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1.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-17, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991876

ABSTRACT

Food Traceability 4.0 (FT 4.0) is about tracing foods in the era of the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) with techniques and technologies reflecting this new revolution. Interest in food traceability has gained momentum in response to, among others events, the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, reinforcing the need for digital food traceability that prevents food fraud and provides reliable information about food. This review will briefly summarize the most common conventional methods available to determine food authenticity before highlighting examples of emerging techniques that can be used to combat food fraud and improve food traceability. A particular focus will be on the concept of FT 4.0 and the significant role of digital solutions and other relevant Industry 4.0 innovations in enhancing food traceability. Based on this review, a possible new research topic, namely FT 4.0, is encouraged to take advantage of the rapid digitalization and technological advances occurring in the era of Industry 4.0. The main FT 4.0 enablers are blockchain, the Internet of things, artificial intelligence, and big data. Digital technologies in the age of Industry 4.0 have significant potential to improve the way food is traced, decrease food waste and reduce vulnerability to fraud opening new opportunities to achieve smarter food traceability. Although most of these emerging technologies are still under development, it is anticipated that future research will overcome current limitations making large-scale applications possible.

2.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-31, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984784

ABSTRACT

The food industry has recently been under unprecedented pressure due to major global challenges, such as climate change, exponential increase in world population and urbanization, and the worldwide spread of new diseases and pandemics, such as the COVID-19. The fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) has been gaining momentum since 2015 and has revolutionized the way in which food is produced, transported, stored, perceived, and consumed worldwide, leading to the emergence of new food trends. After reviewing Industry 4.0 technologies (e.g. artificial intelligence, smart sensors, robotics, blockchain, and the Internet of Things) in Part I of this work (Hassoun, Aït-Kaddour, et al. 2022. The fourth industrial revolution in the food industry-Part I: Industry 4.0 technologies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1-17.), this complimentary review will focus on emerging food trends (such as fortified and functional foods, additive manufacturing technologies, cultured meat, precision fermentation, and personalized food) and their connection with Industry 4.0 innovations. Implementation of new food trends has been associated with recent advances in Industry 4.0 technologies, enabling a range of new possibilities. The results show several positive food trends that reflect increased awareness of food chain actors of the food-related health and environmental impacts of food systems. Emergence of other food trends and higher consumer interest and engagement in the transition toward sustainable food development and innovative green strategies are expected in the future.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822451

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 remains a deadly disease that poses a serious threat to humanity. COVID-19 vaccines protect the public and limit viral spread. However, public acceptance is significantly dependent on the efficacy and side effects (SEs) of the vaccinations being produced. Four important mechanisms have been examined for COVID-19 vaccines: DNA-based, mRNA-based, protein-based, and inactivated viruses. Vaccination safety research was formerly limited to manufacturer-sponsored studies, but numerous additional cross-sectional survey-based studies conducted globally have contributed to the generation of vaccine-related safety data reports. Twenty-seven studies and twenty-four case reports published-up till 2021 were overviewed for the presentation of SEs and their severity. Injection site pain remained the most dominant localized SE, while headache and fatigue were the most prevalent systemic SEs. Most studies reported that all vaccinations were safe, with very little or no adverse effects, but the nature of SEs was reported to be more persistent in DNA- and mRNA-based vaccines, while inactivated viral vaccines were associated with longer-duration SEs. Overall, SEs were found to be more dominant in women and youngsters. Case reports of adverse reactions have also been documented, but there is still a need to find out their pathological linkage with the COVID-19 vaccination.

4.
Trends Food Sci Technol ; 120: 25-35, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The distressing COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on public mental health, and the importance of food and nutrients in several aspects of mental health has been recognized. People in isolation or quarantine suffer from severe stress, anger, panic attack, and anxiety. SCOPE AND APPROACH: Although, people who have improved and progressed through medications or vaccines have reduced anxiety levels to some extent yet the efficacy of these measures, in the long run, remains a question. The review depicts that such negative emotional reactions were particularly higher in elderly individuals in the first wave than in other phases. The emotional and behavioral response to the COVID-19 pandemic is multifactorial. From different research studies, it has been found that stress scores were considerably higher for those engaging in unhealthy eating practices. This factor relies not only on external components but on personal and innate ones as well. In the present pandemic, the sustainable development of the food system would have been a major issue; this should be carefully restored to avoid a food crisis in the future. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Changes in mind-body interactions are triggered by psychosocial stresses such as interpersonal loss and social rejection. Physiological response (in terms of psychological stress) in COVID-19 affected patients varies due to individual physical health status. This review explores the relationship between nutrition and mental health as what we eat and think is interlinked with the gut-brain-axis. The role of dietary components along with the Mediterranean diet, DASH diet and use of psychobiotics in improving psychological distress in pandemic induced stress, anxiety and depression has also been discussed.

5.
Food Sci Nutr ; 9(9): 5036-5059, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303254

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a new battle in human history for a safe and fearless life. Therefore, this cross-sectional survey was conducted (Punjab, Pakistan) on healthy recovered, home quarantined COVID-19 patients to draw conclusive health support guidelines in the fight against this pandemic. COVID-19 recovered patients (n = 80) of age ≥14 years were randomly selected during the period November 2020 to February 2021. A nutrition and lifestyle changes questionnaire, containing ten sections and seventy questions, was completed through the telephone/WhatsApp. Data were transferred into an Excel spreadsheet and statistically analyzed by applying chi-square, correlation, and a t test of independent values using SPSS-16 software. The patients had an age range of 14 to 80 years, of which 52 (65%) were male and 28 (35%) were female, and 32 (40%) had a normal BMI. The patients had a peak COVID-19 recovery period of 2 weeks, and a mean recovery period of 2.8 ± 1.4 weeks. Certain variables, including gender (males), age (>40 years), sleep (≤5 hr), less/no physical activity, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune diseases, were significantly associated with delayed recovery. Poor nutritional outcomes, including lower intakes of water, legumes, nuts, meat, and milk/yogurt; and higher consumption of fast/fried/junk/spicy foods and cold water/drinks, were also significantly associated with a longer recovery period. The results were similar for not taking daily doses of multivitamins, and vitamins C, D, E, and zinc. This study identified that staying physically active, maintaining sensible body weight, having a sleep of 7 hr, consuming more foods of plant origin especially plant-based proteins from nuts and legumes, taking supplemental doses of multivitamins, vitamin D, E, and zinc, along with drinking ≥2 L of water daily can provide a significant role in early and safe recovery from COVID-19.

6.
Trends Food Sci Technol ; 113: 423-429, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237892

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has affected millions of people worldwide. Recently, international agencies have revealed that poverty and hunger could kill more people than COVID-19 victims. Many global workforces have lost their jobs during this pandemic situation. In developing countries, most of the workers and their families live hand to mouth, depending on daily wage, and loss of income would be a hunger pandemic. Globally, the proportion of undernourished and hungry people have been on an upswing due to climate changes and violent conflicts. The millions of people are facing chronic malnourishment and COVID-19 menaces undermining the endeavour of philanthropic and food security. COVID-19 has increased the risk of livelihood by the shortage of food and distraction of the supply chain especially in the developing countries where rural expanses depend on agriculture production and seasonal jobs. So, if they are forced to limit their activities, their livelihoods will be demolished. Scope and approach: COVID-19 is increasing the jeopardy of food prices over the world, which would prompt a crisis in several developing countries. The government organizations in developing countries are doing well to protect people from the current pandemic. But they are also in critical situation regarding food supply chains and are facing difficulties in providing nutrient-rich foods. The susceptible people are fraught to secure household income and manage their food. In this review, we have explored the food security approach, food supply chain and risk of food shortage. Every country in the world needs to implement effective interventions to maintain open trade and food supply chains, ensure access to nutrients for all at affordable prices and develop co-operation to preserve the flexibility of universal food markets.

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