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1.
Professional Psychology: Research and Practice ; : No Pagination Specified, 2021.
Article | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1550263

ABSTRACT

Survivors of prolonged hospitalization due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at risk for psychiatric symptoms that can interfere with rehabilitation and functional outcomes. We developed an inpatient and outpatient behavioral treatment program for COVID-19 patients. We describe the constellation of emotional symptoms we observed, the evolution of symptom presentation from the inpatient to the outpatient setting, and outline the challenges we faced and lessons we learned as we implemented cognitive-behavioral interventions to enhance functioning and decrease symptom burden. We highlight modifications to therapeutic techniques that we made for this population and discuss cultural considerations in our diverse patient population. Initial outcome data indicate that approximately two thirds of patients (66% in the inpatient setting, 65% in the outpatient setting) are discharged from our program without further psychiatric care. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to intensify and reports of "long-haul" symptoms accumulate among survivors, behavioral interventions to address psychiatric sequelae are paramount. Our approach and experience from the first wave of the pandemic has the potential to inform the development of behavioral treatment programs to mitigate psychiatric symptoms in this vulnerable population, as well as the response of mental health providers to future pandemics and public health emergencies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved) Impact Statement Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors are at high risk of psychiatric illness and often experience anxiety, isolation, demoralization, and guilt in the context of a sudden change in physical functioning and social/occupational roles, medical complications, and environmental stressors. We developed an inpatient and outpatient behavioral treatment program after which approximately two thirds of COVID-19 survivors did not require further psychiatric care. By noting some of the challenges we faced and by implementing cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness interventions, clinicians may be able to address the emotional needs of individuals recovering from COVID-19. Our approach may also inform how psychologists respond to future pandemics and public health emergencies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

2.
Psychology of Popular Media ; : No Pagination Specified, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1550262

ABSTRACT

Family life was greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, as members adjusted to living, working, and learning at home. Media and technology became a central tool to manage these activities simultaneously for different family members. This survey of 608 parents of 9- to 13-year-olds examines youth media use in this narrowly defined age group and also examines factors such as gender and parental worry about the pandemic. The vast majority of parents (83.7%) reported that their children were using media more during the COVID-19 pandemic than before. As with more use, parents reported varying purchases of media devices for the household, mobile devices for their children, and account creation in social media platforms for their children. Of the social media platforms available, parents most frequently allowed their tweens to create an account on TikTok (25%), followed by Facebook Messenger (23%) and Instagram (17%). On comparing girls and boys, it was found that significantly more girls than boys created TikTok accounts, whereas significantly more boys than girls created Instagram, Discord, and Twitter accounts. Established patterns of media use by gender before the pandemic were maintained. Boys continued to play video games, and girls watched videos. Because older tweens were more likely to already have social media accounts, we observed an influx of younger users on social media. In addition, parents who were more worried about the pandemic indicated their tween used media more overall and spent more time on a laptop or desktop computer than before the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved) Impact Statement During the COVID-19 pandemic, parents of tweens (9- to 13-years-olds) reported increased use of screen time for their children, creation of social media accounts for younger tweens, and purchases of new devices, even in media-saturated homes. Moreover, preexisting patterns of media use by gender continued. Parental worry about the pandemic was also related to overall media use for their children and their child's computer use more specifically. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
Dreaming ; : No Pagination Specified, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1550261

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the restrictive measures taken against the spread of the contagion can be considered as traumatic events having a major impact on mental health. Dreams after undergoing traumatic experiences could "replay" traumatic scenes or have a para-therapeutic role that facilitates connections between a traumatic event and associated emotions. However, the studies carried out thus far in the field of sleep and dreams during the COVID-19 pandemic have mostly focused on sleep disorders, emotional tones, and contents of dreams. The aim of the present study was to explore, from a qualitative-quantitative perspective, the contents of dreams and the functions of dreaming during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sample of 1,095 subjects who decide to recount their dreams, during the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak, was involved. A part of the Mannheim Dream questionnaire was also examined, considering both dream recall and the attitudes toward the dreams-both meaningful and transformative-as indicators of the dreaming process. A cluster analysis was performed on dream narratives through the T-Lab software. In all, 4 thematic clusters emerged: Escape From the Threat;The Work of Mourning, Unrecalled Dreams;COVID-19: As Manifest Content. The factorial mapping organized 3 vectors of meaning, representative of the function of dreaming: Remembering, Repeating, and Working Through;From Traumatic Content to Problem-Solving Strategy;From the Safe-Guardian of Sleep to the Safe-Guardian of Dream Waking continuity. The dreaming process shows functions of integration and processing of memories but also that a decrease in dream recall can act as a defense and have a crucial role in mental life. Clinical implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

4.
Clinical Psychology-Science and Practice ; 28(3):254-260, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1550260

ABSTRACT

The field of clinical geropsychology has advanced considerably over the past few decades to become a mature discipline and specialty field. Recently, the geropsychology community lost a revered leader, Dr. Michel Duffy, who led major advances in geropsychology training and practice. The current article honors the legacy of Dr. Duffy and traces the maturation of the field of clinical geropsychology, with particular focus on advances in professional guidelines and competencies, training and professional development, and service delivery. It is hoped that this review and tribute to Dr. Duffy promotes awareness of and interest in clinical geropsychology at a time of unprecedented need to meet the psychological and social needs of older adults following from the COVID-19 pandemic and associated psychological sequelae.

5.
Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres ; 126(22):20, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1550259

ABSTRACT

Black carbon (BC) plays an important role in climate and health sciences. Using the combination of a year real-time BC observation (photoacoustic extinctiometer) and data for PM2.5 and selected co-pollutants, we herein show that annual BC Mass concentration has a bi-modal distribution, in a cold-climate city of Montreal. In addition to the summer peak, a winter BC peak was observed (up to 0.433 mu g/m(3)), lasting over 3 months. A comparative study between two air pollution hotspots, downtown and Montreal international airport indicated that airborne average BC Mass concentration in downtown was 0.344 mu g/m(3), whereas in the residential areas around Montreal airport BC Mass values were over 400% higher (1.487 mu g/m(3)). During the numerous snowfall events, airborne BC Mass concentration decreased. High-resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the snow samples provided evidence that airborne BC particles or carbon nanomaterials were indeed transferred from polluted air to snow. During the COVID-19 lockdown, the BC concentration and selected co-pollutants, decreased up to 72%, confirming the predominance of anthropogenic activities in BC emission. This first cold-climate BC data set can be essential for more accurate air quality and climate modeling. About one-third of the Earth's land surface receive snow annually, the impact of this study on air quality, health and climate change is discussed.

6.
Crisis: Journal of Crisis Intervention & Suicide ; 03:03, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550258

ABSTRACT

Background: People who experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) were expected to have additional levels of psychological burden resulting from the stressful conditions imposed during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic;consequently, suicide rates may increase. Aim: We aimed to carry out continuous monitoring of suicide rates in the affected area following the GEJE under COVID-19 pandemic conditions. Method: This descriptive study monitored the suicide rates of the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture, where disaster-related mental health activities have been continuing following severe damage caused by the tsunami disaster. An exponential smoothing time-series analysis that converted suicide rates into a smooth trend was conducted. Results: Although the suicide rate in the affected area was higher than the national average in February 2020, it showed a declining trend during the COVID-19 pandemic, while showing an increase trend in the national and non-affected areas. Limitations: Uncertainty about the direct reasons for suicide and the short time-scale observation are the limitations of this study. Conclusion: Although the national suicide rate increased, this was not the case for the affected area. Our findings may provide important lessons for suicide prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic, which needs careful regional monitoring of the state of suicide and of high-risk approaches such as disaster-related mental health activities.

7.
European Journal of Psychology Open ; 80(3):133-142, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1550257

ABSTRACT

. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant and rapid shift from work in presence to remote work (RW). This rapid change represented a challenge for employees, who had to deal with new work procedures in houses often crowded with their children. This study investigated whether the engagement toward this work arrangement mediates the relationship between perceived overall job performance and employees' remote work productivity. Furthermore, it tested whether the relationships between perceived overall job performance and RW productivity as well as between RW engagement and RW productivity are moderated by living with children under 18. This quantitative, cross-sectional, study was conducted in an Italian municipality and involved a sample of employees who started to work remotely after the spread of the pandemic. A total of 171 public servants answered an online questionnaire. Regression analysis showed a significant relationship between perceived overall job performance and RW productivity and the mediation of this relationship by RW engagement. The moderation role of living with minor children was confirmed, although this modulation mechanism had two opposite effects on the tested relationships. On the whole, the results suggest that HR professionals and organizations need to develop support policies that take into account employees' specific characteristics.

8.
Zeitschrift fur Neuropsychologie ; 32(4):179-180, 2021.
Article in German | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550256
9.
Zeitschrift fur Neuropsychologie ; 32(4):195-221, 2021.
Article in German | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550255

ABSTRACT

Following infections with coronaviruses (e.g., SARS-CoV-2;COVID-19;ICD10: U07) and associated concomitant and secondary diseases, recovered individuals frequently report cognitive, emotional, and motivational complaints. The clinical presentation is complex and typically includes decreased resilience, fatigue, attention and memory impairment as well as executive dysfunction. Persistent functional disorders have been described as part of a "long - / post - COVID"syndrome. After reviewing relevant biomedical information, we associate neuropsychological disorders with pertinent pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical syndromes and derive implications for neuropsychological assessment and therapy. In the context of "Neuro - COVID"rehabilitation, neuropsychology contributes significantly to defining effect criteria and treatment needs in patient subgroups, to predict disease courses and treatment outcomes, and to improve decision-making in the context of treatment scheduling. © 2021 The Author(s).

10.
Zeitschrift fur Neuropsychologie ; 32(4):223-228, 2021.
Article in German | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550254

ABSTRACT

Neuropsychological and comorbid mental disorders can occur following a COVID-19 infection. In this context, the long-term consequences of a COVID-19 infection are gaining increasing attention. This case report presents a 36-year-old female patient who complained of impaired cognitive functions and symptoms of mental illness after a COVID-19 infection. Based on previous research, it is plausible that the COVID-19 infection caused her to suffer from neuropsychological disorders as well as from symptoms of a bodily distress disorder. The neuropsychological symptoms comprised impairments of attentional performance and executive functions. © 2021 The Author(s).

11.
Journal of the American Chemical Society ; 03:03, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550253

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) is a validated antiviral drug target of SARS-CoV-2. A number of Mpro inhibitors have now advanced to animal model study and human clinical trials. However, one issue yet to be addressed is the target selectivity over host proteases such as cathepsin L. In this study we describe the rational design of covalent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors with novel cysteine reactive warheads including dichloroacetamide, dibromoacetamide, tribromoacetamide, 2-bromo-2,2-dichloroacetamide, and 2-chloro-2,2-dibromoacetamide. The promising lead candidates Jun9-62-2R (dichloroacetamide) and Jun9-88-6R (tribromoacetamide) had not only potent enzymatic inhibition and antiviral activity but also significantly improved target specificity over caplain and cathepsins. Compared to GC-376, these new compounds did not inhibit the host cysteine proteases including calpain I, cathepsin B, cathepsin K, cathepsin L, and caspase-3. To the best of our knowledge, they are among the most selective covalent Mpro inhibitors reported thus far. The cocrystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with Jun9-62-2R and Jun9-57-3R reaffirmed our design hypothesis, showing that both compounds form a covalent adduct with the catalytic C145. Overall, these novel compounds represent valuable chemical probes for target validation and drug candidates for further development as SARS-CoV-2 antivirals.

12.
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550252

ABSTRACT

Growing concern about the supply of goods under the COVID pandemic due to border restrictions and community lockdown has made us aware of the limitations of the global supply chain. Fertilizers are pivotal for the growth and welfare of humankind, and there is more than a century of history in industrial technology. Ammonia is the key platform chemical here which can be chemically diversified to all kinds of fertilizers. This article puts a perspective on production technologies that can enable a supply of ammonia locally and on-demand in Australia, for the farmers to produce resilient and self-sustained fertilizers. To assess the validity of such a new business model, multiobjective optimization has to be undergone, and computing is the solution to rank the millions of possible solutions. In this lieu, an economic optimization framework for the Australian ammonia supply chain is presented. The model seeks to address the economic potential of distributed ammonia plants across Australia. Different techniques for hydrogen and related ammonia production such as thermal plasma, nonthermal plasma, and electrolysis (all typifying technology disruption), and mini Haber-Bosch (typifying scale disruption) are benchmarked to the central mega plant on a world-scale using conventional technology, verifying that "Moore's Law"(Mack, C. A. IEEE Trans. 2011, 24 (2), 202-207) of growing bigger and bigger is not the only path to sustainable agriculture. Results show that ammonia can be produced at $317/ton at a regional scale using thermal plasma hydrogen generation which could be competitive to the conventional production model, if credit in terms of lead time and carbon footprint could be taken into account. © 2021 American Chemical Society.

13.
ACS Omega ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550251

ABSTRACT

Efficient COVID-19 vaccines are widely acknowledged as the best way to end the global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) plays fundamental roles related to cell infection. Antibodies could be developed to target RBD and represent a potential approach for the neutralization of the virus. Epitopes used to produce antibodies are generally linear peptides and thus possess multiple confirmations that do not reflect the actual topology of the targeted part in the native protein. On the other hand, macrocyclic epitopes could constitute closer mimics of the native protein topology and, as such, could generate superior antibodies. In this study, we demonstrated the vital effect of the size and the three-dimensional shape of epitopes on the activity of the developed antibodies against the RBD of SARS-CoV-2. The molecular dynamics studies showed the greater stability of the cyclic epitopes compared with the linear counterparts, which was reflected in the affinity of the produced antibodies. The antibodies developed using macrocyclic epitopes showed superiority with respect to binding to RBD compared to antibodies formed from linear peptides. This study constitutes a roadmap for developing superior antibodies that could be used to inhibit the activity of SARS-CoV-2. ©

14.
ACS Infectious Diseases ; 02:02, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550250

ABSTRACT

The spike protein (S-protein) of SARS-CoV-2, the protein that enables the virus to infect human cells, is the basis for many vaccines and a hotspot of concerning virus evolution. Here, we discuss the outstanding progress in structural characterization of the S-protein and how these structures facilitate analysis of virus function and evolution. We emphasize the differences in reported structures and that analysis of structure-function relationships is sensitive to the structure used. We show that the average residue solvent exposure in nearly complete structures is a good descriptor of open vs closed conformation states. Because of structural heterogeneity of functionally important surface-exposed residues, we recommend using averages of a group of high-quality protein structures rather than a single structure before reaching conclusions on specific structure-function relationships. To illustrate these points, we analyze some significant chemical tendencies of prominent S-protein mutations in the context of the available structures. In the discussion of new variants, we emphasize the selectivity of binding to ACE2 vs prominent antibodies rather than simply the antibody escape or ACE2 affinity separately. We note that larger chemical changes, in particular increased electrostatic charge or side-chain volume of exposed surface residues, are recurring in mutations of concern, plausibly related to adaptation to the negative surface potential of human ACE2. We also find indications that the fixated mutations of the S-protein in the main variants are less destabilizing than would be expected on average, possibly pointing toward a selection pressure on the S-protein. The richness of available structures for all of these situations provides an enormously valuable basis for future research into these structure-function relationships.

15.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1550249

ABSTRACT

First cases that point at a correlation between SARS-CoV-2 infections and the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been reported. Currently, it is unclear if there is also a direct causal link between these diseases. To obtain first insights into a possible molecular relation between viral infections and the aggregation of α-synuclein protein into amyloid fibrils characteristic for PD, we investigated the effect of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 proteins on α-synuclein aggregation. We show, in test tube experiments, that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-protein) has no effect on α-synuclein aggregation, while SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N-protein) considerably speeds up the aggregation process. We observe the formation of multiprotein complexes and eventually amyloid fibrils. Microinjection of N-protein in SH-SY5Y cells disturbed the α-synuclein proteostasis and increased cell death. Our results point toward direct interactions between the N-protein of SARS-CoV-2 and α-synuclein as molecular basis for the observed correlation between SARS-CoV-2 infections and Parkinsonism.

16.
ACS Central Science ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550248
17.
ACS Central Science ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550247

ABSTRACT

Antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have yet to translate to the clinic because of poor cellular uptake, limited solubility, and rapid elimination. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) covalently attached to PNAs may facilitate clinical development by improving uptake into cells. We report an efficient technology that utilizes a fully automated fast-flow instrument to manufacture CPP-conjugated PNAs (PPNAs) in a single shot. The machine is rapid, with each amide bond being formed in 10 s. Anti-IVS2-654 PPNA synthesized with this instrument presented threefold activity compared to transfected PNA in a splice-correction assay. We demonstrated the utility of this approach by chemically synthesizing eight anti-SARS-CoV-2 PPNAs in 1 day. A PPNA targeting the 5′ untranslated region of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA reduced the viral titer by over 95% in a live virus infection assay (IC50 = 0.8 μM). Our technology can deliver PPNA candidates to further investigate their potential as antiviral agents. ©

18.
J Phys Chem B ; 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1550245

ABSTRACT

We have applied our advanced multicanonical molecular dynamics (McMD)-based dynamic docking methodology to investigate the binding mechanism of an HIV-1 Nef protein epitope to the Asian-dominant allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*2402. Even though pMHC complex formation [between a Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule, which is encoded by an HLA allele, and an antigen peptide] is one of the fundamental processes of the adaptive human immune response, its binding mechanism has not yet been well studied, partially due to the high allelic variation of HLAs in the population. We have used our developed McMD-based dynamic docking method and have successfully reproduced the native complex structure, which is located near the free energy global minimum. Subsequent path sampling MD simulations elucidated the atomic details of the binding process and indicated that the peptide binding is initially driven by the highly positively charged N-terminus of the peptide that is attracted to the various negatively charged residues on the MHC molecule's surface. Upon nearing the pocket, the second tyrosine residue of the peptide anchors the peptide by strongly binding to the B-site of the MHC molecule via hydrophobic driven interactions, resulting in a very strong bound complex structure. Our methodology can be effectively used to predict the bound complex structures between MHC molecules and their antigens to study their binding mechanism in close detail, which would help with the development of new vaccines against cancers, as well as viral infections such as HIV and COVID-19.

19.
Journal of Chemical Theory & Computation ; 03:03, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550243

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is known that the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, initiating the entry of SARS-CoV-2. Since its emergence, a number of SARS-CoV-2 variants have been reported, and the variants that show high infectivity are classified as variants of concern according to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In this study, we performed both all-atom steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations and microscale thermophoresis (MST) experiments to characterize the binding interactions between ACE2 and RBD of all current variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta) and two variants of interest (Epsilon and Kappa). We report that RBD of the Alpha (N501Y) variant requires the highest amount of force initially to be detached from ACE2 due to the N501Y mutation in addition to the role of N90-glycan, followed by Beta/Gamma (K417N/T, E484 K, and N501Y) or Delta (L452R and T478 K) variants. Among all variants investigated in this work, RBD of the Epsilon (L452R) variant is relatively easily detached from ACE2. Our results from both SMD simulations and MST experiments indicate what makes each variant more contagious in terms of RBD and ACE2 interactions. This study could shed light on developing new drugs to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry effectively.

20.
Journal of Chemical Education ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550242

ABSTRACT

In the Spring 2021 Organic Chemistry Lab class at Penn State Schuylkill, COVID-19 restrictions and uncertainty required a flexible plan. The first 4 weeks of 15 were fully remote, and videos of standard organic techniques were used, followed by an exam. In the next 5 weeks, some students were in the lab and some were remote. A document camera was used to show one of the in-class students carrying out reaction experiments, mistakes and all, and this was broadcast to the remote students. In the final 6 weeks, the in-class students did a research project, report, and short presentation. The remote students were given a new literature project in which they were each assigned a process research chemistry paper from Organic Process Research and Development. They gave a longer presentation on the process used to prepare a drug. All three parts of the course are discussed in this paper. © 2021 American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.

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