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1.
J Genet ; 2020 Nov; 99: 1-5
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215495

RESUMEN

Fusarium stalk rot disease (FSR) of maize caused by Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg is becoming an important biotic production constraint in many of the major maize growing areas causing substantial yield losses. Inbreds are preferred as parents in hybrid development owing to homozygous nature and high heterotic ability. Double haploid (DH) technology has emerged as a significant milestone. A total of 339 DH lines were generated from two inbred lines, VL1043 (susceptible) and CM212 (resistant), through in vivo haploid induction method. The 339 DH lines along with parents were phenotyped for their response to the FSR at the College of Agriculture, V. C. Farm, Mandya, India during summer, kharif and rabi seasons of the 2019–2020. Best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were estimated for the FSR disease scores over three seasons. A wide range of BLUP scores of three to nine indicated the presence of higher variation for response of DH lines to FSR disease. The higher estimates of standardized range (1.31) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (19.80) also displayed higher variability. Nine lines were moderately resistant and 188 exhibited moderately susceptible reaction. The distribution of DH lines was positively skewed (1.34) and platykurtic (2.31) which suggested complementary epistasis and involvement of large number of genes in the disease expression.

2.
J Genet ; 2020 Nov; 99: 1-12
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215484

RESUMEN

Okra production in eastern India at present is severely threatened by whitefly-mediated okra enation leaf curl disease(OELCuD). Identification of resistant genotype and understanding the genetic control and biochemical relationship of OELCuD resistanceare prerequisite for developing an effective breeding strategy. This study was conducted employing six populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 andBC2) of two selected (resistant 9 susceptible (R9S)) crosses. Associationship between severity of OELCuD and biochemical parametersof parents and hybrids at preflowering and flowering stages was studied. Segregation pattern of the genotypes in F2 generation showingOELCuD reaction of two crosses suggested that two duplicate recessive genes was operative for resistance to OELCuD. Generation meananalysis revealed involvement of both additive and nonadditive effects in the inheritance of disease resistance. Hence, postponement ofselection in later generations or intermating among the selected segregates followed by one or two generations of selfing to break theundesirable linkage and allow the accumulation of favourable alleles could be suggested for the development of stable resistant genotypeagainst this disease. Higher peroxidase activity and total phenol content in leaf emerged as reliable biochemical markers for early selectionof genotype resistant to OELCuD.

3.
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213931

RESUMEN

Medical professionals including dentists are one of those high-risk professionals who can easily get affected by COVID-19 due to its highly contagious nature.Evaluating the molecular pathogenesis and the role of immune system in modulating symptoms it can be assumed that susceptibility of COVID-19 to older adults is more.This review aimed to summarize all the information available on electronic databases PubMed, PubMedcentral, Cochranedatabase related to the effect of COVID-19 ingeriatric individuals and guidelines for a prosthodontist during treatment of geriatric individuals in Indian population during this pandemic period.This review will focus on the characteristic symptoms and signs of COVID-19 in geriatric individuals and how the prosthodontists during treatment of geriatric individuals in Indian populations can better equip themselves to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in a clinical setup.

4.
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213930

RESUMEN

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly communicable disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV2) which originated in Wuhan, China has affected 213 countries worldwide and has caused an economic crisis. As of August10, 2020, India’s recovery rate is 63%. Most of the critical cases requiring intensive care unit (ICU) management are elderly patients with co-morbidities. The case report is of an elderly, comorbid patient who was intubated and put on a mechanical ventilator. At a time when critical patients on mechanical ventilator hardly survived, this patient survived and was successfully weaned from the ventilator and extubated. The case report emphasizes physical therapy management along with medical management for an elderly SARS CoV2 survivor with co-morbidities, and his journey from the onset of symptoms to being mechanically ventilated to performing his daily activities with minimal discomfort.

5.
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213929

RESUMEN

The embryonal sarcoma of the liver is an extremely malignant, aggressive and infrequent condition of the liver, predominantly affecting children in the age groups of four to ten. The disease manifests with fever, abdominal pain or mass, nausea and laboratory findings suggestive of liver cell injury. The diagnosis can be made using tumor markers, imaging, immunohistochemistry and histopathology. The multimodal management protocol focuses the use of surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiation to significantly improved survival rates and quality of life in these patients

6.
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213928

RESUMEN

Factor V(FV) is a rare bleeding disorder that its incidence is one in a million. Patients with FV deficiency have typically mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding after an invasive procedure. There are no certain treatment modalities and there is no product of FV concentrates in the markets. The bleeding diathesis and protect the ovarian viability are a challenge as an opposite situation for treatment options and ovarian preservation after detorsion is controversial. We aimed to provide ovarian blood-stream,control bleeding and protect thromboembolism from the patient with all of our treatment in the light of literature and a few case reports.

7.
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213927

RESUMEN

Epidermoid carcinoma is a frequent tumor in the upper aerodiodestive tracts, and depending on its location and tumor, nodes, metastases(TNM)stage, its therapy and prognosis vary enormously. Its location in the hypopharynx is rare, and in children or young adolescents, this location is extremely rare; The incriminated causes and the pathophysiology of the development of these tumors at this age remain a mystery. We present the case of a young patient of 13 years old, followed for squamous cell carcinoma ofthe right piriform sinus, with contralateral synchronous tonsil localization, and right lateral cervical lymphadenopathy fixed at 5 cm. In the absence of existing guidelines on the management of this type of location at this age, a multi-disciplinary meeting was necessary to decide on the management of this difficult case at this age

8.
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213926

RESUMEN

One of the rare cases of the upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction is superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) but potentially life-threatening if not recognized early. It is due to loss of fat pad between the aorta and SMA which will lead to a compression of the third portion of the duodenum. It has a different angle which will lead to different presentations as well as severity. We are reporting the 15 year-old (y/o) female who is medically free, presented to the emergency department (ED) complaining of severe colicky epigastric abdominal pain for the last 5 days in the epigastric area. The diagnosis of SMAS was made after clinical and radiological investigation. After proper supportive resuscitative measures, definitive management of the surgery was done by laparoscopic approach (duodenojejunostomy). The diagnosis of SMA syndrome is considered challenging due to many presentations and might be confused with other clinical conditions. Unless early diagnosed and treated, the outcome might be catastrophic. Medical treatment is attempted first in many cases depending on the severity and presentation but if failed, surgery will be the best option.

9.
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213925

RESUMEN

Background:The bio-medical waste products create particularly serious problems for the municipalities and its safe disposal is becoming a serious environmental problem. The concern regarding medical wastes is mainly due to the presence of pathogenic organisms and organic substances in hospital solid wastes in significantly higher concentrations. About one fourth of biomedical waste is considered as hazardous and may affect the health of both medical personnel and general community. Aim and objectives of the research was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice about the biomedical waste management among the staff (medical and paramedical) of a tertiary care medical institute. Methods:The design of the study was observational, descriptive and cross-sectional. It was conducted in a 500 bedded private sector tertiary care medical institute in Lucknow. The study unit consisted of medical and paramedical staff (doctors, staff nurses, and ward boys) and sample size was 241 who consented to be a part of the study. All the study units who had been in the job for atleast 6 months in IIMSR who consented for the study were included; purposive convenience sampling was implemented and study period was from January 2018 to March 2018.Results:Majority across all the types of study participants were males, married, residing in urban areas and having not undergone any formal training. Our study found that though all the study participants in various groups were having the relevant level of knowledge but attitude and practices were variable.Conclusions:This study showed that knowledge may be higher but attitude and practices are variable and are not related to educational level.

10.
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213924

RESUMEN

Background:Volleyball is the game in which upper extremities are mostly involved. This game needs repeated forceful high-speed upper limb activities required during training sessions and matches; which are reported to high incidence of shoulder injuries. This study is to correlate scapulothoracic muscle strength and functional activity in volleyball players.Methods:Study is cross sectional;correlational study was done with convenient sampling. Sample size was 55. Subjects were selected from all over Pune. Scapulothoracic muscles strength was measured (using the handheld dynamometer) in volleyball players which fitted in the inclusion and exclusion criteria and filleddisabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH)scale by every participantincluded in study. Correlated evaluated data using spearman rho method.Results:Study shows that all muscle carry good strength. Statistical analysis shows no significance, p value for all tested muscle is (p>0.05). Also DASHscale shows lesser score which indicates lesser difficulty to do functional activities.Conclusions:This study proves that there is no correlation between scapulothoracic muscle strength and functional activity in volleyball players

11.
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213922

RESUMEN

Background: Palpable neck swelling is a common clinical manifestation in otolaryngology. Rapid, inexpensive and simple method of examination for the diagnosis of such superficial masses is fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).Objectiveswere to evaluate the usage of fine needle aspiration cytologyas a first-line tool for diagnosis, accuracy compared with histopathology.Method: A hospital based prospective cross sectional was conducted by taking 65 patients with neck swellingpresentation thyroid swelling were highest in number followed by lymph node and salivary, in which female were 43 (66.15%) and male were 22 (33.85%), the age group ranged from 6 to 75 years in ear, nose, throat (ENT) OPD of Manipal teaching hospital between 15th November 2015 to 15thMay 2017. FNACalong with histopathological examination (HPE) were done and compared. For data analysis SPSS 20 version was used.The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rates were calculated.The Cohen’s Kappa statistical testwas employed.Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity of FNAC was 90.76% and 98.075% respectively in determining the various pathologies. The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in comparison to histopathology was 92.25%. This study showed almost perfect correlation (measure of agreement) between FNAC and final histopathology diagnosis of neck swellings from Cohen’s Kappa test.Conclusions: FNAC is a safe, simple and rapid method with a high sensitivity and specificity that can be done in diagnosing wide range of neck swellings.

12.
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213921

RESUMEN

Background: Globally the burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis infections are a common problem of pregnant women where the complications are transmitted to their newborn infants. These infections, often silent and without symptoms, can result in serious and fatal health consequences. Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 pregnant women attending Dessie referral hospital from February to April 2019 by using convenience sampling techniques.Data were collected by assigned nurses with face to face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Samples were screened by rapid serological tests for HIV and T. pallidum antibodies as well as HBsAg. Data was analysed using SPSS. Logistic regression was used to see the association between dependent and independent variables. P values <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results:The overall seroprevalence rates of HIV, HBsAg, syphilis and HIV/HBV coinfections were 6.5%, 4.7% and 0.8%, and 0.5% respectively.The history of sexual transmitted infections (STIs), multiple partners and using sharp materials were significantly associated to HIV with an adjusted odd ratio(AOR)of 8.35, 9.6 and 3.097 respectively. Likewise,the habit of ear/nose piercing and partner’s STIs exposure were associated with hepatitis B infection with an AOR 8.24 and 14.11respectively.Conclusions:HIV and HBV infections are still critical public health concerns among pregnant womenin the study area. History of multiple sexual partners, sharing of sharp materials, history of STIs exposure, habits of ear/nose piercing were significantly associated with infections.

19.
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215333

RESUMEN

Yoga is a multi-faceted spiritual tool enhancing health and well-being. Physical postures (Asan), regulated breathing (Pranayama), and meditations (Dhyana) are its main components. Breathing exercises of various types, particularly diaphragmatic breathing, alternate nostril breathing (anulom vilom), and kapalbhati have been noted to be useful in chronic asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), post-operative management in head & neck surgery, cardiovascular surgery, and upper abdominal surgery. Its calming effect reduces blood pressure and agitation in various psychiatric disorders also. Common types of breathing exercises which are easy to learn and practice for day to day fitness and prevention of disease are: equal breathing (bhastrika), clavicular breathing, costal breathing, and diaphragmatic breathing. kapalbhati, alternate nostril breathing (anulom vilom), bhramari pranayama, and tribandh breathing. These require proper learning under guidance. Ujjayi pranayama, sitali, and surya bhedan pranayama also require proper training and have a calming effect on the body. Various types of breathing produce their beneficial effects on the body when they are done regularly for the minimum recommended period. These exercises can be practiced in any comfortable posture on the floor or sitting on a chair. Regulation of rate and rhythm during its practice helps towards achieving meditation. Pranayama and Yoga have proven their utility in various diseases as noted in studies done in various medical centers. The western world also recognizes its importance and recommends it to their people. In India, health is given a low priority and outdoor physical activities are becoming less popular. In these conditions of living, Yoga and Pranayama (breathing exercises) are recommended for persons of all ages because these are easy to learn, simple to practice, and do not require any separate space or instruments. Regularity and execution in a proper way for the optimum time alone are needed for general well-being, better lung functions, and as a preventive measure for various respiratory and psychiatric disorders. In the present pandemic of COVID-19, warranting house quarantine for a large number of people, this is going to prove a boon for physical and mental alleviation.

20.
Artículo | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215332

RESUMEN

As there is an increase in the rate of oral cancer, the surge for the various maxillofacial materials is increasing as well. Materials used for rehabilitation of congenital or acquired defects of patients should fulfil the requirements such as function, longevity, and aesthetics. Defects of face which may be congenital or acquired makes the condition of the affected person very disastrous mentally, physically as well as emotionally. Patient wants facial rehabilitation for a healthy happy life. To provide rehabilitation of these patients, re-evaluation of materials used in the field of maxillofacial prosthesis seems essential. Maxillofacial material should best suit the ideal selection criteria to satisfy the functionality, biocompatibility, aesthetics as well as durability. While the new materials have exhibited many desirable properties, there are also many insufficiencies involved in it. This article presents a systemic review of the evolution, current trends, and future requirements in maxillofacial materials for ensuring psychological well-being.In the recent years, a dramatic increase in the demand for prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with facial defects is seen. Increasing awareness of cancer is resulting in earlier diagnosis and treatment. Unfortunately, many of the surgical techniques are extensive and thus leave large defects that compromise not only function and aesthetics, but also psychosocial status of the patient. These problems require prompt rehabilitation with surgery or prosthetics.1 However, surgical reconstruction is often contraindicated in the presence of large defects or in high-risk patients. Prosthesis offers the advantage of quick, reversible and medically uncomplicated rehabilitation. In addition, the restoration may be readily removed to allow evaluation of the health of the underlying tissues. Historically, many types of materials have been used. Wood, wax metals, vulcanite and many types of plastics have been used as rigid materials while flexible ones like gelatin glycerine mixtures, latex and elastic plastics have also found some usefulness.2Presently, materials used for the maxillofacial prosthesis are vinyl plastics, polyurethane, silicone rubber and acrylic types.

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