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A case of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 32 caused by MRPS34 gene variation and literature review / 中华儿科杂志
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 642-647, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985923
ABSTRACT

Objective:

To investigate the clinical features and genetic features of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 32 (COXPD32) caused by MRPS34 gene variation.

Methods:

The clinical data and genetic test of a child with COXPD32 hospitalized in the Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics in March 2021 were extracted and analyzed. A literature search was implemented using Wanfang, China biology medicine disc, China national knowledge infrastructure, ClinVar, human gene mutation database (HGMD) and Pubmed databases with the key words "MRPS34" "MRPS34 gene" and "combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 32" (up to February 2023). Clinical and genetic features of COXPD32 were summarized.

Results:

A boy aged 1 year and 9 months was admitted due to developmental delay. He showed mental and motor retardation, and was below the 3rd percentile for height, weight, and head circumference of children of the same age and gender. He had poor eye contact, esotropia, flat nasal bridge, limbs hypotonia, holding instability and tremors. In addition, Grade Ⅲ/6 systolic murmur were heard at left sternal border. Arterial blood gases suggested that severe metabolic acidosis with lactic acidosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple symmetrical abnormal signals in the bilateral thalamus, midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata. Echocardiography showed atrial septal defect. Genetic testing identified the patient as a compound heterozygous variation of MRPS34 gene, c.580C>T (p.Gln194Ter) and c.94C>T (p.Gln32Ter), with c.580C>T being the first report and a diagnosis of COXPD32. His parents carried a heterozygous variant, respectively. The child improved after treatment with energy support, acidosis correction, and "cocktail" therapy (vitaminB1, vitaminB2, vitaminB6, vitaminC and coenzyme Q10). A total of 8 cases with COXPD32 were collected through 2 English literature reviews and this study. Among the 8 patients, 7 cases had onset during infancy and 1 was unknown, all had developmental delay or regression, 7 cases had feeding difficulty or dysphagia, followed by dystonia, lactic acidosis, ocular symptoms, microcephaly, constipation and dysmorphic facies(mild coarsening of facial features, small forehead, anterior hairline extending onto forehead,high and narrow palate, thick gums, short columella, and synophrys), 2 cases died of respiratory and circulatory failure, and 6 were still alive at the time of reporting, with an age range of 2 to 34 years. Blood and (or) cerebrospinal fluid lactate were elevated in all 8 patients. MRI in 7 cases manifested symmetrical abnormal signals in the brainstem, thalamus, and (or) basal ganglia. Urine organic acid test were all normal but 1 patient had alanine elevation. Five patients underwent respiratory chain enzyme activity testing, and all had varying degrees of enzyme activity reduction. Six variants were identified, 6 patients were homozygous variants, with c.322-10G>A was present in 4 patients from 2 families and 2 compound heterozygous variants.

Conclusions:

The clinical phenotype of COXPD32 is highly heterogenous and the severity of the disease varies from development delay, feeding difficulty, dystonia, high lactic acid, ocular symptoms and reduced mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity in mild cases, which may survive into adulthood, to rapid death due to respiratory and circulatory failure in severe cases. COXPD32 needs to be considered in cases of unexplained acidosis, hyperlactatemia, feeding difficulties, development delay or regression, ocular symptoms, respiratory and circulatory failure, and symmetrical abnormal signals in the brainstem, thalamus, and (or) basal ganglia, and genetic testing can clarify the diagnosis.
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Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Acidosis, Lactic / Brain / Brain Stem / Dystonic Disorders / Mitochondrial Diseases / Dystonia Limits: Humans / Infant / Male Language: Chinese Journal: Chinese Journal of Pediatrics Year: 2023 Type: Article

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Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Acidosis, Lactic / Brain / Brain Stem / Dystonic Disorders / Mitochondrial Diseases / Dystonia Limits: Humans / Infant / Male Language: Chinese Journal: Chinese Journal of Pediatrics Year: 2023 Type: Article