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Chest ; 162(4):A692-A693, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060669


SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection ranges from asymptomatic to severe disease as defined by WHO. Emerging fungal infections such as mucormycosis and aspergillosis have been described in critically ill patients, most notably in India, when treated with steroids due to severe COVID-19 [1]. We present a unique case of an atypical presentation of mucormycosis in a non-severe COVID-19 patient not treated with corticosteroids. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year-old male with type 1 diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency room for evaluation of shortness of breath, nausea and fatigue. History was significant for insulin noncompliance with home blood glucose in the 300s and a positive COVID-19 test one day prior to arrival. Initial vitals positive for tachycardia, tachypnea and hypertension while on room air. Labs showed leukocytosis 14,000 cells/uL, bicarbonate 7.2 mmol/L, anion gap 24.8, glucose 428 mg/dL, beta-hydroxybutyrate 58 mg/dL and nucleic acid amplification COVID-19 positive. Physical exam showed left eyelid and facial swelling, nasal congestion without sinus tenderness or other deformity, and kussmaul breathing pattern. CT face confirmed left periorbital cellulitis. Transfer to tertiary center for Ophthalmology evaluation was attempted but refused due to capacity. He was started on diabetic ketoacidosis treatment as well as broad spectrum antibiotics with the assistance of Infectious Disease, however COVID-19 treatments were held due to mild illness. Despite these interventions, he became stuporous and amphotericin was started. MR Brain showed findings suggestive of cavernous sinus thrombosis, acute ischemia and local mass effect. ENT then performed an endoscopic antrostomy with ethmoidectomy and biopsies were taken. Pathology resulted as invasive fungal sinusitis with 90° branching hyphae confirming mucormycosis and a lumbar drain was placed with intrathecal amphotericin started for concern of mucormycosis meningitis. The patient was ultimately transferred to a tertiary care center where he expired. DISCUSSION: Mucormycosis, an angioinvasive fungal infection affecting the immunocompromised and diabetics, is rare but deadly. The estimated prevalence in the United States is 0.16 per 10,000 hospital discharges [2] and bears a mortality rate of 46%. Recent systematic reviews report 275 cases of COVID associated mucormycosis with 233 in India [1] with 76.3% receiving corticosteroids prior to diagnosis [3], likely contributing to an immunocompromised state. Our case demonstrates that despite not receiving corticosteroids, even those with mild COVID-19 are at risk for this disease. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diabetes, immunocompromised states, and now COVID-19, presenting with orbital symptoms warrant consideration of mucormycosis. Prompt management of the underlying condition, IV amphotericin, and possible debridement may increase survival. Reference #1: John TM, Jacob CN, Kontoyiannis DP. When Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus and Severe COVID-19 Converge: The Perfect Storm for Mucormycosis. J Fungi (Basel). 2021 Apr 15;7(4):298. doi: 10.3390/jof7040298. PMID: 33920755;PMCID: PMC8071133. Reference #2: Kontoyiannis DP, Yang H, Song J, et al. Prevalence, clinical and economic burden of mucormycosis-related hospitalizations in the United States: a retrospective study. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16(1):730. Published 2016 Dec 1. doi:10.1186/s12879-016-2023-z Reference #3: Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, Misra A. Mucormycosis in COVID-19: A systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2021 Jul-Aug;15(4):102146. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.019. Epub 2021 May 21. PMID: 34192610;PMCID: PMC8137376 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by james abraham No relevant relationships by christian ALMANZAR ZORRILLA No relevant relationships by Grace Johnson No relevant relationships by Thanuja Neerukonda No relevant relationships by Blake Spain No relevant re ationships by Michael Su No relevant relationships by Steven Tran No relevant relationships by Margarita Vanegas No relevant relationships by Alexandra Witt