male sex, older age, brown or black skin color, lower income, fewer years of education, no physical activity in leisure time, no medical consultations in the last year, and self-perception of health as regular or poor. Study limitations The prevalence may be underestimated by reports of more use of sunscreen than actually used, which could increase the figure in the outcome. Conclusion It was estimated that about four out of ten adults and elderly do not use sunscreen in this sample. Prevention strategies are needed to advance health policy and ensure that sun protection options are easily accessible.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde
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