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1.
Frontiers in Education ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2039666

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions in educational systems;hence, educators have developed innovative ways to address this new reality. Around the world, many adult education programs try to reach women who could not complete their education because of poverty and sociocultural issues, such as patriarchal barriers. COVID-19 was especially challenging for such lifelong learning programs because they operate with limited technological resources and work with learners with weaker digital proficiencies. In this paper, we describe how we rapidly adapted our face-to-face empowerment program for women to remote learning despite technological limitations. We also discuss the outcomes as evaluated by pre- and post-tests, participant observations and interviews. We finish by summarizing the successes and challenges of addressing this new reality in education. Copyright © 2022 Durgunoğlu, Cantürk, Kaya, Yazıcı and Şahin.

2.
Cogent Business & Management ; 9(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2031995

ABSTRACT

Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) ratings are widely recognised methods to assess the sustainability practices of corporations. However, the scores of these ratings are not satisfactory in emerging market economies. This study examines the financial factors that influence ESG ratings regarding public listed companies on the FTSE4 Good Bursa Malaysia Index (F4GBM Index). This paper uses static and dynamic Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) techniques to analyse the data of 31 public listed companies on the F4GBM Index and reported full ESG ratings data for the period 2007-2016. To utilise the maximum number of observations by avoiding the missing data and outlier due to COVID-19, this study applied the sample data up to 2016. Using the two-step system dynamic GMM estimator, such results indicate that highly profitable Malaysian companies enjoy a higher score for ESG overall ratings as well as all three individual ratings. Poorer credit management diminishes the environmental ratings, yet increases overall scores such as the social and governance scores. Companies with higher leverage have a weaker social, governance and overall score, but a higher environmental rating. Finally, companies eliciting a higher sustainable growth rate have weak governance and overall scores. This study provides empirical evidence that will be useful to capital market investors, management teams of these companies and policymakers in their efforts to promote responsible investment in Malaysian public listed companies in line with UN-PRI policy.

4.
Health Science Reports ; 5(5), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2030977

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims The COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant change in sedentary behaviors have had immense health, economic, and social implications globally. As governments worldwide imposed lockdowns and curfews, the amount of time spent indoors greatly increased. This lead to a dramatic change in physical activity (PA) levels and profound consequences on daily routines. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of PA during the COVID-19 pandemic among adults residing in Saudi Arabia. Methods This cross-sectional survey-based study aimed to investigate patterns of PA during the COVID-19 pandemic among adults residing in Saudi Arabia. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was utilized to measure participants' PA levels between April 2021 and May 2021. Participants were then classified into three groups according to their PA level, and their PA levels and sedentary behaviors were analyzed. Results We surveyed 463 participants, 315 (68%) of which were female and 134 (32%) of which were male with a median age of 23 (interquartile range, 21-35) years. Moderate-to-high PA was reported by 257 (55.7%) of the participants. There was a significant decrease in PA during the COVID-19 pandemic and resultant lockdowns among the participants (p = 0.04), with higher rates of sedentary behavior among males than females (p = 0.14). Conclusions The decline in PA is a profound challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic that needs to be addressed by health practitioners and policymakers. Our study highlights the decline in PA levels seen during the COVID-19 pandemic and the importance of promotional programs and interventions to increase PA among the Saudi Arabian population without compromising the essential health restrictions and social distancing.

5.
ADVANCES IN DATA SCIENCE AND INTELLIGENT DATA COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR COVID-19: Innovative Solutions Against COVID-19 ; 378:77-91, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2030859

ABSTRACT

System of systems is a compilation of systems that focus on a specific task or a system by combining multiple resources to create complicated task-oriented or dedicated systems that combine their resources and skills to develop a new, more complicated system with higher capability and performance than the individual systems. The paper will define the System of Systems in terms of its architecture and the importance of having a System of System;then, it will define Covid-19's spread and effect on economics. After that, it will describe System of Systems in the medical sector as a case study in terms of mitigating Covid-19 and the challenges. Finally, the solutions are provided, where different applications can be combined to operate in real-time and assist the government agencies and medical staff in operating effectively.

7.
ADVANCES IN DATA SCIENCE AND INTELLIGENT DATA COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR COVID-19: Innovative Solutions Against COVID-19 ; 378:17-40, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2030724

ABSTRACT

Technology plays a vital role in our lives, and its role magnifies in crises like the COVID-19 pandemic. Technology reduced the effects of lockdown by helping in education, healthcare, industry sectors. This book chapter introduces an innovative system that uses contemporary machine learning techniques to stop the COVID-19 virus outbreak. This system provides guidance and awareness for individuals through chatbot, initial diagnosis for COVID-19 using chest X-ray. Moreover, it gives predictions for COVID-19 new cases. The proposed system can help individual and national healthcare systems curtailing the COVID-19 pandemic by offering chatbot about symptoms, precautions, and safety measures in early detection for COVID-19 cases. The developed system Predict chest X-ray for new coronavirus new case and the similar diagnosis symptoms to support governments by automatically reports for the future of the pandemic and helping the decision-makers make better decisions in quarantine lockdown.

8.
Science Advances ; 8(37):eabo5400, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029457

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces mild or asymptomatic COVID-19 in most cases, but some patients develop an excessive inflammatory process that can be fatal. As the NLRP3 inflammasome and additional inflammasomes are implicated in disease aggravation, drug repositioning to target inflammasomes emerges as a strategy to treat COVID-19. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening using a 2560 small-molecule compound library and identified FDA-approved drugs that function as pan-inflammasome inhibitors. Our best hit, niclosamide (NIC), effectively inhibits both inflammasome activation and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Mechanistically, induction of autophagy by NIC partially accounts for inhibition of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, but NIC-mediated inhibition of NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome are autophagy independent. NIC potently inhibited inflammasome activation in human monocytes infected in vitro, in PBMCs from patients with COVID-19, and in vivo in a mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study provides relevant information regarding the immunomodulatory functions of this promising drug for COVID-19 treatment.

9.
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing ; 13:13, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029019

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The outbreak of COVID-19 was potentially stressful for everyone, and possibly heightened in those having surgery. We sought to explore the impact of the pandemic on recovery from cardiac surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective observational study of 196 patients who were >=18years old undergoing cardiac surgery between 23rd March and 4th July 2020 (UK lockdown) was conducted. Those too unwell or unable to give consent/complete the questionnaires were excluded. Participants completed (on paper or electronically) the impact of event (IES-R) (distress related to COVID-19), depression (CES-D) and EQ-5D-5L (quality of life, HRQoL) questionnaires at baseline, one week after hospital discharge, and six weeks, six months and 1-year post-surgery.Questionnaire completion was >75.0% at all timepoints, except at one week (67.3%). Most participants were male (147 (75.0%)), white British (156 (79.6%)) with an average age 63.4years. No patients had COVID-19. IES-R sand CES-D were above average at baseline (indicating higher levels of anxiety and depression) decreasing over time. HRQoL pre-surgery was high, reducing at one week but increasing to almost pre-operative levels at six weeks, and exceeding pre-operative levels at six months and 1-year. IES-R and CES-D scores were consistently higher in women and younger patients with women also having poorer HRQoL up to 1-year after surgery. CONCLUSION: High levels of distress were observed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic with women and younger participants particularly affected. Psychological support pre- and post-operatively in further crises or traumatic times, should be considered to aid recovery. REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov ID:NCT04366167.

10.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 18(4):67-75, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026812

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study examined the factors that influence healthcare workers’ decisions regarding COVID-19 vaccines’ acceptability in Jordan. It also examined the impact of perceived risks of the vaccine on healthcare workers’ decisions toward accepting it. Methods: Jordanian healthcare workers in governmental and private hospitals completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire. Results: A total of 904 respondents (age, 35.04 ± 9.07 years) completed the survey. The results indicate that most participants (88.9%) were at risk of contracting COVID-19, and many (51.4%) were afraid of contracting it. Moreover, 48.3% of healthcare professionals stated they would get vaccinated against COVID-19. Furthermore, most of the healthcare workers in this study perceived the vaccine as neither safe nor effective and that it could have serious side effects. At last, in terms of afraid of contracting COVID-19, the gender of the healthcare worker and his/her profession was identified to be the most influential factors in the decision to accept the vaccine. Conclusion: Our findings emphasize the ongoing need for government agencies to provide accurate and consistent information that is essential in developing trust in the vaccination program. Nurses can lead campaigns to inform the healthcare workers about the efficacy, safety, and the impact of COVID-19 vaccine in limiting the spread of this pandemic among them. We recommend that nursing council lead these efforts to improve knowledge about the vaccine and its impact on the safety of the healthcare workers and the public. © 2022 UPM Press. All rights reserved.

11.
Revista Electronica de Investigacion Educativa ; 24, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026306

ABSTRACT

Given the exceptional circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic and the problems faced in conducting mass student examinations, this article explores alternatives to an in-person exam to select candidates hoping to gain admission to higher education institutions, based on available information about students and their schools. Census-based information on entrance evaluations for six annual cohorts is used to obtain a predictive model that incorporates candidates’ average grades and the historical performance of their schools of origin, measured through EXANI II. The results allow us to identify a model able to correlate to.69 the estimated and actual scores;additional scenarios were proposed with greater levels of prediction (r =.86). A discussion is offered on the implications of using high school grades, in light of their power to predict academic performance in higher education © 2022. Revista Electronica de Investigacion Educativa.All Rights Reserved.

12.
International Transaction Journal of Engineering Management & Applied Sciences & Technologies ; 13(8), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2025681

ABSTRACT

The Electronic Clinical Pharmacologist (ECP) is a Medical Decision Support System (MDSS). This system is based on the Unified Medical Knowledge Base (UMKB), which is updated and updated as new medicines are released and specialized publications are published in peer-reviewed biomedical scientific journals. ECP helps to reduce the risks of medical errors and complications in clinical practice. When using ECP, the number of side effects from the use of medicines decreases, the patient's admission time is reduced, the quality of medical care is improved, the costs of the medical organization for the purchase of medicines are reduced, all this is carried out due to more rational prescriptions of the doctor. The ECP takes into account the personalized approach of drug therapy. Based on Stavropol State Medical University and medical universities of the North Caucasus Federal District, a questionnaire of students was conducted among students of 3-6 courses, as well as testing of the ECP application to compare treatment standards (clinical recommendations) according to the clinical recommendations of the Ministry of Health (outpatient, inpatient treatment) and self-treatment of students and their relatives. And patterns of changes in the course of treatment were also revealed when using MDSS ECP and without it. (C) 2022 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH.

13.
International Transaction Journal of Engineering Management & Applied Sciences & Technologies ; 13(8), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2025680

ABSTRACT

This scientific article describes various neurological problems faced by patients with coronavirus infection. The article also contains information of a recommendatory nature for the treatment of cognitive disorders. In particular, the effective positive effect of the popular drug citicoline is described. According to various clinical studies, citicoline provides a statistically significant moderate but stable improvement in memory and helps to reduce the severity of behavioral disorders in patients with cognitive disorders of various etiologies. (C) 2022 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH.

14.
Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome ; 05:05, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025339

ABSTRACT

Background: Observational analyses have noted an association between obesity and poor clinical outcome from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The mechanism for this finding remains unclear. Methods: We analyzed data from 22,915 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in non-intensive care units using the American Heart Association National COVID Registry of adult COVID-19 admissions from March 2020 to April 2021. A multivariable Poisson model adjusted for age, sex, medical history, admission respiratory status, hospitalization characteristics, and select laboratory findings was used to calculate length of stay (LOS) as a function of body mass index (BMI) category. Additionally, 5,327 patients admitted to intensive care units were similarly analyzed for comparison. Results: Relative to normal BMI subjects, overweight, class I obese, and class II obese patients had approximately half-day reductions in LOS (-0.469 days, P<0.01;-0.480 days, P<0.01;-0.578 days, P<0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The model identified a dose-dependent, inverse relationship between BMI category and LOS for COVID-19, which was not seen when the model was applied to critically ill patients.

15.
Comparative Research on Educational Policy Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Eastern vs. Western Perspectives ; : 68-90, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024487

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which emerged at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, China, has affected the whole world. In this study, research was conducted on university students who received both distance and face-to-face education. Students' views on distance education activities were discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the distance education process for students were asked. This study aims to make determinations and to obtain detailed information to increase the quality of e-learning in the following periods. Suggestions will be made to increase the quality of education processes for the future periods. It is thought that the results obtained can contribute to the literature, and also it is useful for institutions and decision makers. © 2022, IGI Global.

16.
Cases on Emerging Market Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic ; : 90-109, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024472

ABSTRACT

This chapter discusses the impact of COVID-19 on the Chinese aviation industry. Specifically, China Southern Airlines (CSAIR) was chosen as a focal airline company, from which its approach and strategies in dealing with various challenges and difficulties brought by COVID-19 was investigated and analyzed. Challenges that airline companies faced during pandemic include a decline in traffic volume, operation funds shortage, and uncertain situations and difficulties in making predictions. The case starts with introducing general impact of COVID-19 on airline industry, followed by delineating regulations from the industry as prevention and control of the pandemic situation. It identifies several pathways to civil aviation industry recovery, namely group standard measures, fleet storage, domestic passengers flight operation, and transition to cargo flight. © 2022, IGI Global.

17.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022971

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveWe assessed the associations of family wellbeing with verifying and subsequently forwarding COVID-19-related information to family members and the mediating effect of the quality of family communication on these associations among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. MethodsUnder the Jockey Club SMART Family-Link Project, we conducted an online population-based survey, using Family wellbeing Scale and questions related to the family communication quality and forwarding and verifying COVID-19 information. Data were collected from 4,891 adults in May 2020. Prevalence estimates of forwarding and verifying COVID-19 information were weighted by sex, age, and education of the general population, and their associations with family wellbeing (ranged 0-10) were analyzed using generalized linear models with mutual adjustment. Their interactive effects on family wellbeing and the mediating effects of family communication quality were examined. ResultsIn total, 53.9% of respondents usually/always forwarded COVID-19 information related to their family, 68.7% usually/always verified it before forwarding, and 40.9% did both. Greater family wellbeing was associated with usually/always forwarding [adjusted beta (95% CI): 0.82 (0.72-0.92)] and usually/always verifying [0.43 (0.32-0.55)] (both P < 0.001) the information. Forwarding and verifying such information showed an additive effect on family wellbeing [1.25 (1.11-1.40)]. Family communication quality mediated the associations of family wellbeing with forwarding (83.7%) and verifying (86.6%) COVID-19-related information. ConclusionForwarding COVID-19 information to family, verifying such information, and especially doing both, were associated with greater family wellbeing, being strongly mediated by the quality of family communication. Individuals should be encouraged to verify COVID-19-related information before forwarding it to family members amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022927

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThe duties, discipline cross-complementation, and work stress of professional staff during the COVID-19 pandemic are analyzed and summarized to provide a scientific basis for workforce allocation and reserve in respect of infectious disease prevention and control in the disease prevention and control (DPC) system. MethodThe cross-sectional survey was made in April-May 2021 on professional staff in the Beijing DPC system by way of typical + cluster sampling. A total of 1,086 staff were surveyed via electronic questionnaire, which was independently designed by the Study Group and involves three dimensions, i.e., General Information, Working Intensity & Satisfaction, and Need for Key Capacity Building. This paper focuses on the former two dimensions: General Information, Working Intensity, and Satisfaction. The information collected is stored in a database built with Microsoft Excel 2010 and analyzed statistically with SPSS 22.0. The results are expressed in absolute quantities and proportions. Assuming that the overload of work stress is brought by incremental duties and cross-discipline tasks, a binary logistic regression model is constructed. ResultsAmong the 1086 staff surveyed, 1032 staff were engaged in COVID-19 prevention and control works, and they can be roughly divided into two groups by their disciplines: Public Health and Preventive Medicine (hereinafter referred to P, 637 staff, as 61.72%) and Non-Public Health and Preventive Medicine (hereinafter referred to N-P, 395 staff, as 38.28%). During the COVID-19 pandemic, the 1,032 staff assumed a total of 2239 duties, that is, 2.17 per person (PP), or 2.45 PP for the P group and 1.72 PP for the N-P group. As to four categories of duties, i.e., Spot Epidemiological Investigation and Sampling, Information Management and Analysis, On-site Disposal, Prevention, Control Guidance, and Publicity, the P group accounts for 76.14, 78.50, 74.74, and 57.66%, respectively, while the N-P group accounts for 23.86, 21.50, 25.26, and 42.34%, respectively. Obviously, the former proportions are higher than the latter proportions. The situation is the opposite of the Sample Detection and Other Works, where the P group accounts for 25.00 and 31.33%, respectively, while the N-P group accounts for 75.00 and 68.67%, respectively. The analysis of work stress reveals that the P group and N-P group have similar proportions in view of full load work stress, being 48.67 and 50.13%, respectively, and the P group shows a proportion of 34.38% in view of overload work stress, apparently higher than the N-P group (24.05%). Moreover, both groups indicate their work stresses are higher than the pre-COVID-19 period levels. According to the analysis of work stress factors, the duty quantity and cross-discipline tasks are statistically positively correlated with the probability of overload work stress. ConclusionThe front-line staff in the DPC system involved in the COVID-19 prevention and control primarily fall in the category of Public Health and Preventive Medicine discipline. The P group assumes the most duties, and the N-P group serves as an important cross-complement. The study results indicate that the prevention and control of same-scale epidemic require the duty post setting at least twice than usual. As to workforce recruitment, allocation, and reserve in respect of the DPC system, two solutions are optional: less addition of P staff, or more addition of N-P staff. A balance between P and N-P staff that enables the personnel composition to accommodate both routine DPC and unexpected epidemic needs to be further discussed.

19.
Frontiers in Medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022771

ABSTRACT

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, quantifying the condition of positively diagnosed patients is of paramount importance. Chest CT scans can be used to measure the severity of a lung infection and the isolate involvement sites in order to increase awareness of a patient's disease progression. In this work, we developed a deep learning framework for lung infection severity prediction. To this end, we collected a dataset of 232 chest CT scans and involved two public datasets with an additional 59 scans for our model's training and used two external test sets with 21 scans for evaluation. On an input chest Computer Tomography (CT) scan, our framework, in parallel, performs a lung lobe segmentation utilizing a pre-trained model and infection segmentation using three distinct trained SE-ResNet18 based U-Net models, one for each of the axial, coronal, and sagittal views. By having the lobe and infection segmentation masks, we calculate the infection severity percentage in each lobe and classify that percentage into 6 categories of infection severity score using a k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) model. The lobe segmentation model achieved a Dice Similarity Score (DSC) in the range of [0.918, 0.981] for different lung lobes and our infection segmentation models gained DSC scores of 0.7254 and 0.7105 on our two test sets, respectfully. Similarly, two resident radiologists were assigned the same infection segmentation tasks, for which they obtained a DSC score of 0.7281 and 0.6693 on the two test sets. At last, performance on infection severity score over the entire test datasets was calculated, for which the framework's resulted in a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 0.505 +/- 0.029, while the resident radiologists' was 0.571 +/- 0.039.

20.
Bmc Infectious Diseases ; 22(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2021249

ABSTRACT

Background Variant of concern (VOC) SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant (B.1.1.7) was the dominant strain in the Netherlands between March 2021-June 2021. We describe three primary school outbreaks due to the alpha variant using whole genome sequencing with evidence of large-scale transmission among children, teachers and their household contacts. Method All outbreaks described were investigated by the South Limburg Public Health Service, the Netherlands. A case was defined as an individual with a real-time polymerase chain reaction test or antigen test positive for SARS-CoV-2. Whole genome sequencing was performed on random samples from at least one child and one teacher of each affected class. Results Peak attack rates in classes were 53%, 33% and 39%, respectively. Specific genotypes were identified for each school across a majority of affected classes. Attack rates were high among staff members, likely to promote staff-to-children transmission. Cases in some classes were limited to children, indicating child-to-child transmission. At 39%, the secondary attack rate (SAR) in household contacts of infected children was remarkably high, similar to SAR in household contacts of staff members (42%). SAR of household contacts of asymptomatic children was only 9%. Conclusion Our findings suggest increased transmissibility of the alpha variant in children compared to preceding non-VOC variants, consistent with a substantial rise in the incidence of cases observed in primary schools and children aged 5-12 since the alpha variant became dominant in March 2021. Lack of mandatory masking, insufficient ventilation and lack of physical distancing also probably contributed to the school outbreaks. The rise of the delta variant (B.1.617.2) since July 2021 which is estimated to be 55% more transmissible than the alpha variant, provides additional urgency to adequate infection prevention in school settings.

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