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1.
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1267398

Résumé

Objectives: The objective is to assess standard practice of healthcare workers and preparedness of their healthcare institutions toward controlling spread of infectious diseases. Background: With the on ­ going epidemic of Lassa fever and the rising incidence of Covid­19 pandemic in Nigeria, there has been efforts from government and stakeholders in health towards controlling the surge of these diseases. This study is a multi­center survey involving frontline health­care workers, from 102 health institutions.Methodology: Pretested self­administered questionnaires were sent through online Google form to health­care workers across various health institutions through their respective social media platforms. Their consent was sought and the questionnaires were filled through registered emails. Multiple entry from same individual was prevented. The number of respondents was 451. The information gathered include biodata of health­care workers, details of their cadre and years of practice, their level of standard precautions and preparedness of their health institutions. Data gathered were collated, summarized, and analyzed using simple tables with proportions.Results: The practice of standard precaution was inadequate with only 59.4% of respondents washing their hands regularly after touching patients or carrying out procedures, while only 34.4% of them used face masks while consulting patients with respiratory symptoms. As for preparedness of health institutions in control of Lassa fever and Covid­19, 63.1% and 77.6% of respondents affirmed that their health institutions had written protocol of managing infectious diseases and had organized workshop on Lassa fever and/or Covid­19, respectively, while only 45.5% and 20% of respondents had dedicated isolation wards and functional intensive care units in their health institutions.Conclusion: The standard safety precautions by health­care workers were suboptimal and preparedness of their health institutions was generally inadequate for the management and control of infectious diseases


Sujets)
, Fièvre de Lassa
2.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(3): 288-295, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1267470

Résumé

Background: Since the onset of the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic also known as Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) beginning in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and spreading to Nigeria in February 2020 (as well as the rest of the world), there have been enormous resultant impact on health, social, emotional and economic aspects lives and services. The disease as well as its mitigation measures have negatively affected other aspects of lives and health services. This paper aims to assess the preliminary effects on immunization services, blow the whistle and suggest measures to limit these effects. Methods: Data was obtained by interviews and use of a structured proforma from Immunization Field Experts/Consultants working with national and international agencies in four states, heads of immunization units, officers in charge of immunization centres and facility immunization records from seven sites across Nigeria. Results: There were disrupted immunization services with total absence of outreach services and campaigns, limited fixed sessions, disease outbreaks, general drop in number of immunized children. These were thought to be due to the lockdown effects, fears, rumours and panic among others. Outright routine vaccines amongst rejections were also reported. Conclusion: Reports suggest that the pandemic and its mitigation measures are affecting immunization services in terms of demand/ access (physical and economic), services and logistics with overall drop in coverage and rise in dropout rates. The effects are still unfolding. It does not appear that health facilities are monitoring and interrogating their data with a view to making specific response action plans. All stakeholders in immunization (Government, non- governmental and professional organizations, the media, traditional / religious institutions) should work to flood the mainstream / social media with positive messages on immunization; monitor immunization progress by ongoing data collection, collation, analysis, interpretation and action; actively counter rumours and anti- vaccine messages and plan for post COVID 19 intensification/ catch- up


Sujets)
, Enfant , Infections à coronavirus , Immunisation , Nigeria , Syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère
3.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(3): 264-269, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1267471

Résumé

Introduction: Preterm delivery is of considerable concern to clinicians and researchers being a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the industrialized countries and also contributes to substantial complications among survivors. Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria accounts for significant proportion of preterm births, with over million deaths due to complication of prematurity. Objectives: The study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated morbidities of preterm deliveries at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective review of neonates delivered before 37 completed weeks of gestation and admitted into the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2015. Results: There were 3435 admissions into the Special Care baby Unit (SCBU) during the 8 year period. Out of these 1129 were preterm babies giving a prevalence of 32.9%. Of the 1129 preterm babies managed in SCBU, 714 case records were retrieved and analyzed giving a retrieval rate of 63%. There were 372 (52.1%) males and 342 (47.9%) females; with the male to female ratio of 1:1.08. There were 17(2.3%) extreme low birth weight (1000-1499 g), 406 (56.9%) low birth weight (1500- 2499 g) babies. The range of admission weights was 700-2500g with mean of 1600±900g. Conclusion: The burden, complications and mortality from preterm newborns remain significant public health challenges to care givers in Nigeria


Sujets)
, Infections asymptomatiques , Transmission de maladie infectieuse , Hôpitaux d'enseignement , Prématuré , Syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère
4.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 298-304, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1267473

Résumé

Background: Hippocampus is a neural structure in the temporal lobe that plays a crucial role in learning and memory. Cognitive impairment with learning disabilities is a common feature in hydrocephalus and is more prominent in adult-onset hydrocephalus. The aim of this study is to describe the morphological alterations in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of adult hydrocephalic mice. Method: Hydrocephalus was induced in adult albino mice by intra-cisternal injection of kaolin suspension (250 mg/ml in sterile water). They were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days post-induction. Morphological analysis was carried out on hematoxylin and eosin stained coronal sections of the hippocampus: the pyramidal neurons (normal and pyknotic) in the CA1 and CA3 subregions were counted and the pyknotic index (PI) was calculated. The somatic and dendritic features of Golgi stained pyramidal neurons were examined by light microscopy in both hydrocephalic and control mice. Result: The PI was significantly greater in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the hydrocephalic groups compared to the age matched controls. The dendritic processes of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region were fewer with shorter terminal branches in the hydrocephalic mice than in controls; this was pronounced at 7 days post-induction. In the CA3 region, there was no difference in dendritic arborization between hydrocephalic and control mice. Conclusion: Acute adult-onset hydrocephalus was associated with increased pyknosis and reduced dendritic arborization in hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA1 but not CA3 region


Sujets)
Appareil de Golgi , Hydrocéphalie , Cellules pyramidales
5.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 305­311-2020. tab
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1267474

Résumé

Background: HIV infected children survive to adolescence because of anti retroviral therapy, however, only a small proportion know their diagnosis.Disclosure is critical to long-term disease management, yet little is known about if, how, and when disclosure takes place and the barriers associated with it, and its impact on children in resource limited settings. Objective: This study set out to determine the process of and barriers to HIV disclosure in children as well as the immediate impact of this on children and their caregivers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done June-July 2016 using a structured questionnaire, convenience sampling and quantitative methods at the infectious disease clinics of National Hospital Abuja. A sample of 164 caregivers of HIV positive children aged 5 to 16 years receiving antiretroviral therapy for at least one year were enrolled. Results: Prevalence of full disclosure was 24.5%, partial 22.7% with overall prevalence of 47.2%. Main barrier to disclosure was child's age and fear of informing others. The impact of disclosure on caregivers was relief in 45.5% but emotional and difficult for others. Immediate reactions by children were sadness; tearfulness and worry in 28.6%, some showed no reaction while others even expressed relief. On a longer term, disclosure had several effects. Main predictors of disclosure on regression were the child's age and caregiver's opinion on disclosure. Conclusion: The prevalence of full disclosure is low and several barriers affect disclosure. Caregiver's and HCWs need empowerment and support with culturally appropriate skills and platforms to deal with the barriers, process and impact of disclosure


Sujets)
Enfant , Barrières de communication , Divulgation , Sérotriage , Évaluation des impacts sur la santé , Nigeria
6.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 312­317-2020. tab
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1267475

Résumé

Background: Rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) is a useful tool in demonstrating parasitologically proven malaria. Its efficacy is however hampered when parasite density is low. Prophylactic use of cotrimoxazoleas in cases of HIV infected children can cause reduction in parasite count. It is doubtful if mRDT will retain its diagnostic usefulness among such individuals.Objectives: The study sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of mRDT in HIV infected children on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Benin City.Methods: In the prospective, cross sectional and descriptive study, we assessed malaria parasitaemia using standard methods in microscopy and parasite density and malaria antigenaemia using Care Start Pf (monoclonal antibodies specific to histidine rich protein ­ 2 antigen) in 221 each of HIV infected subjects on cotrimoxazole managed in a specialist clinic and HIV negative controls all seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between April and June 2016.Results: Malaria antigenaemia rate MAr (20.8%) was lower than malaria parasitaemia rate MPr (24.4%) in subjects. MAr (20.8) and MPr (24.4%) in subjects were higher than MAr (18.10%) and MPr (17.7%) in controls. Mean (SEM) parasite count in subjects of was low (50.88 + 2.24 per µl). Using microscopy as gold standard the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of mRDT in subjects were 77.8%, 97.6%, 91.3% and 93.1%. Corresponding values in controls were 100.0%, 99.5%, 97.5% and 100.0%. Youden indices for subjects and controls were 0.75 and 0.99. Conclusions/Recommendations: Sensitivity of mRDT in HIV infected children on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for opportunistic infections (OI) is reduced. However, the indices of specificity, PPV and NPV are high enough to retain its value in the evaluation of HIV infected children for asymptomatic malaria and perhaps the clinical disease


Sujets)
VIH (Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine) , Enfant , Nigeria , Association triméthoprime-sulfaméthoxazole
7.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 318­323-2020. tab
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1267476

Résumé

Introduction: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in underfive children. Nigeria still has a high burden of child death due to pneumonia. Many of these deaths result from the development of complications. This study was done to determine the pattern of pneumonia complications and its associated factors amongst underfive children with pneumonia.Methods: It was a hospital-based cross-sectional observational study involving 129 children aged 1 - 60 months with a diagnosis of pneumonia. The participants were recruited over a nine-month period. Clinical signs were recorded, and a confirmatory chest radiograph was obtained within 24 hours of admission.Result: Of the129 subjects studied, 70 (54.3%) had complications. Children less than 24 months had a higher frequency of complications at presentation. Heart failure and anemia occurred more commonly. Other complications were pleural effusion, empyema, pneumatocele and pneumothorax. More than half (57.1%) of those with complication were hypoxaemic at presentation. Complicated pneumonia was significantly associated with prolonged hospital stay and risk of mortality.Conclusion: Complication is common among children hospitalized for pneumonia in Osogbo. Heart failure was the most common complication. Presence of pneumonia complications and hypoxaemia are important contributors to mortality in this environment


Sujets)
Nigeria , Pédiatrie , Pneumopathie infectieuse , Santé de la population
8.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 324-329, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1267477

Résumé

Background: Complementary feeding is the cornerstone of child's nutrition. Most malnourished children had their predicament originating from the period of transition from breastfeeding to family diet.Objectives: To determine the complementary feeding practices and nutritional status of young children in Gwiwa community.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Gwiwa community, Wammakko LGA, Sokoto State between January and June, 2018. Three hundred and ten mothers with their children aged 6 ­36 months were interviewed using structured interviewer - administered questionnaire and the children's nutritional status was assessed using WHO classification of malnutrition. Data was analysed using SPSS version 22.0.A p-value ≤0.05 was taken as significan.Results: One hundred and forty (45.2%) respondents were aged 15 ­ 24years and 168(54.2%) were of low socio-economic class. There were 190 males and 120 females with 66 (21.3%) children exclusively bre as t - fed for 6months. The mean age of cessation of breast feeding was 17.8 ±3.6 months. One hundred and sixty-nine (54.5%) children commenced complementary feeding at 6-8month of age with the mean age of 5.7(±2.6) months. One hundred and eighty-four (59.4%) used plain pap with 41.2% fed more than 3 times per day. Eighty-two (26.5%), 56(18.1%) and 76 (24.5%) children were underweight, wasted and stunted respectively.Conclusion: The complementary feeding practices were suboptimal in this community and might explain the poor nutritional status of their under- fives. Efforts should be geared towards optimal complementary feeding practices in this community


Sujets)
Nigeria
9.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 330­335-2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1267478

Résumé

Introduction: Blood pressure (BP) is a vital indicator of health in children and adults. The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and BP is well established in children; and BMI has been shown to maintain an independent relationship with BP even after controlling for many other variables that characterize individuals. High BMI significantly increases the risk of hypertension. Epidemiological studies in various countries have been conducted to determine the relationship between BP and BMI in children; similar comparative studies are lacking in Nigeria, thus necessitating this study.Aim: To determine the relationship between BMI and BP in nursery pupils in Port Harcourt.Methods: Multi-staged sampling technique was used to select 710 nursery pupils from 13 schools. Biodata was obtained using a selfadministered (parent) questionnaire. Height and weight measurement were taken, and BMI calculated. BP was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer; and relevant data analysis done.Result: There were 710 pupils 365 (51.4%) males and 345(48.6%) females. Mean systolic BP was 93.2 ± 10.6mmHg (70­130 mmHg); while mean diastolic BP was 58.8 ± 8.0mmHg(40 ­ 88.7 mmHg). Mean BMI was 15.0 ± 1.8 kg/m2(9.1 - 25.5 kg/m2). There is a positive linear relationship between systolic and diastolic BP and BMI (correlation coefficient r = 0.03). Obese pupils had significantly higher BP rates (25%) (X2= 15.35, p =0.002). BMI and height were significant predictors of diastolic BP (p<0.001).Conclusion: There is a positive correlation between BMI and BP; and high BMI is an important predictor of high BP in nursery pupils in Nigeria


Sujets)
Mesure de la pression artérielle , Indice de masse corporelle , Nigeria , Crèches , Pupille
10.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 336­344-2020. tab
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1267479

Résumé

Background/objective: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine assessment of antiretroviral treatment outcomes to detect treatment failure early and prevent the development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to describe treatment outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) over 2 years in children living with the human immune deficiency virus enrolled in the paediatric HIV clinic at the Lagos UniversityTeaching Hospital (LUTH). Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of antiretroviral treatment outcomes in 278 children receiving antiretroviral therapy at the paediatric HIV clinic of LUTH. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected from clinical records of pediatric patients who received antiretroviral therapy for 2 years ( from November 2015 to December 2017) . Virological failure was defined as viral load > 400 copies/ml and immunological failure was defined as a CD4 count <100 cells/mm3 or CD4 % <15% after receiving antiretroviral agents for 12 months. Data was analysed using graph pad prism version 5.0.Results: After 12 months on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 101 (36%) had virological failure while 14 (5%) and 36 (13%) failed immunologically [CD4 count <100 cells/mn3 and CD4 <15% respectively]. Virological blips were observed at 24 months in 6.1% of patients while immunovirological discordance occurred in 30% of patients (poor virological clearance despite good immunological recovery) . High baseline viral load (>5000 copies/ml), poor adherence (<95%) and low baseline CD4 counts (101-249 cells/mn3) were significantly associated with virological failure, while low baseline CD4 counts (<350 cells/mn3) and poor adherence (<95%) were significantly associated with immunologic failure.Conclusion: The treatment outcomes observed in this study are similar to those reported in earlier studies. At 1 and 2 years of antiretroviral therapy , there was immune restoration however 101 (36%) and 87 (31%) respectively had virological failure despite good adherence to therapy and good Immunological restoration. This calls for early initiation and switch to second and third line drugs


Sujets)
Lacs , Lamivudine , Névirapine , Nigeria , Zidovudine
11.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 345-352, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1267480

Résumé

Background: Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children in developing countries while its incidence has declined in the developed world. This study was to document its present impact in our setting.Aim: To evaluate the sociodemographic features and clinical outcomes in children hospitalized for AGN in the Paediatric Nephrology Unit of the University College Hospital, Ibadan.Subjects and Methods: This was a descriptive analytical study of children aged 2 to 14 years admitted with AGN between 2007 and 2019. Their sociodemographic data, clinical features, complications and outcome were analysed.Results: AGN accounted for 116 (8.9%) of new renal cases admitted over the period. Seventy-four (63.8%) were male, mean age (SD) was 8.2 (3.3) years and peak age incidence between 5 and 9 years. Average annual hospital incidence rose from 4-5 new cases to 8-9 new cases/annum with an upsurge to 17 cases in 2019. Highest yearly monthly incidence was between June and December. Forty -five out of 50 (90%) evaluated subjects were in the middle/ low socioeconomic classes. Stage 2 hypertension occurred in 30/50 (60%) with hypertensive crises in 24%. RPGN occurred in 6/50 (12%) of cases accounting for 5 of the 8 dialysed patients and 4 of the 5 deaths. The case fatality rate was 4.3%.Conclusion: The study showed a progressive increase in the hospital incidence of AGN.RPGN was a major risk factor for death in children with AGN and therefore requires a high index of suspicion and an appropriate early intervention


Sujets)
Glomérulonéphrite , Nigeria
12.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 47(4): 353-357, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1267481

Résumé

Background: Newborn morbidity and mortality have remained unacceptably high in developing countries despite consistent efforts at controlling the scourge. Unlike in developed countries where neonatal mortality rate ranges between 1 and 5 per 1000 live births, average neonatal mortality rate in Nigeria is 36 per 1000 live births. The majority of the causes of death are largely preventable with timely low cost interventions. This study was structured to determine the pattern of morbidity and mortality amongst babies admitted in the Special Care Baby Unit of Madonna hospital Makurdi, Nigeria.Methods: The records of neonates admitted into the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) over a tenyear period (2005-2015) were retrospectively reviewed. Information obtained included the sex, age at admission, gestational age, birth weight, reasons for admission and outcome of treatment.Results: A total of 1,121 babies were admitted during the period under review. The male female ratio was 1.2:1.The majority of the babies were aged between 2-7 days with a mean 6.17.+ 7.01 The mean weight on admission was 2807+907g. Neonatal sepsis, jaundice, low birth weight and birth asphyxia were the most common morbidities. The overall mortalityrate was 14.1%; however, proportionate mortality due to low birth weight was highest (26.4%), followed by tetanus (23.5%), asphyxia (20.8%), Respiratory tract infection (13.8%), meningitis (13.3%), sepsis (10.3%), jaundice (9.6%), and diarhoea (4.0%)Conclusion: Neonatal mortality rate in the study was high. The major causes of admission are preventable. Strengthening perinatal care, emergency obstetric care services and neonatal resuscitation skills are necessary to reduce the neonatal mortality


Sujets)
Nouveau-né , Morbidité , Mortalité prématurée , Nigeria
13.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 13(1): 1-11, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1262917

Résumé

Context: The public health importance of cancers in Nigeria is emerging. Robust cancer control policies are needed at all levels of government, especially the state. Objective: To review cancer control policies in Nigeria, especially regarding breast and cervical cancers, with emphasis on policy development process, scope and policy implementation. Also to compare Nigerian cancer control policy with selected African countries and suggest ways through which Nigerian states, such as Abia, can develop evidence-informed, patient-centered cancer control policy. Methods: A structured literature search was done using relevant subject headings and keywords. Boolean operators 'and'/'or' were used to refine the search. Databases searched were Pubmed/Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, Cinahl, Global Health and ERIC. The search included articles published between 2008 and 2018. Data was also collected from the International Cancer Control Plan portal as well as focused Google search. Results: Of the 194 abstracts retrieved, only 29 were included in this review. The 2018 Nigerian National Cancer Control plan (NCCP) showed significant improvement over the 2008 version, in terms of scope and policy development process. Literature search did not reveal any state-level comprehensive cancer control policy. The Nigerian policy lacked specific guidelines for breast cancer compared with the Ghanaian policy. Ghana allocated 12% of total budget to cancer research compared to 0.4% in Nigeria. The South African Breast Cancer policy was developed using more findings from local research and had the most encompassing, multiple perspectives approach. Conclusion: Review shows the content, process, pearls and pitfalls of cancer control policy from Nigeria and five other African countries. Findings will inform the strategy for developing cancer control framework states in Nigeria and other countries. As more Nigerian states work towards developing state cancer control plans, it is important to address the shortfalls identified in the current NCCP, especially regarding the use of multiple perspectives analysis


Sujets)
Politique de santé , Tumeurs , Nigeria , Processus politique
14.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 13(1): 12-17, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1262918

Résumé

Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the commonest cause of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in middle age and elderly men. Prostate size increases as a man ages. It has been documented that age and androgens are the greatest risk factors for BPH progression. The size of the prostate can predict the future need and outcome of BPH­related surgery. The aim of this study was to correlate prostatic size (volume) with age of patients evaluated for symptomatic BPH. Patients and method: This was a retrospective study of one hundred and ninety two (192) patients that were evaluated for BPH in two (2) urology centers in Nigeria between January 2018 and June 2019. Patient's bio-data, findings on history and physical examination, relevant laboratory and imaging studies, in particular, trans-rectal ultrasound reports of the prostate were collated and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: 192 men with a mean age of 64.23±9.47 years were evaluated. Majority of the patients presented in their 7th decade of life. Mean prostate volume was 67.59±45.70mls while mean prostate specific antigen (PSA) was 4.76±4.59ng/ml. Correlation between prostate volume and age was weak; r(192) = .172, P<0.05. Conclusion: Prostate size (volume) in our cohort of patients showed a weak correlation with age


Sujets)
Nigeria , Prostate , Hyperplasie de la prostate , Tumeurs de la prostate
15.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 13(1): 18-27, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1262919

Résumé

Context: Contraceptive prevalence in Nigeria is low at 17%. Amongst Nigerian women and couples who accept to use contraception, the IUCD is the most commonly used contraceptive method with variation in rates of use between geographical areas and among Health Institutions. Factors that determine decision making on IUCD use are not well understood. Aims: To study the use, effectiveness, complications and discontinuation rates for intrauterine contraceptive device received at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital from 1997 to 2016 and analyzed in January, 2019. Study Design: This was a retrospective cross sectional study. Methodology: The case notes of all 3326 new clients who accepted Copper T intrauterine contraceptive device at the UBTH Family Planning Clinic during the review period were retrieved and analyzed. Data regarding acceptors socio-demographic characteristics, side effects, effectiveness, complications, duration of use and reasons for discontinuation were extracted and entered into SPSS for windows version 22.0 and analyzed. Results: Out of the 8203 clients that accepted to commence a family planning method, 3326 (40.55%) accepted to use IUCD. The mean age of IUCD acceptors at commencement was 33.4±5.60 and the mean age of their husbands was 39.85±6.91. The mean parity was 3.73±1.87 (range 0-12), while the mean number of living children was 3.56±1.66 (range 0-10). The mean duration of use (in months) was 40.43±40.13. Women with 5 or more children (P Value 0.000) and at least a minimum of secondary education (P Value 0.000), were significantly associated with IUCD use duration of > or more than 2 years. Also, women who reported satisfaction with IUCD (P Value 0.000) and no complications (P Value 0.000) were also associated with longer duration of use. Conclusion: IUCD is a common family planning method used by women at UBTH. Its duration of use is higher among clients with more children, at least a minimum of secondary school education and no complications from its use. This information is relevant for family planning service providers to increase contraceptive uptake by women in Nigeria


Sujets)
Contraception/épidémiologie , Politique de planification familiale , Dispositifs intra-utérins/tendances , Nigeria
16.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 13(1): 28-34, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1262920

Résumé

Context: Aesthetic considerations form a major aspect of dental material selection for tooth restorations. Anterior restorative materials exclusively used in anterior teeth. With the advances made, tooth-colored restorative materials are now used in posterior teeth restorations. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the techniques employed, associated problems and the attitudes of dental practitioners to the placement of posterior composites. Method: This was a questionnaire-based study conducted among sixty-eight (68) dentists practicing in public/government-owned and private hospitals. Results: The results show that 86.8% of the respondents considered the conservation of tooth substance as the most common factor influencing their choice of composite materials for posterior teeth. On their perceptions of posterior composites generally, 77.9% of the respondents agreed that posterior composites needed less destruction of sound tooth substance while 35.0% considered moisture control as the most difficult problem faced during placement of the restoration. Wooden wedges were the most popular wedges while ultraviolet curing light were the most commonly used by the respondents. Majority (82.4%) agreed that calcium hydroxide and glass ionomer cement should only be used in cases of operatively exposed dentine in deep cavities. The percentage that never used rubber dam was 47.1 while incremental curing was the most commonly used method. Sectional matrices were more commonly used by respondents while the most commonly encountered post-treatment problem was the fracture of restorations. Conclusion: While more dental practitioners are embracing the use of composites for posterior restorations, there remains the need to get them to embrace the techniques of placement to ensure more satisfactory and predictable outcomes


Sujets)
Nigeria , Réimplantation dentaire
17.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 13(3): 200-205, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1262922

Résumé

Background: Eclampsia is a recognized cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in North western Nigeria. It's a preventable obstetrics calamity were adequate antenatal care services are provided. Objective: To review medico-social characteristics of patients with eclampsia at a metropolitan Specialist Hospital in North-western Nigeria. Methodology: Eighty consecutive patients that presented with eclampsia at Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital were recruited for the study from 1st December, 2016 to 28th February, 2017. Data were collected using structured questionnaire, administered by research assistants. Information obtained included sociodemographic data, duration of fits before presentation and maternal-fetal outcome. Results: A total of 1931 patients delivered within the study period, among them 80 had eclampsia. This gives an incidence of 4.0%. Teenage pregnancy accounted for 35%. Forty-nine patients (61.2%) were primigravidae and up to 95% were booked. Majority of the patients 40(50%) had antepartum eclampsia while only 10(12.5%) had postpartum eclampsia. Most of the patients (73.8%) presented within 12 hours of convulsions and (87%) had vaginal delivery. There were 3 maternal deaths with case fatality rate of 3.8%. Live birth was achieved in 65%. Fresh still birth and Macerated still births were recorded in 20% and 12.5% respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of eclampsia is still high despite introduction of free maternity care services. Socio medical factors and poor quality of Antenatal Care services may be the contributing factors to development of eclampsia. There is need to review and improve the quality of antenatal care services offered at the primary health care centers


Sujets)
Cause de décès , Éclampsie , Décès maternel , Nigeria , Complications de la grossesse , Prise en charge prénatale
18.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 13(3): 193-199, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1262923

Résumé

Background: Prostate volume (PV) and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) have been consistently linked to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) disease progression especially when prostate volumes are >30mls and PSA>1.5ng/ml. PSA is produced by the ductal epithelial cells of the prostate. Understanding the natural history of prostate diseases requires knowledge of prostate volume and PSA. Objective: We set out to determine the correlation between prostate volume and PSA in our cohorts of men diagnosed with BPH. Methodology: Information from the case notes of 120 patients were retrieved including history, physical examination and result of relevant investigations. Data collated were analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 software. Results: Mean age of the patients was 64.95±9.22 years while mean PV and PSA were respectively 70.20±52.01mls and 4.58±3.32ng/ml. Correlation between PV and PSA was statistically significant: r=.407, P value was set at <.05. Conclusion: We concluded that PV and serum PSA levels have a direct relationship


Sujets)
Nigeria , Antigène spécifique de la prostate , Prostate/anatomie et histologie , Hyperplasie de la prostate
19.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 13(3): 206-213, 2020. ilus
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1262924

Résumé

Introduction: Dental treatment can produce iatrogenic injury to the tooth with endodontic procedural errors occurring during the various stages of endodontic treatment. This study determined the prevalence and pattern of endodontic accidents in clinical practice at a tertiary health center in Nigeria. Methodology: This was a retrospective study of teeth treated with conventional hand-held file systems. Digital peri-apical working length, pre-obturation and post obturation radiographic images of teeth which received root canal treatment, were assessed for the presence or absence of errors. All errors present were recorded and data analysis was done using IBM SPSS version 22.0. Results: The prevalence of procedural errors was 31.3% with ledges being the most prevalent error followed by transportation while gouging was the least encountered error. Majority (83.8%) of the errors occurred during root canal instrumentation. A higher proportion of molars had errors compared to the other types of teeth with the prevalence of errors increasing from incisors to premolars and then to molar teeth. The mandibular molars were found to be most frequently involved in procedural errors. Conclusion: The prevalence of procedural errors seems high. Practitioners should show greater care during the canal preparation stage and to maintain the accuracy of the working length throughout the procedure, as errors which occur during canal preparation accounted for the vast majority of errors seen in this study. Special care should be taken when working on molars, which had a significantly higher error rate when compared to anterior teeth or premolars


Sujets)
Services de santé buccodentaire , Implantation endodontique endo-osseuse , Maladie iatrogène , Erreurs médicales , Nigeria
20.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 13(3): 214-217, 2020.
Article Dans Anglais | AIM | ID: biblio-1262925

Résumé

Background: Open heart surgery program require enormous resources and commitment to establish. In low and middle income countries like Nigeria it is quite a difficult task. The surgery requires highly sophisticated equipment and specially trained professional teams. The training is done abroad and requires long term planning. Case report: We report two cases of two patients, aged 20 and 30-years diagnosed with Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) scheduled for surgical closure under general anaesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass carried out by a completely indigenous team. The anaesthetic management and the strategy necessary for developing a sustainable open heart program are discussed


Sujets)
Procédures de chirurgie cardiaque , Communications interauriculaires , Nigeria , Procédures de chirurgie opératoire
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