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1.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-787235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that mainly involves the colon. Thus far, glucocorticoids and amino-salicylate have been the main treatment.METHODS: To assess drugs with fewer side effects, this study evaluated the effects of sodium cromoglycate (SCG) on acetic acid-induced UC in rats. The treatment groups included SCG receivers (50 and 100 mg/kg, intra-orally) and sulfasalazine (SSZ) receivers (100 mg/kg, intra-orally). The colonic mucosal injury was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, and histopathological examinations.RESULTS: In the treatment groups with 50 and 100 mg/kg of SCG, the clinical activity score decreased to 2.67±0.18 and 1.73±0.21 (p<0.05), respectively, compared to the UC control group (3.21±0.31), and were higher than that of the group given the standard treatment of 100 mg/kg SSZ (1.10±0.09). The treatment groups with 50 and 100 mg/kg of SCG showed a lower clinical gross lesion score than the UC control group (2.91±0.28 and 2.10±0.43, vs. 4.49±0.61, p<0.05) and were higher than the standard group (0.95±0.18). Treatment with SCG (100 mg/kg) decreased the macroscopic scores significantly compared to the UC control group (p<0.05) on the 8th day.CONCLUSIONS: SCG (100mg/kg) decreased significantly the clinical activity score, gross lesion, and percentage-affected area compared to the UC controls on the 8th day.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa , Colo , Cromolina Sódica , Glucocorticoides , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Camundongos , Ratos , Sódio , Sulfassalazina , Úlcera
2.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-811376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the salinity of soups provided at childcare centers by measuring the salinity for three years and providing basic data for sodium reduction.METHODS: The soup salinity was measured using a Bluetooth salinity meter from January 2015 to December 2017 at 80 childcare foodservice establishments enrolled in the Suseong Center for Children's Foodservice Management in Daegu.RESULTS: An analysis of the soup salinity each year showed that the salinity decreased significantly from 0.48% in 2015 to 0.41% in 2017, particularly in clear soups and soybean soups compared to other soups (P < 0.05). The salinity and sodium content in seafood soups (0.45% and 179.1 mg/100 g, respectively) were highest, followed by soybean soups (0.44%, 175.2 mg/100 g), with perilla seed soups containing the lowest (0.42%, 167.2 mg/100 g) (P < 0.05). The salinity was significantly higher in institutional foodservice establishments than small foodservice establishments (P < 0.001). The salinity and sodium content were the highest in foodservice establishments with a small number of measurements, and the salinity was the lowest in foodservice establishments with salinity measurements performed an average of 151 times each year (three times a week) or more (P < 0.05). The soup salinity was low in the order of winter, spring, summer, and autumn, and the salinity decreased significantly year by year in all seasons. (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: The soup salinity was significantly lower in foodservice establishments where the salinity was measured more than three times a week, indicating that continuous salinity management is effective.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Perilla , Salinidade , Alimentos Marinhos , Estações do Ano , Sódio , Soja
3.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-811375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare customers' perceptions of the need for a low-sodium diet and sodium-reduced operations in the industry foodservice by age. The relationships between health concerns and perceptions of the need for sodium-reduced operations and low-sodium diets in the industry foodservice were analyzed.METHODS: A survey was conducted among 340 industry foodservice customers aged 20–50 years and residing in Seoul, Korea. This study investigated the respondents' health concerns, their perception of the need for sodium-reduced foodservice operations, their perception of a sodium-reduced diet, and the general details of the foodservices they used. A cross-tabulation analysis and ANOVA were performed to identify differences in measurement items by age, and a simple regression analysis was performed to examine relationships between measurement items.RESULTS: For the customers' perception of the need for a sodium-reduced foodservice operation, the item “it is necessary to provide separate spices and sauces to reduce sodium intake” achieved the highest score (3.88 points out of a possible 5 points). For the perception of a sodium-reduced diet, the item “I think it is helpful for one's health” obtained the highest score (4.13 points). Respondents' health concerns had a positive effect on increasing the level of perception of the need for sodium-reduced foodservice operations and that of a sodium-reduced diet.CONCLUSIONS: Foodservice nutritionists could help enhance their customers' perceptions of the needs for sodium-reduced foodservice operations and sodium-reduced diets by frequently providing them with sodium-related health information.


Assuntos
Dieta , Dieta Hipossódica , Coreia (Geográfico) , Nutricionistas , Seul , Sódio , Especiarias
4.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-811254

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study assessed the food intake and nutritional status of the elderly in long-term care facilities in order to provide adequate food services and improve the nutritional status.METHODS: The survey was carried out from August 2019 to October 2019 for the elderly in long-term care facilities located in Gwangju Metropolitan City. The survey was conducted to collect data from 199 elderly persons (34 males and 165 females) aged over 65 years old. The food intake was assessed using a 1-day 24-hour recall method.RESULTS: More than 90% of the subjects were over 75 years old. Forty five percent of the subjects were active, 44.2% of the subjects perceived themselves as not being healthy. Dementia and Parkinson's disease were the most common diseases, followed by hypertension, musculo-skeletal disease, diabetes, and stroke. Only 25.6% of the subjects had most of their teeth intact, and 44.7% of the subjects had difficulty in chewing and swallowing. The total food intake was 1,127 g in males and 1,078 g in females. The most frequently consumed foods were kimchi, cooked rice with multi-grains, soybean soup, cooked rice with white rice, yogurt, pumpkin porridge, soy milk, and duck soup. The average energy intake of the subjects was 1,564.9 kcal in males and 1,535.5 kcal in females. The overall nutritional status of the elderly in the long-term care facilities was poor. In particular, the intake of vitamin D and calcium, vitamin C, riboflavin, and potassium were very low. The intake of vitamin D was 5 µg, and 86.4% of the elderly were below the estimated average requirement, while the intake of sodium was high.CONCLUSION: The results of this study can be used to understand the health and nutritional status and to improve the food services and nutrition management for the elderly in long-term care facilities.


Assuntos
Idoso , Ácido Ascórbico , Cálcio , Cucurbita , Deglutição , Demência , Patos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Serviços de Alimentação , Humanos , Hipertensão , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Mastigação , Métodos , Estado Nutricional , Doença de Parkinson , Potássio , Riboflavina , Sódio , Leite de Soja , Soja , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Dente , Vitamina D , Iogurte
5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 432-440, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-816673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although dietary management is strongly recommended in patients with hypertension, little is known about how many manage their diet and follow the guidelines for hypertension. We investigated the prevalence of dietary management among adults with known hypertension and evaluated their compliance to the dietary guidelines.METHODS: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2016 were used. Among 15,870 adults aged 30–79 years, 4,162 reported a physician-diagnosed hypertension. Diet management behavior was defined by self-report response. Actual dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary quality was evaluated using the Korean Healthy Eating Index (KHEI).RESULTS: Among adults with hypertension, 28.0% reported that they were managing their diet. Those with hypertension consumed significantly less dietary sodium (p value<0.01), but also less potassium (p value<0.01), resulting in no difference of sodium-to-potassium ratio compared to those without hypertension (p value=0.66). Among those with hypertension, diet-managing adults had better KHEI score (66.9, p value<0.01) and consumed less sodium (3,354.3 mg, p value<0.01) than not-managing adults (63.6 score and 3,554.5 mg, respectively). However, total KHEI score was rather lower in those with hypertension (p value<0.01) than those without hypertension and their sodium intake was still over the recommended amount.CONCLUSIONS: More than two-thirds of Korean adults with hypertension did not manage their diet in daily life. More effective strategies are needed to increase the level of compliance with dietary recommendations for people with high blood pressure.


Assuntos
Adulto , Complacência (Medida de Distensibilidade) , Dietoterapia , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão , Coreia (Geográfico) , Política Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Potássio , Prevalência , Autocuidado , Sódio , Sódio na Dieta
6.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 441-442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-816672

RESUMO

No abstract available.


Assuntos
Sódio
7.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782519

RESUMO

Currently, the optimal resuscitation fluid remains debatable. Therefore, in the present study, we designed a trometamol-balanced solution (TBS) for use as a resuscitation fluid for hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 18 male Wistar-Kyoto rats, which were assigned to normal saline (NS), Ringer's solution (RS), and TBS groups. During the hemorrhagic state, their hemodynamic parameters were recorded using an Abbott i-STAT analyzer with the CG4+ cartridge (for pH, pressure of carbon dioxide, pressure of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, base excess, oxygen saturation, and lactate), the CG6+ cartridge (for sodium, potassium, chloride, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit, and hemoglobin), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (calcium, magnesium, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, and albumin). Similar trends were found for the parameters of biochemistries, electrolytes, and blood gas, and they revealed no significant changes after blood withdrawal-induced hemorrhagic shock. However, the TBS group showed more effective ability to correct metabolic acidosis than the NS and RS groups. TBS was a feasible and safe resuscitation solution in this study and may be an alternative to NS and RS for resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock patients without liver damage.


Assuntos
Acidose , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Bilirrubina , Glicemia , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Dióxido de Carbono , Creatinina , Eletrólitos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hematócrito , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fígado , Magnésio , Masculino , Oxigênio , Potássio , Ratos , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico , Sódio
8.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782287

RESUMO

The receptor of vitamin D is expressed in almost all body cells, including vascular endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Vitamin D deficiency has been observed widespread amongst heart failure (HF) patients, which could have harmful effects on their health condition. This study aims to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplements on blood pressure (BP) and physical activity of HF patients. Thirty-nine systolic HF patients with low ejection fraction (EF) < 50% and class III of New York Heart Association functional classification were randomly divided into 2 groups including intervention and placebo to enroll in an 8 weeks double-blind clinical trial. During the trial 6-minute walk test (6MWT), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level, BP, sodium and potassium intakes were assessed. The mean 25(OH)D level increased to 28.9 ± 11.7 ng/mL (p < 0.001) in the intervention group. There was a poor but non-significant reduction in systolic BP (−0.033 ± 4.71 mmHg, p = 0.531) in the intervention group. The BP also did not change in the placebo group at the end of the trial. A negligible decrease of 6MWT was observed in the intervention group (−6.6 ± 29.2 m) compared to the placebo (−14.1 ± 40.5 m). However, differences between the 2 groups were not statistically significant (p = 0.325). The results solely showed a slight positive correlation between 25(OH)D level and 6MWT. No significant improvements in BP and 6MWT were observed after vitamin D3 supplementation.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials Identifier: IRCT2016102113678N13


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Colecalciferol , Classificação , Células Endoteliais , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Miócitos Cardíacos , Potássio , Sódio , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitaminas
9.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To date, sodium intake has been evaluated based on spot urine instead of 24-hour (hr) urine collection. Nevertheless, the optimal method for assessing daily sodium intake remains unclear.SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen male (age 32.7 ± 6.5 years) participants were offered 3 meals with a total of 9–10 g salt over 24 hours, and 24-hr urine was collected from the second-void urine of the first day to the first-void urine of the second day. Twenty-four-hr urinary sodium (24UNa) was estimated using Tanaka's equation and the Korean formula, and spot urine Na, potassium (K), chloride (Cl), urea nitrogen (UN), creatinine (Cr), specific gravity (SG) and osmolality (Osm) were measured. The ratios of urinary Na to other parameters were calculated, and correlations with total measured 24UNa were identified.RESULTS: Average 24-hr urine volume was 1,403 ± 475 mL, and measured 24UNa was 143.9 ± 42.1 mEq (range, 87.1–239.4 mEq). Measured 24UNa was significantly correlated with urinary Na/UN (r = 0.560, P < 0.01), urinary Na/Osm (r = 0.510, P < 0.01), urinary Na/Cr (r = 0.392, P < 0.01), urinary Na/K (r = 0.290, P < 0.01), 24UNa estimated using Tanaka's equation (r = 0.452, P < 0.01) and the Korean formula (r = 0.414, P < 0.01), age (r = 0.548, P < 0.01), weight (r = 0.497, P < 0.01), and height (r = 0.393, P < 0.01) in all spot urine samples. Estimated 24UNa based on the second-void spot urine of the first day tended to be more closely correlated with measured 24UNa than were estimates from the other spot urine samples. The significant parameters correlated with the second-void urine of the first day were urinary Na/K (r = 0.647, P < 0.01), urinary Na/Cr (r = 0.558, P < 0.05), and estimated 24UNa using Tanaka's equation (r = 0.616, P < 0.05) and the Korean formula (r = 0.588, P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Second-void urine is more reliable than first-void urine for estimating 24UNa. Urinary Na/K in the second-void urine on the first day is significantly correlated with 24UNa. Further studies are needed to establish the most reliable index and the optimal time of urine sampling for predicting 24UNa.


Assuntos
Creatinina , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Métodos , Nitrogênio , Concentração Osmolar , Potássio , Sódio , Sódio na Dieta , Gravidade Específica , Ureia , Coleta de Urina
10.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We have previously designed the anti-cancer food scoring model (ACFS) 1.0, an evidence-based quantitative tool analyzing the anti-cancer or carcinogenic potential of diets. Analysis was performed using simple quantitative indexes divided into 6 categories (S, A, B, C, D, and E). In this study, we applied this scoring model to wider recipes and evaluated its nutritional relevance.MATERIALS/METHODS: National or known regional databases were searched for recipes from 6 categories: Korean out-dining, Korean home-dining, Western, Chinese, Mediterranean, and vegetarian. These recipes were scored using the ACFS formula and the nutrition profiles were analyzed.RESULTS: Eighty-eight international recipes were analyzed. All S-graded recipes were from vegetarian or Mediterranean categories. The median code values of each category were B (Korean home-dining), C (Korean out-dining), B (Chinese), A (Mediterranean), S (vegetarian), and D (Western). The following profiles were correlated (P < 0.05) with ACFS grades in the univariate trend analysis: total calories, total fat, animal fat, animal protein, total protein, vitamin D, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B₁₂, pantothenic acid, sodium, animal iron, zinc, selenium, and cholesterol (negative trends), and carbohydrate rate, fiber, water-soluble fiber, vitamin K, vitamin C, and plant calcium (positive trends). Multivariate analysis revealed that animal fat, animal iron, and niacin (negative trends) and animal protein, fiber, and vitamin C (positive trends) were statistically significant. Pantothenic acid and sodium showed non-significant negative trends (P < 0.1), and vitamin B₁₂ showed a non-significant positive trend.CONCLUSION: This study provided a nutritional basis and extended the utility of ACFS, which is a bridgehead for future cancer-preventive clinical trials using ACFS.


Assuntos
Animais , Ácido Ascórbico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Cálcio , Colesterol , Dieta , Humanos , Ferro , Análise Multivariada , Niacina , Ácido Pantotênico , Plantas , Riboflavina , Selênio , Sódio , Vegetarianos , Vitamina D , Vitamina K , Vitaminas , Zinco
11.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782236

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of 0.1% bromfenac sodium hydrate ophthalmic solution for prevention of macular edema after cataract surgery in patients with diabetes.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 75 patients with diabetes who underwent cataract surgery was performed. Thirty-eight patients (52 eyes) were instilled with 0.1% bromfenac solution (bromfenac group) and 37 patients (46 eyes) were not (control group).RESULTS: There were no significant preoperative between-group differences. Compared to the control group, at 1 month after surgery, the bromfenac group showed slightly better best-corrected visual acuity (0.12 ± 0.12 vs. 0.32 ± 0.42, p = 0.142), lower central macular thickness (265.58 ± 31.28 vs. 314.15 ± 76.11 µm, p 0.05). Mean changes in central macular thickness showed significant differences at 1 and 4 months postoperatively (−1.44 ± 11.72 and 10.44 ± 22.48 µm in bromfenac group vs. 47.19 ± 70.24 and 31.69 ± 48.04 µm in control group, p 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with 0.1% bromfenac sodium hydrate ophthalmic solution showed good efficacy for preventing cystoid macular edema early after cataract surgery in patients with diabetes.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Catarata , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , Edema Macular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio , Acuidade Visual
12.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-782071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG) in children remain unclear. We investigated the incidence of ketosis in CwG and whether this is related to seizures.METHODS: This retrospective study included children aged from 6 months to 6 years who visited our emergency department and were diagnosed as CwG between June 2015 and December 2018. The clinical and laboratory data were analyzed for these cases. Ketosis and severe ketosis were defined as blood β-hydroxybutyrate levels of ≥0.6 and ≥4.5 mmol/L, respectively.RESULTS: We enrolled 42 pediatric CwG patients aged 21.0±11.5 months (mean±SD) whose blood β-hydroxybutyrate level was 3.65±1.51 mmol/L. Ketosis was observed in 95.2% of these children, while 35.7% had severe ketosis. Compared to the non-severe-ketosis group (n=27), the severe-ketosis group (n=15) demonstrated significantly lower blood glucose levels (68.8 vs. 82.6 mg/dL, p=0.020) and sodium levels (134.2 vs. 135.6 mEq/L, p=0.018), and included a larger proportion of low-body-weight children (defined as adjusted weight < 50th percentile for age and sex) (53.3% vs. 18.5%, p=0.019). However, the incidence of repetitive seizures (two or more during an illness period) did not differ between these groups. Moreover, severe ketosis was not associated with the risk of seizure recurrence in the emergency department.CONCLUSIONS: Children with CwG are in a state of considerable ketosis. Severe ketosis in CwG may be associated with low blood glucose and sodium levels but does not reduce seizure recurrence.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Gastroenterite , Humanos , Incidência , Cetose , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões , Sódio
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 481-491, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1056601

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: It is unclear whether residual renal function (RRF) in dialysis patients can attenuate the metabolic impact of the long 68-hour interdialytic interval, in which water, acid, and electrolyte accumulation occurs. Objective: to evaluate serum electrolyte levels, water balance, and acid-base status in dialytic patients with and without RRF over the long interdialytic interval (LII). Methodology: this was a single-center, cross-sectional, and analytical study that compared patients with and without RRF, defined by diuresis above 200 mL in 24 hours. Patients were weighed and serum samples were collected for biochemical and gasometric analysis at the beginning and at the end of the LII. Results: 27 and 24 patients with and without RRF were evaluated, respectively. Patients without RRF had a higher increase in serum potassium during the LII (2.67 x 1.14 mEq/L, p < 0.001), reaching higher values at the end of the study (6.8 x 5.72 mEq/L, p < 0.001) and lower pH value at the beginning of the interval (7.40 x 7.43, p = 0.018). More patients with serum bicarbonate < 18 mEq/L (50 x 14.8%, p = 0.007) and mixed acid-base disorder (57.7 x 29.2%, p = 0.042), as well as greater interdialytic weight gain (14.67 x 8.87 mL/kg/h, p < 0.001) and lower natremia (137 x 139 mEq/L, p = 0.02) at the end of the interval. Calcemia and phosphatemia were not different between the groups. Conclusion: Patients with RRF had better control of serum potassium, sodium, acid-base status, and volemia throughout the LII.


Resumo Introdução: Não se sabe ao certo se a função renal residual (FRR) de pacientes dialíticos pode atenuar o impacto metabólico do maior intervalo interdialítico (MII) de 68 horas, no qual ocorre acúmulo de volume, ácidos e eletrólitos. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis séricos de eletrólitos, balanço hídrico e status ácido-básico de pacientes dialíticos com e sem FRR ao longo do MII. Metodologia: Tratou-se de estudo unicêntrico, transversal e analítico, que comparou pacientes com e sem FRR, definida como diurese acima de 200 mL em 24 horas. Para tal, os pacientes foram pesados e submetidos à coleta de amostras séricas para análise bioquímica e gasométrica no início e fim do MII. Resultados: Foram avaliados 27 e 24 pacientes com e sem FRR, respectivamente. Pacientes sem FRR apresentaram maior aumento de potássio sérico durante o MII (2,67 x 1,14 mEq/L, p < 0,001) atingindo valores mais elevados no fim (6,8 x 5,72 mEq/L, p < 0,001); menor valor de pH no início do intervalo (7,40 x 7,43, p = 0,018), maior proporção de pacientes com bicarbonato sérico < 18 mEq/L (50 x 14,8 %, p = 0,007) e distúrbio ácido-básico misto (70,8 x 42,3 %, p = 0,042), além de maior ganho de peso interdialítico (14,67 x 8,87 mL/kg/h, p < 0,001) e menor natremia (137 x 139 mEq/L, p = 0,02) no fim do intervalo. A calcemia e fosfatemia não foram diferentes entre os grupos. Conclusão: Pacientes com FRR apresentaram melhor controle dos níveis séricos de potássio, sódio, status ácido-básico e da volemia ao longo do MII.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal/sangue , Rim/fisiopatologia , Fosfatos/sangue , Potássio/sangue , Sódio/sangue , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/fisiopatologia , Bicarbonatos/sangue , Ganho de Peso , Cálcio/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal/urina , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/química , Testes de Função Renal/métodos
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 501-508, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1056603

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between dysnatremias or dyschloremias and mortality during hospitalization in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing acute hemodialysis. Methods: We carried out a retrospective cohort study on adult patients undergoing acute hemodialysis with AKI or CKD diagnosis at a public hospital in Lima, Peru. Dysnatremias were categorized as hyponatremia (Na < 135mmol/L) or hypernatremia (Na > 145mmol/L), and dyschloremias were defined as hypochloremia (Cl < 98 mmol/L) or hyperchloremia (Cl > 109mmol/L). The outcome of interest was mortality during hospitalization. We performed generalized lineal Poisson family models with bias-corrected and accelerated non-parametric bootstrap to estimate the risk ratios at crude (RR) and adjusted analysis (aRR) by gender, age, HCO3 (for all patients) and Liaño score (only for AKI) with CI95%. Results: We included 263 patients (mean age: 54.3 years, females: 43%): 191 with CKD and 72 with AKI. Mortality was higher in patients with AKI (59.7%) than in patients with CKD (14.1%). In overall, patients with hypernatremia had a higher mortality during hospitalization compared to those who had normal sodium values (aRR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.17-2.83); patients with hyponatremia did not have different mortality (aRR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.69-2.04). We also found that hyperchloremia (aRR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.83-2.18) or hypochloremia (aRR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.30-14.78) did not increase mortality in comparison to normal chloride values. No association between dysnatremias or dyschloremias and mortality during hospitalization was found in CKD and AKI subgroups. Conclusions: In our exploratory analysis, only hypernatremia was associated with mortality during hospitalization among patients with AKI or CKD undergoing acute hemodialysis.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre distúrbios do sódio ou do cloro e mortalidade hospitalar de pacientes com insuficiência renal aguda (IRA) ou doença renal crônica (DRC) submetidos a hemodiálise aguda. Métodos: O presente estudo de coorte retrospectiva incluiu pacientes adultos submetidos a hemodiálise aguda com diagnóstico de IRA ou DRC em um hospital público de Lima, Peru. Os distúrbios do sódio foram classificados como hiponatremia (Na < 135mmol/L) ou hipernatremia (Na > 145mmol/L), enquanto os distúrbios do cloro foram classificados como hipocloremia (Cl < 98 mmol/L) ou hipercloremia (Cl > 109mmol/L). O desfecho de interesse foi mortalidade hospitalar. Utilizamos modelos de Poisson da família de modelos lineares generalizados com bootstrap não-paramétrico e correção de viés acelerado para estimar os riscos relativos na análise bruta (RR) e ajustada (RRa) para sexo, idade, HCO3 (para todos os pacientes) e escore de Liaño (apenas para IRA) com IC 95%. Resultados: Foram incluídos 263 pacientes (idade média 54,3 anos; 43% do sexo feminino), 191 com DRC e 72 com IRA. A mortalidade foi mais elevada nos pacientes com IRA (59,7%) do que nos indivíduos com DRC (14,1%). No geral, os pacientes com hipernatremia tiveram mortalidade hospitalar mais elevada do que os indivíduos com valores normais de sódio (RRa: 1,82; IC 95%: 1,17-2,83). Os pacientes com hiponatremia não apresentaram mortalidade diferente (RRa: 0,19; IC 95%: 0,69-2,04). Também identificamos que hipercloremia (RRa: 1,35; IC 95%: 0,83-2,18) e hipocloremia (RRa: 0,66; IC 95%: 0,30-14,78) não elevaram a mortalidade em comparação a indivíduos com níveis normais de cloro. Não foi encontrada associação entre distúrbios do sódio ou do cloro e mortalidade hospitalar nos subgrupos com DRC e IRA. Conclusões: Em nossa análise exploratória, apenas hipernatremia apresentou associação com mortalidade hospitalar em pacientes com IRA ou DRC submetidos a hemodiálise aguda.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Sódio/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Peru/epidemiologia , Bicarbonatos/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipernatremia/complicações , Hipernatremia/mortalidade , Hiponatremia/complicações , Hiponatremia/mortalidade
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 550-559, Out.-Dec. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1056604

RESUMO

Abstract Fluid volume and hemodynamic management in hemodialysis patients is an essential component of dialysis adequacy. Restoring salt and water homeostasis in hemodialysis patients has been a permanent quest by nephrologists summarized by the 'dry weight' probing approach. Although this clinical approach has been associated with benefits on cardiovascular outcome, it is now challenged by recent studies showing that intensity or aggressiveness to remove fluid during intermittent dialysis is associated with cardiovascular stress and potential organ damage. A more precise approach is required to improve cardiovascular outcome in this high-risk population. Fluid status assessment and monitoring rely on four components: clinical assessment, non-invasive instrumental tools (e.g., US, bioimpedance, blood volume monitoring), cardiac biomarkers (e.g. natriuretic peptides), and algorithm and sodium modeling to estimate mass transfer. Optimal management of fluid and sodium imbalance in dialysis patients consist in adjusting salt and fluid removal by dialysis (ultrafiltration, dialysate sodium) and by restricting salt intake and fluid gain between dialysis sessions. Modern technology using biosensors and feedback control tools embarked on dialysis machine, with sophisticated analytics will provide direct handling of sodium and water in a more precise and personalized way. It is envisaged in the near future that these tools will support physician decision making with high potential of improving cardiovascular outcome.


Resumo O volume de fluidos e o controle hemodinâmico em pacientes em hemodiálise é um componente essencial da adequação da diálise. A restauração da homeostase do sal e da água em pacientes em hemodiálise tem sido uma busca constante por parte dos nefrologistas, no que condiz à abordagem do "peso seco. Embora essa abordagem clínica tenha sido associada a benefícios no desfecho cardiovascular, recentemente tem sido questionada por estudos que mostram que a intensidade ou agressividade para remover fluidos durante a diálise intermitente está associada a estresse cardiovascular e dano potencial a órgãos.para remover fluidos durante a diálise intermitente está associada a estresse cardiovascular e dano potencial a órgãos. Uma abordagem mais precisa é necessária para melhorar o desfecho cardiovascular nessa população de alto risco. A avaliação e monitorização do estado hídrico baseiam-se em quatro componentes: avaliação clínica, ferramentas instrumentais não invasivas (por exemplo, US, bioimpedância, monitorização do volume sanguíneo), biomarcadores cardíacos (e.g. peptídeos natriuréticos), algoritmos e modelagem de sódio para estimar a transferência de massa. O manejo otimizado do desequilíbrio hídrico e de sódio em pacientes dialíticos consiste em ajustar a remoção de sal e líquido por diálise (ultrafiltração, dialisato de sódio), e restringir a ingestão de sal e o ganho de líquido entre as sessões de diálise. Tecnologia moderna que utiliza biosensores e ferramentas de controle de feedback, hoje parte da máquina de diálise, com análises sofisticadas, proporcionam o manejo direto sobre o sódio e a água de uma maneira mais precisa e personalizada. Prevê-se no futuro próximo que essas ferramentas poderão auxiliar na tomada de decisão do médico, com alto potencial para melhorar o resultado cardiovascular.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sódio/metabolismo , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Soluções para Diálise/química , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Diálise Renal/normas , Resultado do Tratamento , Descondicionamento Cardiovascular , Nefrologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
16.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(4): 443-450, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1040342

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: Cystic fibrosis diagnosis is dependent on the chloride ion concentration in the sweat test (≥ 60 mEq/mL - recognized as the gold standard indicator for cystic fibrosis diagnosis). Moreover, the salivary glands express the CFTR protein in the same manner as sweat glands. Given this context, the objective was to verify the correlation of saliva chloride concentration and sweat chloride concentration, and between saliva sodium concentration and sweat sodium concentration, in patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy control subjects, as a tool for cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Methods: There were 160 subjects enrolled: 57/160 (35.70%) patients with cystic fibrosis and two known CFTR mutations and 103/160 (64.40%) healthy controls subjects. Saliva ion concentration was analyzed by ABL 835 Radiometer® equipment and, sweat chloride concentration and sweat sodium concentration, respectively, by manual titration using the mercurimetric procedure of Schales & Schales and flame photometry. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-squared test, the Mann -Whitney test, and Spearman's correlation. Alpha = 0.05. Results: Patients with cystic fibrosis showed higher values of sweat chloride concentration, sweat sodium concentration, saliva chloride concentration, and saliva sodium concentration than healthy controls subjects (p-value < 0.001). The correlation between saliva chloride concentration and sweat chloride concentration showed a positive Spearman's Rho (correlation coefficient) = 0.475 (95% CI = 0.346 to 0.587). Also, the correlation between saliva sodium concentration and sweat sodium concentration showed a positive Spearman's Rho = 0.306 (95% CI = 0.158 to 0.440). Conclusions: Saliva chloride concentration and saliva sodium concentration are candidates to be used in cystic fibrosis diagnosis, mainly in cases where it is difficult to achieve the correct sweat amount, and/or CFTR mutation screening is difficult, and/or reference methods for sweat test are unavailable to implement or are not easily accessible by the general population.


Resumo Objetivo: O diagnóstico da fibrose cística depende do valor da concentração de íons de cloreto no teste do suor (≥ 60 mEq/mL - reconhecido como o indicador-padrão para o diagnóstico da doença). Além disso, as glândulas salivares expressam a proteína RTFC igualmente às glândulas sudoríparas. Nesse contexto, nosso objetivo foi verificar a correlação da concentração de cloreto na saliva e a concentração de cloreto no suor e entre a concentração de sódio na saliva e a concentração de sódio no suor em pacientes com fibrose cística e indivíduos controles saudáveis, como uma ferramenta para diagnóstico de fibrose cística. Métodos: Contamos com a participação de 160 indivíduos [57/160 (35,70%) com fibrose cística e duas mutações no gene RTFC conhecidas e 103/160 (64,40%) indivíduos controles saudáveis]. A concentração de íons na saliva foi analisada pelo equipamento ABL 835 da Radiometer® e a concentração de cloreto no suor e sódio no suor, respectivamente, por titulação manual utilizando o método mercurimétrico de Schales & Schales e fotometria de chama. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste qui-quadrado, pelo teste de Mann-Whitney e pela correlação de Spearman. Alpha = 0,05. Resultados: Os pacientes com fibrose cística apresentaram maiores valores na concentração de cloreto no suor, concentração de sódio no suor, concentração de cloreto na saliva e concentração de sódio na saliva do que os indivíduos-controle saudáveis (valor de p < 0,001). A correlação entre as concentrações de cloreto na saliva e cloreto no suor mostrou Rho de Spearman (coeficiente de correlação) positivo = 0,475 (IC de 95% = 0,346 a 0,587). Além disso, a correlação entre concentração de sódio na saliva e concentração de sódio no suor mostrou Rho de Spearman positivo = 0,306 (IC de 95% = 0,158 a 0,440). Conclusões: A concentração de cloreto na saliva e a concentração de sódio na saliva são candidatas a ser usadas como diagnóstico de fibrose cística, principalmente em casos em que é difícil atingir a quantidade correta de suor, e/ou o exame da mutação RTFC é difícil e/ou o método de referência para o teste do suor não se encontra disponível ou não é de fácil acesso ao público em geral.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Saliva/química , Sódio/química , Suor/química , Cloretos/análise , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/análise , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Sódio/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/genética , Genótipo
17.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(2): 202-209, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1013764

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da administração intravenosa de fluidos e sódio no primeiro dia de internação com a infusão de nutrição enteral em pacientes de terapia intensiva. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectivo realizado com pacientes críticos, não cirúrgicos, em ventilação mecânica internados pelo menos há 5 dias com nutrição enteral. Investigaram-se a quantidade de fluidos e sódio administrados por via venosa no primeiro dia e o volume de nutrição enteral infundido nos primeiros 5 dias. Comparou-se o volume de fluidos intravenosos do primeiro dia > 35mL/kg ou ≤ 35mL/kg de peso corporal e de sódio (acima ou abaixo do percentil 25), com o total de nutrição enteral infundida. Resultados: Estudaram-se 86 pacientes com média (± desvio padrão) de 65 ± 17 anos, sendo 54,7% do sexo feminino. Foram administrados, no primeiro dia, 3.393,7 ± 1.417,0mL de fluidos (48,2 ± 23,0mL/kg) e 12,2 ± 5,1g de sódio. Cinquenta e oito (67,4%) pacientes receberam mais de 35mL/kg de fluidos. Em 5 dias, foram ofertados 67 ± 19,8% (2.993,8 ± 1.324,4mL) da nutrição enteral. Os pacientes que receberam > 35mL/kg de fluidos intravenosos também receberam menos nutrição enteral em 5 dias (2.781,4 ± 1.337,9 versus 3.433,6 ± 1.202,2mL; p = 0,03) versus quem recebeu ≤ 35mL/kg. Pacientes com infusão de sódio intravenoso acima do percentil 25 (≥ 8,73g) no primeiro dia receberam menos volume de nutrição enteral em 5 dias (2.827,2 ± 1.398,0 versus 3.509,3 ± 911,9mL; p = 0,02). Conclusão: Os resultados deste estudo apoiam o pressuposto de que a administração de fluidos intravenosos no primeiro dia de internação > 35mL/kg e de sódio ≥ 8,73g pode contribuir para a menor infusão de nutrição enteral em pacientes críticos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of intravenous infusion of fluids and sodium on the first day of admission on infusion of enteral nutrition in the first 5 days in intensive care patients. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted with critical nonsurgical patients admitted for at least 5 days who were on mechanical ventilation and receiving enteral nutrition. The amount of intravenous fluids and sodium infused on the first day and the volume of enteral nutrition infused in the first 5 days were investigated. The volume of intravenous fluids > 35mL/kg or ≤ 35mL/kg of body weight and sodium (above or below the 25th percentile) infused on the first day was compared with infused enteral nutrition. Results: A total of 86 patients were studied, with a mean (± standard deviation) of 65 ± 17 years, of which 54.7% were female. On the first day, 3,393.7 ± 1,417.0mL of fluid (48.2 ± 23.0mL/kg) and 12.2 ± 5.1g of sodium were administered. Fifty-eight (67.4%) patients received more than 35mL/kg of fluids. In 5 days, 67 ± 19.8% (2,993.8 ± 1,324.4mL) of the prescribed enteral nutrition was received. Patients who received > 35mL/kg of intravenous fluids also received less enteral nutrition in 5 days (2,781.4 ± 1,337.9 versus 3,433.6 ± 1,202.2mL; p = 0.03) versus those who received ≤ 35mL/kg. Patients with intravenous sodium infusion above the 25th percentile (≥ 8.73g) on the first day received less enteral nutrition volume in 5 days (2,827.2 ± 1,398.0 versus 3,509.3 ± 911.9mL; p = 0.02). Conclusion: The results of this study support the assumption that the administration of intravenous fluids > 35mL/kg and sodium ≥ 8.73g on the first day of hospitalization may contribute to the lower infusion of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Hidratação/métodos , Respiração Artificial , Infusões Intravenosas , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(2): 113-124, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1053054

RESUMO

En Venezuela se distribuyen productos lácteos en polvo a través de los Comité Locales de Abastecimiento y Producción (CLAP). Con el objetivo de evaluar la composición nutricional de catorce marcas de productos lácteos provenientes de industrias mexicanas y distribuidos en Venezuela, se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal, con muestreo a conveniencia de 14 marcas de lácteos obtenidas en hogares beneficiados del área metropolitana de Caracas-Venezuela. Se cotejó la información presentada en el rotulado del producto y se efectuó un análisis químico de la composición nutricional. Los valores obtenidos se compararon utilizando como referencia a la norma COVENIN. En el etiquetado se encontró que sólo 2 marcas se denominan producto lácteo y el 43% de las marcas expresan el mismo contenido nutricional en el rótulo. En la analítica química se encontró inexactitud con la información presentada en el etiquetado nutricional. El análisis de componentes principales seguido de un conglomerado jerárquico permitió diferenciar 4 clúster o grupos: 2 reales y 2 ideales. La mayoría de los productos analizados son significativamente más altos en carbohidratos y sodio (p<0,05), además de bajos en proteínas y calcio (p<0,05). En conclusión, todas las muestras evaluadas incumplen la normativa correspondiente, al presentar irregularidades en la denominación del producto e informar valores que no se corresponden con el contenido nutricional resultante de los análisis químicos(AU)


In Venezuela, powdered milk products are distributed through the Local Supply and Production Committee (CLAP). The objective was to evaluate the nutritional composition of fourteen brands of dairy products from Mexican industries distributed in Venezuela, a descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted, with convenience sampling of 14 brands of dairy products obtained in households benefiting from the Caracas Metropolitan area - Venezuela. The information presented in the product labeling was checked and a chemical analysis of the nutritional composition was performed. The values obtained were compared using the COVENIN standard as a reference. In the labeling, it was found that only 2 brands are called dairy products and 43% of the brands express the same nutritional content on the label. The chemical analysis showed inaccuracy with the information presented in the nutritional labeling. The analysis of principal components followed by a hierarchical conglomerate allowed us to differentiate 4 clusters or groups: 2 real and 2 ideal. Most of the products analyzed are significantly higher in carbohydrates and sodium (p <0.05), as well as low in protein and calcium (p <0.05). In conclusion, all the samples evaluated fail to comply with the corresponding regulations, presenting irregularities in the product name and reporting values that do not correspond to the nutritional content resulting from chemical analyzes(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Oryza/química , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Laticínios/análise , Substitutos do Leite/administração & dosagem , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos
19.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-759877

RESUMO

There are several diagnostic findings required for confirming a postmortem diagnosis of drowning. However, postmortem diagnosis of drowning remains challenging for forensic pathologists. In previous reports, several biochemical tests using various body fluids have been studied for their potential use in the postmortem diagnosis of drowning. In this study, the concentration of sodium and chloride was tested in various postmortem body fluids (vitreous humor, sphenoid sinus fluid, pleural fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.) and their results were interpreted for their potential use in postmortem diagnosis of drowning. We examined 67 autopsy cases (freshwater drowning, 12 cases; seawater drowning, 16 cases; control group, 39 cases). The sodium and chloride concentration in the vitreous humor, sphenoid sinus fluid, and pleural fluid significantly correlated with each other. Furthermore, the concentrations of sodium, chloride, and the sum of the concentrations of the two in the various postmortem body fluids were significantly different in the three groups, when compared with each other (generally the concentration being the highest in the seawater drowning group, followed by the control group and the freshwater drowning group). Biochemical tests using various postmortem body fluids may serve as useful indicators for the postmortem diagnosis of drowning and for the differential diagnosis between freshwater and seawater drowning.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Bioquímica , Líquidos Corporais , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Afogamento , Água Doce , Água do Mar , Sódio , Seio Esfenoidal , Corpo Vítreo
20.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wprim-759636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between the presence of allergic rhinitis and the nutritional intake levels of Korean infants. METHODS: The study involved a total of 1,214 infant subjects aged 1~5 months from the 2013~2016 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). The Subjects were classified into two groups based on the presence of allergic rhinitis: Non-allergic rhinitis infants (NARI, n=1,088) and allergic rhinitis infants (ARI, n=126). The general characteristics and family history of allergies, nutrient intake status, nutrient supplement intake, and breast milk and baby food start period data of the two groups were compared. All statistical analyses accounted for the complex sampling design effect and sampling weights. RESULTS: The mean age was 0.5 years old in the ARI group compared to the NARI group. In the residence, the rate of urban was higher in ARI. The family history revealed a significant difference between the two groups, particularly those of mothers rather than fathers. The nutrient intake levels were high in energy, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, riboflavin, niacin, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Breastfeeding was significantly higher in the ARI group than in the NARI group. The baby food start period was 0.3 months earlier in NARI group than in ARI group. The height, body weight, and birth weight were higher in ARI group than NARI group. The result of Odds ratio analysis showed that excess energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, riboflavin, and niacin intake increases the risk of allergic rhinitis. CONCLUSIONS: These results can be used as data to develop nutrition guidelines for allergic rhinitis infants.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Aleitamento Materno , Cálcio , Pai , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Lactente , Ferro , Coreia (Geográfico) , Leite Humano , Mães , Niacina , Política Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Razão de Chances , Fósforo , Potássio , Rinite , Rinite Alérgica , Riboflavina , Sódio , Pesos e Medidas
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