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1.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12):
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191430

ABSTRACT

Johne's disease is endemic in the domestic livestock population of India. Recently, we developed highly effective 'Indigenous vaccine' to control Johne’s disease in animals. In order to gain disease free status as per World Organization for Animal Health, it is essential to have a marker assay to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals before vaccine can be used in the field. We have developed a new marker assay ‘Cocktail ELISA’ using six ‘recombinant secretary proteins’ (MAP 1693c, MAP 2168c, MAP Mod D, MAP 85c, MAP Pep AN and MAP Pep AC) and evaluated for diagnosis of Johne’s disease along with 'Indigenous ELISA kit'. This ‘Cocktail ELISA’ successfully differentiated the infected, vaccinated and healthy (non-infected) cows and will facilitate the use of Johne’s disease vaccine to control the disease in cows at national levels.

2.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12): 967-972
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191429

ABSTRACT

An unprecedented outbreak of dengue occurred during 2017 in Kerala. Thiruvananthapuram was worst affected. We carried out a joint investigation with the Health department of the State, to understand the epidemiological and entomological factors involved in this outbreak, so as to develop strategies to contain it. Blood samples from suspected patients were collected from three worst affected areas and genomic analysis of the Dengue virus (DENV) was performed. Also, a cross sectional entomological survey was carried out in these areas. The data obtained was compared with the available secondary data of DENV in Kerala. The investigations revealed a genetic shift from the erstwhile predominant DENV2/DENV3 serotypes to the newly introduced DENV1 Asian genotype during the current outbreak. Breeding indices of Aedes aegypti, the predominant vector species was also found to be remarkably high. Asian genotype of DENV1 was detected in field collected Ae. aegypti also. The index cases of the Asian genotype of DENV1 in Kerala were detected from Erumeli village (gateway to the famous Sabarimala shrine) among two plantation workers migrated from the neighbouring Karnataka state, during 2013. This introduced virus strain attained an epidemic proportion in 2017 in Thiruvananthapuram, owing to immunologically naïve population and high receptivity.

3.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12): 961-966
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191428

ABSTRACT

Mulberry (Morus sp.) is a fast growing, deciduous, woody perennial plant, usually pollinated by wind (anemophily). Morus sp. produces seed which is used to raise seedlings to be used for root grafting, whereas scion of an improved variety is grafted over the rootstock got through seedling raising. Seed rate is an important parameter that decides population of plants per unit area with optimum exposure to sunlight, proper space, aeration, and nutrition. In this study, we tried to find the optimum seed rate in mulberry for raising of quality seedlings under Kashmir climatic conditions. The investigation was carried out at College of Temperate Sericulture, Mirgund, SKUAST- Kashmir, wherein different seed rates were tested for seedling raising in mulberry. Amongst different seed rates tested, treatment T3 wherein 28 seeds were sown per square foot was at par with treatments T1 and T2 having 20 and 24 seeds per sq. foot, respectively. The study indicated that 20-28 seeds per square foot could be successfully adopted for raising of quality seedlings.

4.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12): 956-960
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191427

ABSTRACT

Industrial, domestic and agricultural wastes pose potential threat to the aquatic environment as major sources of toxic contaminants along with carcinogenic and genotoxic compounds. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have increased concern due to their mutagenic features as they can bind to DNA molecule and lead to genotoxicity. In the present study, we evaluated the genotoxic potential of cupric chloride di-hydrate (A), anthracene (B) and combined exposure of both (C) on the freshwater mussel, Lamellidens corrianus (Lea 1834). Animals were exposed individually to cupric chloride di-hydrate (A, 0.1 ppm) and anthracene (B, 0.5 ppm) and their combined exposure (C) for 7 days (T1) and 14 days (T2), followed by the transfer of exposed animals to toxicant free water for four days after each treatment for assessment of recovery pattern (R1, R2). Genotoxicity was evaluated after each exposure and recovery with the help of comet assay and micronucleus assay. In all the above exposures (A, B and C) it was observed that increased exposure duration leads to more DNA damage. However, recovery potential of animals upon exposure to extended duration found to be greater than that of the short duration exposure (R2>R1), indicating adaptability of animals. The trend of damage in tail DNA% and olive tail moment (OTM) was consistent after both (T1 and T2) durations such as C>A>B.

5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12): 949-955
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191426

ABSTRACT

Type II restriction enzymes are routinely used by molecular biologists in designing and implementation of cloning experiments without referring to the literature on enzymes in use, and at times, face some unforeseeable problems. In our laboratory too, we encountered one such problem while working with KasI restriction enzyme which recognizes GGCGCC sequence, and we further analyzed the issue. Our observations corroborate the fact that KasI acts as monomer and cleaves double stranded DNA through nicking mechanism. It introduces breaks in two strands of DNA after substantial time gap which can be owed to two independent nickase activities in the opposite strands. Moreover, this time gap between two nickase activities results in formation of different topological forms of DNA. Since molecular biologists working with common restriction enzymes are not familiar with such nickase activity, they may misinterpret their restriction digestion results. However, no such problem was observed with the use of SspDI restriction enzyme which also recognizes the same sequence (GGCGCC) and produces the identical overhangs as by KasI. Hence, SspDI suits better for routine cloning and genetic modification purposes over KasI while using GGCGCC as cloning site.

6.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12): 945-948
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191425

ABSTRACT

Among different types of microbial enzymes, amylases are the most widely used in industries as they are produced in large quantity and in an economic way as compared to plants and animals. Moreover, thermostable amylase has significance as compared to the amylase from mesophiles. Therefore, hot water springs are explored to dig into its bacterial diversity. In the current study, we tried to isolate amylase producing bacteria from the soil and water samples collected from the hot water spring in Rampur, Himachal Pradesh, India. The samples were serially diluted before plating on the Luria Bertani agar plates. A total of 42 bacterial morphotypes were isolated and were screened for amylolytic activity by starch agar plate method. Among the 42 bacterial isolates 25 showed amylolytic activity. Production of amylase was carried out at different temperatures and pH to optimize the temperature and pH conditions for each isolate. All the 25 isolates were characterized based on morphology, biochemical tests and molecular analysis. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for the 25 isolates followed by BLAST search revealed a majority of them (19) identified as Bacillus licheniformis. Other isolates were identified as B. subtilis, B. safensis, B. halodurans, B. stratosphericus, Caldimonas hydrothermale and Exiguobacterium mexicanum. An attempt was made to amplify amyN gene which codes for α-amylase but successful amplification was achieved only from Bacillus licheniformis alone.

7.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12): 937-944
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191424

ABSTRACT

Microalgae based biofuel is an attractive alternative energy source due to its rapid growth rate and high lipid accumulation efficiency. In this study, we screened high lipid content microalga with the favourable fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production. Totally twelve different microalgal species were isolated from freshwater habitats. The isolates were identified as Micractinium sp., Chlorella sorokiniana, Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus, Desmodesmus sp., Scenedesmus obliquus, Coelastrum proboscideum, Chlamydomonas moewusii, Chlamydomonas debaryana, Chlamydomonas dorsoventralis, Coelastrum sp., and Ankistrodesmus sp. based on morphological features and ITS region similarity. Among the isolates, highest lipid content (33±0.07%) and lipid productivity (0.27±0.06 g L-1) were obtained from Ankistrodesmus sp. Intracellular lipid droplets of Ankistrodesmus sp. were observed through Nile red staining. The lipid content was enhanced up to 45% under the nitrogen deficient (5 mg L-1) BG-11 medium. Ankistrodesmus sp. fatty acid profile shows the presence of palmitic (16.39%), stearic (15.67%), oleic (25.66%), linolenic (21.62%), and alpha-linoleic acids (14.34%). The oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid 25.66% in the nitrogen deficient condition.

8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12): 931-936
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191423

ABSTRACT

The Legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) is a serious pest in most common pulses affecting their yield. In the present investigation, genetic diversity among larval population of Maruca vitrata from five locations of India was assessed using 23 RAPD primes and 6 SSR primers. RAPD primers produced 364 (98.9% polymorphism) polymorphic alleles with the mean number of 18.2 alleles/primer while SSR primers produced 45 polymorphic alleles with 68% polymorphism. The mean number of alleles detected per primer ranged from 4 to 46 and 5 to 12 with RAPD and SSR primers, respectively in different larval samples. Dendrogram constructed using similarity index values for RAPD and SSR primers differentiated the larval samples. In all three types of Maruca larval samples, Polymorphism information content (PIC) value observed for RAPD primers ranged from 0.019 (OPC 08) to 0.375 (OPAF 12). Similarly, SSR primers showed PIC value of 0.061 (C32008E) to 0.781 (C3393E,1) irrespective of larval samples.

9.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12): 923-930
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191422

ABSTRACT

Biological seed coating is a new technique of seed treatment through which biological agents are coated over the seed surface for effective control of seed and soil-borne pathogens. In this study, pigeonpea seed was biologically coated with Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhizobium spp. and Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) using biofriendly polymer and sugar syrup as adjuvants. The shelf life of bioagents and seed quality parameters was studied during six months of storage period. The colony units of Pseudomonas increased with biofriendly polymer either as individual or in consortia with biofertilizers. Six months after treatment, more colony units of Pseudomonas fluorescens were recorded on the surface of biologically coated seed of pigeonpea with biofriendly polymer as an adjuvant compared to sugar syrup. Seeds coated with Pseudomonas and PSB using biofriendly polymer recorded high seed germination and seedling vigour compared to sugar syrup. The observations reveal that there is a possibility of coating seed with biological agents using biofriendly polymer immediately after processing or before packaging without affecting the shelf life of bioagents and seed quality. Thus, the biologically coated pigeonpea seed in advance of cropping season can go a long way in minimizing risk associated with on farm seed treatment.

10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12): 916-922
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191421

ABSTRACT

Ageratum houstonianum, commonly called as bluemink or flossflower, is a predominant weed growing widely in the western Himalaya region. Here, we studied its chemical composition of essential oil (EO), characterization of pure compounds, screening of EO, fractions and pure compounds for their insecticidal activities against larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) and aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera :Aphididae).The volatile composition of the EO from above ground parts of A. houstonianum was extracted by steam distillation and characterized by GC and GC–MS analysis. Precocene II (42.16%), precocene I (18.65%) and beta–caryophyllene (15.56%) were the main constituents. Fatty acid composition of the plant was determined using GC–MS after derivatization. The compounds ageratochrome and 1–heptadecene were isolated and characterized using Mass, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. EO, hexane/methanol fractions and isolated compounds were tested against P. xylostella and A. craccivora. Results indicated that EO, hexane fraction, ageratochrome and 1–heptadecene showed more toxicity to larvae of P. xylostella (LC50=2.82, 4.91, 2.15, 4.86 mg/mL, respectively); whereas methanol fraction was more effective against A. craccivora (LC50=1.11 mg/mL) in the residual toxicity assay. The EO also showed repellent activity to P. xylostella (RC50 =2.25 mg/mL).

11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12): 908-915
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191419

ABSTRACT

Uncharacterized and hypothetical pathogenicity genes of Colletotrichum orbiculare inciting anthracnose of cucumber are poorly annotated but could be potential antifungal targets in anthracnose control. Hence, to associate them with specific functions in fungal–host interactions for exploitation in anthracnose control, their responses to reactive oxygen species produced due to oxidative burst and constitutive or induced phenolics, the earliest known defence mechanisms of host plants were assessed. Among commercially available related phenolic compounds, at the lowest concentration of 1 mM, ferulic and chlorogenic acids were less toxic to the pathogen. Among the phenolics, a less significant expression of superoxide dismutase coupled with a strong expression of catalase in ferulic acid greater than that in menadione and hydrogen peroxide, respectively indicated its oxidative effect through generation of radicles similar to that of hydrogen peroxide. However, lack of expression of beta-ketoadipate pathway genes in response to the phenolic acids indicated the role of other phenol metabolizing genes of the pathogen. In planta expression followed by constitutive expression of uncharacterized and hypothetical pathogenicity genes of C. orbiculare in a minimal medium indicated that 6 of the genes are not redundant and may function under stress conditions. Among the genes, significant expression of ENH87556 in menadione (1.3-fold) together with a weak expression in hydrogen peroxide in relation to untreated control indicated its role in oxidative stress generated due to the superoxide radical of menadione. Additionally, a strong expression (3.8-fold) of the gene in ferulic acid greater than that of either control, minimal medium or minimal medium with leaf extract indicated its role in phenol metabolism. Thus, the gene could be a potential molecular target for anthracnose control upon validation by functional analysis.

12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Dec; 57(12): 899-907
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-191418

ABSTRACT

In dry lands, small millets such as kodo millet contribute to regional food security to some extent. It is normally harvested using paddy combine harvester due to labour scarcity. However, the current varieties are not amenable for mechanized harvesting as they lodge at grain filling and maturity stages, thus resulting in heavy grain loss in terms of quality and quantity. In this context, we studied the anatomical features of culm and elemental composition in relation to lodging behaviour in kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.), which is one of the important yield limiting factors in this crop. The strong culm genotype, Adari had higher culm thickness, thicker mechanical tissue, more lignin deposition and more number of vascular bundles per cross section when compared to the weaker counterpart, Aamo10. However, not all the genotypes with thicker culm were lodging resistant. Sel21 which recorded the highest culm thickness (1283.4 μm) among the genotypes lodged heavily as higher culm thickness in Sel21 was not supported by an increased number of vascular bundles. Interestingly, TNPsc183 which had a moderate culm thickness of 782.82 μm exhibited a low degree of lodging and had more number of vascular bundles per cross section than Sel21. Hence, ‘number of vascular bundles per unit area’ appears to be an important trait in contributing lodging resistance in kodo millet. SEM-EDX studies for silicon and potassium contents in culm implicated the role of silicon, but not potassium in imparting culm strength in kodo millet. However, more potassium content in parenchymatous cell wall suggests its role in imparting strength to the non-lignified cells of the culm.

13.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-190086

ABSTRACT

Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) with a wide distribution and variability is great threat to apple yield and quality. The systematic research on the occurrence, genetic structure and evolutionary mechanism is important for the prevention of ACLSV. In this study, 360 apple leaf samples were collected from Shanxi province and tested by RT-PCR, and the result showed that the incidence of ACLSV in Shanxi was ranged from 43.59% in Linfen to 68.18% in Wanrong. One new ACLSV isolate (shanxi14-MK368727) was collected from the positive samples, of which the genome (including the 5' and 3' ends) was 7507 bp and encoded 2536 amino acids. Compared with online database, the highest nd identity was between shanxi14 and KJ522693.1, and the lowest was shanxi14 and M58152.1. Phylogenetic analyzed based on genome showed that 25 isolated of ACLSV were divided two groups (Group I and II), which showed that was no significant correlation with geographic location. The selection pressures of POL, MP and CP were tested, the result proved the three genes were under negative selection pressure. The knowledge presented in this study will be useful in for the design of long-term, sustainable management strategies for controlling these viruses.

14.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-190084

ABSTRACT

Cannabis indica and C. sativa have been used in homeopathy in extreme dilutions, called potencies, for therapeutic purposes since 1841. The purpose of the present study is to see whether Cannabis dilutions have specific levels of free water molecules which characterize other homeopathic potencies. The second objective is to see whether Cannabis mother tincture (MT) and potencies act on the binding sites of a protein. The three potencies 8, 14 and 32 cH were prepared from Cannabis mother tincture (MT) by successive dilution followed by succussion in 8, 14 and 32 steps, respectively. The 3 potencies of diluent medium 90% EtOH were similarly prepared. Each potency was analysed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the free water level in it. The drug potencies and unpotentised EtOH were tested for their binding reaction with a protein human serum albumin (HSA) by isothermal calorimetry (ITC). MTs and the potencies differ from each other and also from water control and EtOH with respect to free water content as revealed by DSC. MTs, their potencies and EtOH bind to HSA showing difference in thermodynamic parameters in terms of stoichiometry, binding constant, change in enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy. Potencies may initiate their individual effect through binding with a protein thereby leading to subsequent biochemical events inside the cell.

15.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-190083

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we focused on the synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles by using a chemical method. The characterization of Zinc oxide Nanoparticles are determined by different spectroscopic techniques such as UV-Visible, DRS, FTIR, FESEM, and EDX. Further, the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic studies also performed towards different bacterial species like Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, fungi like Aspergillus niger and MCF-7 Breast Cancer cell line.

16.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-190082

ABSTRACT

FSHR is an important gene which plays a major role in the development of secondary sex characteristics and influences the female reproductive cycle by regulating the Follicle Stimulating Hormone. Though this gene and its protein are extensively studied, no attempts have been made yet to methodically analyze the variants in this gene. One of the chief objectives during the analysis of human genetic variation is to distinguish between the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that are functionally neutral from those that contribute to the disorder. To predict the possible impact of SNPs on the FSHR structure and function, data were obtained from NCBI (dbSNP and dbVar) and validated manually. Various bioinformatics tools were used to predict the alterations at transcriptional, post transcriptional stages and protein interaction. Around 38 variants reported by NCBI Variation Viewer were sorted by SIFT and 14 of them were reported damaging, 13 were reported to be either benign or damaging by PROVEAN and Panther. From these 13 SNPs, the most damaging (11 SNPs) were modeled using Pymol and the energy difference between the native and mutated structure was calculated by Swiss PDB – Viewer. Based on our analysis, we have reported potential candidate SNPs for the FSHR gene involved in the regulation of ovarian pathophysiology.

17.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-190081

ABSTRACT

The bZIP gene is a transcription factor that plays various roles in relation to plant stress and hormone signaling. This gene is also involved in plant environmental stress and herbicide tolerance. We generated Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic plants with LebZIP2-encoding gene isolated from tomatoes using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic seeds harvested from these T0 transgenic plants were grown and examined for gene transfer and changes in phenolic compounds in the T1 generation. RT-PCR analysis using a primer specific to the LebZIP gene confirmed that the gene was transferred to the T1 generation. We analyzed the increase and decrease tendency for 30 phenolic compounds using the T1 generation-transgenic plants and investigated the mechanism between the specifically increased compound and LebZIP2 gene. Gallic acid, homogentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, myricetin, t-cinnamic acid, and b-resorcyclic acid were identified as the phenolic compounds that increased in T1 transgenic plants overexpressing the LebZIP gene. Among these, homogentisic acid at 246.75-1055.19 µg/g, was increased by 2-5 fold in the T1 transgenic plants compared to the control. Protocatechuic acid was found at 1640.54-2456.00 µg/g and was increased by 2-4 fold in T1 transgenic plants. t-Cinnamic acid was present in a small amount of 23.14 µg/g in the control, whereas it was 102.19-135.47 µg/g in T1 transgenic plants, showing an increase of 4-5 folds. These results indicated that homogentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, and t-cinnamic acid among the 30 phenolic compounds analyzed, were significantly increased in LebZIP2-overexpressing T1 transgenic plants, and support the evidence that the LebZIP2 gene is significantly involved in the increment of three phenolic compounds.

18.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-190080

ABSTRACT

We demonstrated the nano-immobilization of fungal enzymes through their encapsulation in cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs). An extracellular enzyme cocktail (a mixture of amylase, protease, lipase, and cellulose) was produced from Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium through submerged fermentation. The process of encapsulation was carried out through a microemulsion nanoprecipitation method in the presence of a lipid, a surfactant, and a co-surfactant. The morphology of CNPs was determined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; CNPs were less than 100 nm in diameter. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated the successful encapsulation of the fungal enzyme cocktail and revealed C and O as its major components. FTIR peaks of CNPs with encapsulated enzymes occurred at 3421.80, 2828.91, 1649.29, 1450.24, and 1061.61 cm−1 as well as in the range of 1050–1150 cm−1. Encapsulated enzymes showed excellent stability with a peak at −70.91 mV in zeta potential studies. Thermogravimetric analysis proved that the CNP-encapsulated enzymes had an initial weight loss at 250°C. The encapsulated fungal enzyme cocktail exhibited higher catalytic performance and stability than the free enzymes. The encapsulated fungal enzyme cocktail derived from A. niger at the concentration of 100 µg/mL, showed the highest amylase activity with a clear zone of 2.5 cm. Overall, the results of this research reveal the enhancement in the activity of fungal extracellular enzyme cocktail through nanoencapsulation.

19.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-190079

ABSTRACT

Lipin1, a member of the lipin family, serves as a phospholipid phosphatase or a co-transcriptional regulator in lipid metabolism. Recent studies also show that lipin1 is involved in many other cellular metabolism processes. However, the clear regulatory mechanism for lipin1 is unknown. The 293T human renal epithelial cell line represents a commonly used and well established expression system for recombinant proteins. Herein, we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to explore the changes in protein expression induced by lipin1 overexpression in 293T cells. Western blotting was used to confirm one of the expression changes of related proteins. Subsequently, the function and relationship of these proteins were analyzed by bioinformatics approach. By using 2D-PAGE, approximately 152 proteins were separated and eleven proteins were found to be significantly affected by lipin1 overexpression compared to the control. Among them, three proteins (eEF-1B γ, CCT1 and CCT3) were up-regulated and other eight proteins (NDKA, Stathmin, HNRNP A1, TK, KRT1, PKM, RanBP1 and LDHB) were down-regulated. These proteins were successfully identified with peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF-MS after in-gel trypsin digestion. The bioinformatic analysis showed that these proteins are classified into seven protein species, including transferase, cleavage enzyme, cytoskeleton protein, chaperone protein, regulatory protein, structural protein and oxidoreductase. The results highlight the potential roles of lipin1 involved in many cellular metabolism processes, including myelin synthesis, extracellular domain formation, membrane bound vesicle synthesis and companion protein T complex synthesis.

20.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-190078

ABSTRACT

The investigation on electrophoretic protein fractions of serum was carried out on the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio to determine the sublethal toxic effects of electroplating industrial effluent (EIE) using SDS-PAGE. Fish were exposed to 0.004, 0.007, 0.010 and 0.013% of effluent as well as control for twenty eight days. The results revealed the appearance or disappearance of protein fractions in the serum of C. carpio compared to control fish after seven, fourteen, twenty one and twenty eight days due to stress caused by metals in the effluent. Thus protein electrophoresis can be a sensitive tool for biomonitoring aquatic pollution.

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