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1.
Appl. cancer res ; 40(2): [1-13], 06 apr. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1103861

RESUMO

Background: Cell culture (spheroid and 2D monolayer cultures) is an essential tool in drug discovery. Piperlongumine (PLN), a naturally occurring alkaloid present in the long pepper (Piper longum), has been implicated in the regulation of GSTP1 activity. In vitro treatment of cancer cells with PLN increases ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and induces cell death, but its molecular mode of action has not been entirely elucidated. Methods: In this study, we correlated the antiproliferative effects (2D and 3D cultures) of PLN (CAS 20069­09-4, Sigma-Aldrich) with morphological and molecular analyses in HepG2/C3A cell line. We performed assays for cytotoxicity (MTT), comet assays for genotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, analysis of the cell cycle phase, and analysis of the membrane integrity by flow cytometry. Relative expression of mRNA of genes related to proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle control, metabolism of xenobiotics, and reticulum endoplasmic stress. Results: PLN reduced the cell proliferation by the cell cycle arrest in G2/M. Changes in the mRNA expression for CDKN1A (4.9x) and CCNA2 (0.5x) of cell cycle control genes were observed. Cell death occurred due to apoptosis, which may have been induced by increased expression of proapoptotic mRNAs (BAK1, 3.1x; BBC3, 2.4x), and by an increase in 9 and 3/7 active caspases. PLN induced cellular injury by ROS generation and DNA damage. DNA damage induced MDM2 signaling (3.0x) associated with the appearance of the monastral spindle in mitosis. Genes associated with ROS degradation also showed increased mRNA expression (GSR, 2.0x; SOD1, 2.1x). PLN induce endoplasmic reticulum stress with the increase in the mRNA expression of ERN1 (4.5x) and HSPA14 (2.2x). The xenobiotic metabolism showed increased mRNA expression for CYP1A2 (2.2x) and CYP3A4 (3.4x). In addition to 2D culture, PLN treatment also inhibited the growth of 3D culture (spheroids). Conclusion: Thus, the findings of our study show that several gene expression biomarkers (mRNAs) and monastral spindle formation indicated the many pathways of damage induced by PLN treatment that contributes to its antiproliferative effects


Assuntos
RNA Mensageiro , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Antineoplásicos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-762183

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effect of air pollution-related particulate matter (PM) on epithelial barrier function and tight junction (TJ) expression in human nasal mucosa has not been studied to date. This study therefore aimed to assess the direct impact of PM with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) on the barrier function and TJ molecular expression of human nasal epithelial cells. METHODS: Air-liquid interface cultures were established with epithelial cells derived from noninflammatory nasal mucosal tissue collected from patients undergoing paranasal sinus surgery. Confluent cultures were exposed to 50 or 100 µg/mL PM2.5 for up to 72 hours, and assessed for 1) epithelial barrier integrity as measured by transepithelial resistance (TER) and permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) 4 kDa; 2) expression of TJs using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining, and 3) proinflammatory cytokines by luminometric bead array or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Compared to control medium, 50 and/or 100 µg/mL PM2.5-treatment 1) significantly decreased TER and increased FITC permeability, which could not be restored by budesonide pretreatment; 2) significantly decreased the expression of claudin-1 messenger RNA, claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1 protein; and 3) significantly increased production of the cytokines interleukin-8, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PM2.5 may lead to loss of barrier function in human nasal epithelium through decreased expression of TJ proteins and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines. These results suggest an important mechanism of susceptibility to rhinitis and rhinosinusitis in highly PM2.5-polluted areas.


Assuntos
Asma , Budesonida , Claudina-1 , Citocinas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Células Epiteliais , Fluoresceína , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Interleucina-8 , Membrana Mucosa , Mucosa Nasal , Ocludina , Material Particulado , Permeabilidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rinite , RNA Mensageiro , Junções Íntimas
3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 210-217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-811475

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to explore the effects of hsa-let-7g on cell proliferation and apoptosis, and elucidate its role in lung cancer development.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of has-let-7g and HOXB1 in tissues and cells were measured by qRT-PCR. An inhibitor of hsa-let-7g or one targeting a control messenger RNA were transfected into A549 and H1944 lung cancer cells, and the effects of hsa-let-7g dysregulation on cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed using CCK-8 and apoptosis detection assays. HOXB1 was confirmed as the target gene of hsa-let-7g, based on luciferase reporter assay results. The relationship between hsa-let-7g and HOXB1 was confirmed by co-transfection of inhibitors of hsa-let-7g and HOXB1 followed by Western blot, CCK-8, and apoptosis detection assays.RESULTS: We observed high expression of hsa-let-7g in lung cancer tissues compared to the corresponding normal tissues, and generally higher expression of hsa-let-7g in patients with advanced tumor classification. The results of CCK-8 and apoptosis detection experiments showed that the inhibition of hsa-let-7g significantly inhibited proliferation of A549 and H1944 cells, but also promoted apoptosis. HOXB1 is a specific target of hsa-let-7g, and downregulation of HOXB1 in lung cancer cells reversed the suppressive effects caused by knocking down hsa-let-7g.CONCLUSION: These data collectively suggest that the expression of hsa-let-7g inhibits lung cancer cells apoptosis and promotes proliferation by down-regulating HOXB1. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of hsa-let-7g/HOXB1 axis as a therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Western Blotting , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Classificação , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Luciferases , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pulmão , MicroRNAs , RNA Mensageiro , Sincalida
4.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782241

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diquafosol is a pharmaceutical drug used for dry eye treatment with a novel mechanism of action. It is a purinergic P2Y2 receptor agonist that promotes the secretion of tears and healing of corneal epithelial wounds. However, its inhibitory effect on hyperosmotic stress-induced inflammation in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) remains unclear.METHODS: A hyperosmotic stress model was established by transferring HCECs from isosmotic (312 mOsm/kg to hyperosmotic medium (500 mOsm/kg). HCECs were incubated with 500 mOsm/kg hyperosmotic medium for 30 minutes, and then treated with diquafosol (0.6–6 mg/mL) for 4 or 24 hours. Cells were then harvested and analyzed by western blot, immunocytochemistry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the expression of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and the phosphorylation status of nuclear factor-kappa B.RESULTS: Diquafosol significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression of hyperosmotic stress-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. These results were supported by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, diquafosol inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B activation by suppressing the phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor of кB.CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that diquafosol inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B signaling and inflammatory factors induced by hyperosmotic stress in HCECs. This suggests that using diquafosol for the improvement of dry eye syndrome could be effective in the treatment of inflammation-related corneal and conjunctival diseases.


Assuntos
Western Blotting , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Células Epiteliais , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inflamação , Interleucina-6 , Necrose , Fosforilação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , RNA Mensageiro , Lágrimas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Ferimentos e Lesões
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 20-29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782127

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Curcumin exerts its anti-cancer effects, partly by targeting special microRNAs, in human cancers. MiR-21 is a key oncomir in carcinogenesis of multiple human cancers. Here, we aimed to further explore the mechanistic insight into the link between curcumin and miR-21 on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR assays were performed to assess the levels of miR-21 and Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) mRNA. In situ hybridization assay was used for miR-21 expression visualization in lymphoma tissues. Western blot was used for determination of VHL protein, Ki-67, caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-3 levels. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay were employed to confirm the direct target of miR-21. MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis, and transwell assay were used to evaluate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration and invasion capacities, respectively.RESULTS: Curcumin repressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities and promoted apoptosis in SU-DHL-8 cells. Curcumin inhibited miR-21 expression and curcumin exerted its anti-proliferation, anti-migration, anti-invasion, and pro-apoptosis effects by miR-21 in SU-DHL-8 cells. VHL was a direct target of miR-21. Moreover, curcumin exerted its regulatory effects on SU-DHL-8 cells by VHL.CONCLUSION: Curcumin exerted its anti-proliferation, anti-migration, anti-invasion, and pro-apoptosis functions, at least partly, by repressing miR-21 and regulating VHL expression in DLBCL cell line. Our findings provided a possible molecular mechanism of curcumin-mediated anti-cancer effect.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Linfócitos B , Western Blotting , Carcinogênese , Caspase 3 , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Curcumina , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Hibridização In Situ , Linfoma , Linfoma de Células B , MicroRNAs , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , RNA , RNA Mensageiro
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 85-93, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782119

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of FST gene on the inhibition of fibrosis in fibroblastic cells from scar tissue around repaired zone II flexor tendons.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was conducted on fibroblast cells transfected with adenovirus-LacZ (Ad-LacZ) as a marker gene (control), or with adenovirus-FST (Ad-FST) as a therapeutic gene. Fibroblast cultures without adenoviral exposure served as controls.RESULTS: Fibroblastic cells transfected with Ad-FST demonstrated significant decrease in collagen type I, MMP-1, MMP2, and α-SMA mRNA expressions compared to those transfected with Ad-LacZ. In addition, fibroblastic cells transfected with Ad-FST exhibited significant decrease in MMP-1, TIMP-1, fibronectin, PAI-1, TRPV4, α-SMA, desmin, and PAX7 protein expressions.CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, we conclude that FST may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing scar adhesions around repaired tendons by inhibiting fibroblasts from differentiating into myofibroblasts, in addition to producing type I collagen and regulating extracellular matrix turnover via the downregulation of MMP-1 and TIMP-1. FST may also decrease contracture of the scar by inhibiting Ca²⁺-dependent cell contraction.


Assuntos
Cicatriz , Colágeno Tipo I , Colágeno , Contratura , Desmina , Regulação para Baixo , Matriz Extracelular , Fibroblastos , Fibronectinas , Fibrose , Folistatina , Terapia Genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Miofibroblastos , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio , RNA Mensageiro , Traumatismos dos Tendões , Tendões , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1
7.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-787141

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is an important process underlying a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Carvacrol (CAR) is a phenolic monoterpene commonly used as a food additive due to its antibacterial properties, but it has also been shown to exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of CAR on inflammation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In our study, lipopolysaccharide was injected into the lateral ventricle of rats to induce memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Daily administration of CAR (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 21 days improved recognition, discrimination, and memory impairments relative to untreated controls. CAR administration significantly attenuated expression of several inflammatory factors in the brain, including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, CAR significantly increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, and decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA. Taken together, these results show that CAR can improve memory impairment caused by neuroinflammation. This cognitive enhancement is due to the anti-inflammatory effects of CAR medicated by its regulation of BDNF and TLR4. Thus, CAR has significant potential as an inhibitor of memory degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Animais , Encéfalo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Citocinas , Discriminação Psicológica , Aditivos Alimentares , Hipocampo , Inflamação , Ventrículos Laterais , Lipopolissacarídeos , Memória , Necrose , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Fenol , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Ratos , RNA Mensageiro , Receptor 4 Toll-Like
8.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-787136

RESUMO

Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) can be induced by an intracellular calcium increase and oxidative stress, which are characteristic features of temporal lobe epilepsy. Thus, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression and cellular localization of RCAN1 protein and mRNA in the mouse hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Male C57BL/6 mice were given pilocarpine hydrochloride (280 mg/kg, i.p.) and allowed to develop 2 h of SE. Then the animals were given diazepam (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to stop the seizures and sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, or 28 day after SE. Cresyl violet staining showed that pilocarpine-induced SE resulted in cell death in the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus from 3 day after SE. RCAN1 immunoreactivity showed that RCAN1 was mainly expressed in neurons in the shammanipulated hippocampi. At 1 day after SE, RCAN1 expression became detected in hippocampal neuropils. However, RCAN1 signals were markedly enhanced in cells with stellate morphology at 3 and 7 day after SE, which were confirmed to be reactive astrocytes, but not microglia by double immunofluorescence. In addition, real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction showed a significant upregulation of RCAN1 isoform 4 (RCAN1-4) mRNA in the SE-induced hippocampi. Finally, in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry revealed astrocytic expression of RCAN1-4 after SE. These results demonstrate astrocytic upregulation of RCAN1 and RCAN1-4 in the mouse hippocampus in the acute and subacute phases of epileptogenesis, providing foundational information for the potential role of RCAN1 in reactive astrocytes during epileptogenesis.


Assuntos
Animais , Astrócitos , Calcineurina , Cálcio , Morte Celular , Diazepam , Epilepsia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Imunofluorescência , Hipocampo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia , Neurônios , Neurópilo , Estresse Oxidativo , Pilocarpina , RNA Mensageiro , Convulsões , Estado Epiléptico , Regulação para Cima , Viola
9.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 122-129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-811086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG), which encodes an epidermal protein crucial for the formation of a functional skin barrier, have been identified as a major predisposing factor in the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Recent reports of relatively low frequencies of FLG-null mutations among specific ethnic groups with AD necessitated analysis of the epigenetic regulation which may control FLG expression without altering its DNA sequence.OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify DNA methylation-dependent regulation of FLG expression.METHODS: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the restoration of FLG mRNA expression in normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cells after treatment with epigenetic modulating agents. Bisulfite genomic sequencing and pyrosequencing analyses of the FLG promoter region were conducted to identify the citical CpG sites relevant to FLG expression. We performed small-scale pilot study for epidermal tissues obtained from Korean patients with severe AD.RESULTS: We here show that DNA methylation in the FLG with non-CpG island promoter is responsible for the transcriptional regulation of FLG in undifferentiated NHEK cells. The methylation frequencies in a single CpG site of the FLG promoter were significantly higher in lesional epidermis than those in matched nonlesional epidermis of subjects with severe AD.CONCLUSION: Our in vitro and clinical studies point to this unique CpG site as a potential DNA methylation marker of FLG, which can be a promising therapeutic target in the complications of filaggrin-related skin barrier dysfunction as well as in AD.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases , Causalidade , Dermatite Atópica , DNA , Metilação de DNA , Epiderme , Epigenômica , Grupos Étnicos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Queratinócitos , Metilação , Projetos Piloto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro , Pele
10.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-762471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LINC01234, a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), is overexpressed in several cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the role of LINC01234 in CRC development and confirmed its correlation with Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6), a tumor suppressor gene that is dysregulated in CRC. METHODS: We tested mRNA levels using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Tissue samples from patients with CRC, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hyperplastic polyp, and adenoma were included. Correlations between clinicopathological parameters, overall survival (OS) rate, and LINC01234 were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis H test. Additionally, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor formation in nude mice were tested to investigate the mechanism of LINC01234. Western blotting was used to determine protein levels. RESULTS: LINC01234 expression was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues and CRC cell lines than in non-tumor tissues and normal epithelial cells, respectively. LINC01234 was associated with high tumor stage, larger tumor size, and metastasis. Patients with higher LINC01234 expression showed reduced OS. Cell proliferation was inhibited by LINC01234 knockdown, whereas apoptosis was enhanced. Mice injected with SW480 cells with LINC01234 knockdown displayed decreased tumor volume, weight, and Ki-67 levels compared with those injected with control cells. KLF6 was negatively regulated by LINC01234. Overexpression of KLF6 showed effects similar to those observed following LINC01234 knockdown on cell proliferation and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: LINC01234 could be a prognostic biomarker in CRC patients. Upregulation of LINC01234 in CRC promotes tumor development through negative regulation of KLF6.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Animais , Apoptose , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais , Células Epiteliais , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Metástase Neoplásica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pólipos , Prognóstico , Transcrição Reversa , RNA Longo não Codificante , RNA Mensageiro , Carga Tumoral , Regulação para Cima
11.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-786084

RESUMO

Post-transcriptional regulations of mRNA transcripts such as alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation can affect the expression of genes without changing the transcript levels. Recent studies have demonstrated that these post-transcriptional events can have significant physiological impacts on various biological systems and play important roles in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, including cancers. Nevertheless, how cellular signaling pathways control these post-transcriptional processes in cells are not very well explored in the field yet. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway plays a key role in sensing cellular nutrient and energy status and regulating the proliferation and growth of cells by controlling various anabolic and catabolic processes. Dysregulation of mTORC1 pathway can tip the metabolic balance of cells and is associated with a number of pathological conditions, including various types of cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Numerous reports have shown that mTORC1 controls its downstream pathways through translational and/or transcriptional regulation of the expression of key downstream effectors. And, recent studies have also shown that mTORC1 can control downstream pathways via post-transcriptional regulations. In this review, we will discuss the roles of post-transcriptional processes in gene expression regulations and how mTORC1-mediated post-transcriptional regulations contribute to cellular physiological changes. We highlight post-transcriptional regulation as an additional layer of gene expression control by mTORC1 to steer cellular biology. These emphasize the importance of studying post-transcriptional events in transcriptome datasets for gaining a fuller understanding of gene expression regulations in the biological systems of interest.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Conjunto de Dados , Expressão Gênica , Poliadenilação , RNA Mensageiro , Sirolimo , Controle Social Formal , Transcriptoma
12.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-786078

RESUMO

Like other bodily materials, lipids such as plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterols, and free fatty acids are in a dynamic state of constant turnover (i.e., synthesis, breakdown, oxidation, and/or conversion to other compounds) as essential processes for achieving dynamic homeostasis in the body. However, dysregulation of lipid turnover can lead to clinical conditions such as obesity, fatty liver disease, and dyslipidemia. Assessment of “snap-shot” information on lipid metabolism (e.g., tissue contents of lipids, abundance of mRNA and protein and/or signaling molecules) are often used in clinical and research settings, and can help to understand one's health and disease status. However, such “snapshots” do not provide critical information on dynamic nature of lipid metabolism, and therefore may miss “true” origin of the dysregulation implicated in related diseases. In this regard, stable isotope tracer methodology can provide the in vivo kinetic information of lipid metabolism. Combining with “static” information, knowledge of lipid kinetics can enable the acquisition of in depth understanding of lipid metabolism in relation to various health and disease status. This in turn facilitates the development of effective therapeutic approaches (e.g., exercise, nutrition, and/or drugs). In this review we will discuss 1) the importance of obtaining kinetic information for a better understanding of lipid metabolism, 2) basic principles of stable isotope tracer methodologies that enable exploration of “lipid kinetics” in vivo, and 3) quantification of some aspects of lipid kinetics in vivo with numerical examples.


Assuntos
Colesterol , Dislipidemias , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Fígado Gorduroso , Homeostase , Cinética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas , Obesidade , Plasma , RNA Mensageiro , Triglicerídeos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-786072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is crucial to limiting vascular disease. Previously we reported that acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke, might play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis via an inflammatory response involving cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Curcumin has been known to improve vascular function and have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated whether curcumin prevents the induction of inflammatory response caused by acrolein.METHODS: Anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were examined in acrolein-stimulated HUVECs. Induction of proteins, mRNA, prostaglandin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using immunoblot analysis, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry, respectively.RESULTS: Curcumin attenuates inflammatory response via inhibition of COX-2 expression and prostaglandin production in acrolein-induced human endothelial cells. This inhibition by curcumin results in the abolition of phosphorylation of protein kinase C, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and cAMP response element-binding protein. Furthermore, curcumin suppresses the production of ROS and endoplasmic reticulum stress via phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α caused by acrolein.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that curcumin might be a useful agent against endothelial dysfunction caused by acrolein-induced inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Acroleína , Aterosclerose , Curcumina , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Células Endoteliais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Inflamação , Fosforilação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteína Quinase C , Proteínas Quinases , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , RNA Mensageiro , Fumaça , Tabaco , Doenças Vasculares
14.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-785341

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Plasma cells and immunoglobulins (Igs) play a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of chronic inflammation in nasal polyps. During secondary immune responses, plasma cell survival and Ig production are regulated by the local environment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) and specific survival niches for LLPCs in human nasal polyps.METHODS: Nasal mucosal samples were cultured with an air-liquid interface system and the Ig levels in culture supernatants were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The characteristics of LLPCs in nasal polyps were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The expression of neurotrophins as well as their receptors was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting.RESULTS: The numbers of CD138⁺ total plasma cells and BCL2⁺ plasma cells were increased in both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyps compared with those in normal tissues. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgE was detected in culture supernatants even after a 32-day culture of nasal polyps. Although the total numbers of plasma cells were decreased in nasal polyps after culture, the numbers of BCL2⁺ plasma cells remained stable. The expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) as well as tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) A, a high-affinity receptor for NGF, was upregulated in both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyps. In addition, BCL2⁺ plasma cell numbers were positively correlated with NGF and TrkA mRNA expression in nasal mucosal tissues. Polyp plasma cells had the expression of TrkA.CONCLUSIONS: Human nasal polyps harbor a population of LLPCs and NGF may be involved in their prolonged survival. LLPCs may be a novel therapeutic target for suppressing the local Ig production in nasal polyps.


Assuntos
Western Blotting , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Eosinófilos , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina E , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulinas , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inflamação , Membrana Mucosa , Pólipos Nasais , Fator de Crescimento Neural , Fatores de Crescimento Neural , Fosfotransferases , Plasmócitos , Plasma , Pólipos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , RNA Mensageiro , Tropomiosina
15.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4991, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), BBO | ID: biblio-998272

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze osteopontin mRNA expression levels in subjects with periodontitis prior to (baseline) and 7, 14, and 28 days following scaling and root planing (SRP). Material and Methods: Gingival crevicular fluid was collected as clinical samples from four subjects with periodontitis (pocket depth, 4-5 mm) aged 35-54 years old as well as from three healthy subjects (controls). The osteopontin mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Spearman's rank correlation between osteopontin levels in gingival crevicular fluid and the modified gingival index (MGI) was also performed. Results: The Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed no significant difference in osteopontin mRNA expression levels between baseline and 28 days following SRP (p=0.068). The Friedman test showed no significant difference in osteopontin mRNA expression levels between baseline and following SRP (7, 14, or 28 days) (p>0.05). Spearman's rank correlation showed no significant correlation between osteopontin mRNA expression levels and MGI (r=0.087; p=0.749). Conclusion: Following SRP of periodontal tissue, there was a decreasing trend in osteopontin mRNA expression; however, this finding was not statistically significant. Nevertheless, osteopontin can be used as a biomarker to monitor the healing process; however, further studies are required to clarify our results.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite , RNA Mensageiro , Aplainamento Radicular/métodos , Osteopontina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Indonésia
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900403, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1001087

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) profile on renal ischemia reperfusion in a mouse model. Methods: Microarray analysis was used to study the expression of misregulated lncRNA in a mouse model of renal ischemia reperfusion(I/R) with long ischemia time. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to verify the expression of selected lncRNAs and mRNAs.The potential functions of the lncRNA was analyzed by bioinformatics tools and databases. Results: Kidney function was impaired in I/R group compared to the normal group. Analysis showed that a total of 2267 lncRNAs and 2341 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were significantly expressed in I/R group (≥2.0-fold, p < 0.05).The qPCR result showed that lncRNAs and mRNAs expression were consistent with the microarray analysis. The co-expression network profile analysis based on five validated lncRNAs and 203 interacted mRNAs showed it existed a total of 208 nodes and 333 connections. The GO and KEEG pathway analysis results showed that multiple lncRNAs are involved the mechanism of I/R. Conclusion: Multiple lncRNAs are involved in the mechanism of I/R.These analysis results will help us to further understand the mechanism of I/R and promote the new methods targeted at lncRNA to improve I/R injury.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/análise , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Valores de Referência , Regulação para Baixo , Expressão Gênica , Regulação para Cima , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 110 p. graf, tab.
Tese em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1023378

RESUMO

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a combination of diseases interrelated and associated with increased mortality and risk of cardiovascular events. Among the elucidated molecular mechanisms of MetS, there are several genes regulated by miRNAs - small non-coding RNAs. A large number of transcriptomic studies in public databases integrated with new analysis methods can generate new insights. Therefore, this study aimed to identify circulating miRNAs and their target genes in MetS using a Systems Biology approach. For this, we used GEO-NCBI to download and analyse 26 microarray transcriptome studies of MetS and obesity. After preprocessing, the data underwent differential expression (LIMMA method), gene co-expression (CEMiTool), and enrichment (GSEA, Reactome) analyses. We retrieved a gene expression signature for subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) for obese individuals that included 291 consistent differentially expressed genes (DEG). This signature had a positive normalized enrichment score (NES) for adaptive immune system activation responses, and negative NES for metabolic pathways. The consensus co-expression network of SAT revealed 3 communities (CM) of densely interconnected genes. These CMs had a high number of up regulated genes and a consistent positive NES among the studies. The co-expressed genes of these 3 CMs were related to neutrophil degranulation, infiltration of immune system cells, and inflammatory processes. Also, a small brazillian cohort (6 individuals with MetS and 6 controls) underwent a seric miRNA profiling using PCR array. From the 222 miRNAs detected in serum, the differential expression analysis identified 4 upregulated miRNAs (miR-30c-5p, miR-421, miR-542-5p and miR-574) in MetS patients (p<0.01). The integrative miRNAs-mRNAs analysis revealed that the circulating upregulated miRNAs had 12 targets in the SAT, 3 targets in the liver; and no targets in the muscle and blood. Many of these target genes are known modulators of proinflammatory pathways. In conclusion, the use of Systems Biology in the analysis of gene networks and circulating miRNAs identified some potential molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms of the Metabolic Syndrome. The circulating miRNAs identified in this study are potential biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets. However, further studies are needed to validate these miRNAs and their target mRNA


A Síndrome Metabólica (MetS) é um conjunto de doenças inter-relacionadas e associadas ao aumento de mortalidade e risco de eventos cardiovasculares. Entre os mecanismos moleculares elucidados da MetS, existem muitos genes regulados por miRNAs - RNAs pequenos não codificadores. O grande número de estudos transcriptômicos em banco dados públicos integrado a novos métodos de análise podem gerar novas descobertas. Deste modo, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar miRNAs circulantes e genes alvos na MetS usando a abordagem de Biologia de Sistemas. Para isso, GEO-NCBI foi usado para obter e analisar 26 estudos de transcriptoma por microarray de MetS e obesidade. Após o pré-processamento, realizamos análises de expressão diferencial (método LIMMA), co-expressão gênica (CEMiTool), e enriquecimento (GSEA, Reactome). Identificamos uma assinatura de expressão gênica do tecido adiposo subcutâneo (SAT) de indivíduos obesos, composta por 291 genes consistentemente diferencialmente expressos (DEG). Essa assinatura teve um escore de enriquecimento normalizado (NES) positivo para ativação de respostas do sistema imune adaptativo, e NES negativo para vias de metabolismo. A rede consenso de co-expressão do SAT revelou 3 comunidades (CM) de genes densamente interconectadas. Essas CMs continham muitos genes regulados positivamente e com consistência de NES positivo entre os estudos. Os genes co-expressos dessas 3 comunidades pertenciam a vias de a degranulação de neutrófilos, infiltração de células do sistema imune e processos inflamatórios. Além disso, uma pequena coorte brasileira (6 indivíduos com MetS e 6 controles) foi submetida à dosagem sérica de miRNAs por PCR array. Dos 222 miRNAs detectados no soro, a análise de expressão diferencial identificou 4 miRNAs regulados positivamente (miR-30c-5p, miR-421, miR-542-5p e miR-574) nos pacientes com MetS (p<0.01). A análise integrativa miRNAs-mRNAs revelou que osmiRNAs circulantes superexpressos tinham 12 alvos no SAT, 3 alvos no fígado; e nenhum alvo no músculo e no sangue. Muitos desses alvos são moduladores de vias ró-inflamatórias. Em conclusão, a utilização da Biologia de Sistemas na análise de redes gênicas e miRNAs circulantes identificou alguns potenciais mecanismos moleculares e fisiopatológicos da Síndrome Metabólica. Os miRNAs circulantes identificados neste trabalho são potenciais biomarcadores e/ou alvos terapêuticos. Entretanto, mais estudos são necessários para validar esses miRNAs e seus mRNAs alvos


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , MicroRNAs/análise , Biologia de Sistemas/instrumentação , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Obesidade/classificação
18.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-762190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease with skin barrier defects and altered immune responses. Chronic inflammation leads to irreversible fibrosis in the skin and there is no treatment to completely abolish the inflammation and fibrosis. To prevent or treat the chronic process of AD, it is necessary to develop a murine model of AD that reflects the chronic process to identify the mechanism. The aims of this study were to develop a chronic AD model with a crude extract Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) antigen. METHODS: We applied Af extract (40 µg) epicutaneously to the dorsal skin of BALB/c mice for 5 consecutive days per week during a period of 5 weeks for a chronic AD model, and 5 consecutive days repeatedly with 2 weeks interval for an acute AD model. RESULTS: The clinical score and transepidermal water loss were more increased in the chronic AD model than in the acute AD model. Histologic findings showed that more increased epidermal thickness, neutrophil infiltration and hyperkeratosis in the chronic model than in the acute model. Skin fibrosis was more prominent in the chronic model than in the acute model. The mRNA expression levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and interleukin-33 were increased in the skin of the chronic model compared to the acute model. The levels of total IgE, Af-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a were significantly increased in the chronic model compared to controls. CONCLUSION: The Af-induced chronic AD model showed prominent fibrosis and increased TGF-β expression in the skin, which suggests that these models may be useful in the research for the mechanism of the chronic process in AD.


Assuntos
Animais , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus , Dermatite Atópica , Fibrose , Imunoglobulina E , Imunoglobulina G , Inflamação , Interleucina-33 , Camundongos , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , RNA Mensageiro , Pele , Dermatopatias , Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores , Água
19.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-762169

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Whereas the majority of nasal polyps observed in Western populations are eosinophilic, non-eosinophilic nasal polyps are significantly more frequent in Asian countries. Given the importance of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in inflammation, this study focused on the role of NF-κB in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNPs) in Asian patients. METHODS: A total of 46 patients were enrolled in this study (22 diagnosed with CRSwNPs, 10 with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps [CRSsNP], and 14 control subjects). Nasal polyps and uncinate tissues (UTs) were collected and the tissues prepared for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistric (IHC) analysis. Total RNA was isolated for real-time polymerase chain reaction for p65, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and eotaxin. RESULTS: In the CRSwNPs group, 50% of nasal polyps were non-eosinophilic. IHC revealed a significantly higher fraction of NF-κB p65-positive cells in nasal polyps of the CRSwNPs group than in the UTs of control and CRSsNP groups. No difference in NF-κB p65-positive cell fraction was observed between eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyps. The mRNA expression of p65, IL-6, IL-8, and eotaxin was significantly higher in nasal polyps of the CRSwNPs than in the UTs of control and CRSsNP group. However, no difference in expression was observed between eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyps, with the exception of IL-1β expression. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated expression of NF-κB- and NF-κB-associated inflammatory cytokines suggests NF-κB as the key factor for CRSwNPs pathogenesis in Asian patients. Understanding NF-κB-associated mechanisms will provide a deeper insight into CRSwNPs pathogenesis and ultimately improve therapeutic strategies for CRSwNPs.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Citocinas , Eosinófilos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucina-6 , Interleucina-8 , Interleucinas , Pólipos Nasais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , RNA , RNA Mensageiro , Sinusite , Fatores de Transcrição , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 832-841, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-762123

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Epirubicin is one of the most effective drugs against osteosarcoma. miR-1301 is involved in the occurrence and development of osteosarcoma. Whether miR-1301 is responsible for the chemosensitivity of osteosarcoma cells to epirubicin remains largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: U2OS and SAOS-2 cells were treated with various concentrations of epirubicin. Flow cytometry was employed to evaluate cell apoptotic rate. Cell proliferation was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were utilized to detect the expressions of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 assaciated X protein (Bax), cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP1), TP53-regulated inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (TRIAP1), and microRNA-1301 (miR-1301). The relationship between miR-1301 and TRIAP1 was determined by luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: Epirubicin inhibited proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, induced apoptosis, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, and increased the expressions of Bax, cleaved-caspase-3, and cleaved-PARP1 in osteosarcoma cells. miR-1301 was downregulated in U2OS and SAOS-2 cells. Importantly, epirubicin significantly increased the levels of miR-1301. Overexpression of miR-1301 suppressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis. Interestingly, those effects were enhanced by epirubicin. In contrast, miR-1301 depletion attenuated the epirubicin-mediated anti-osteosarcoma effect. miR-1301 negatively regulated the expression of TRIAP1 in U2OS and SAOS-2 cells. Furthermore, epirubicin inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of TRIAP1 by upregulating miR-1301 levels. Epirubicin suppressed cell proliferation by downregulating TRIAP1. CONCLUSION: miR-1301 was implicated in the chemosensitivity of osteosarcoma to epirubicin by modulating TRIAP1.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Linfócitos B , Western Blotting , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células , Epirubicina , Citometria de Fluxo , Luciferases , Osteossarcoma , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , RNA Mensageiro
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