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1.
Mil Med ; 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322022
2.
J Health Polit Policy Law ; 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310816

ABSTRACT

Over forty years have passed since the enactment of the Patent and Trademark Amendment (Bayh-Dole) Act, which authorized institutions to patent inventions arising from federally-funded research. Although some experts have heralded the Bayh-Dole Act as ushering in a new era of technological advances, others have been less sanguine about its impact. In recent years, the rising price of prescription drugs and the patenting of COVID-19 therapeutics and vaccines developed with substantial federal government support have rekindled the debate whether companies should receive more restricted rights to such products. In this article, we trace the history leading to the enactment of the Bayh-Dole Act and critically assess its strength and weaknesses as well as unresolved questions concerning its scope. Based on this analysis, we propose reforms to better align the Bayh-Dole Act with public values and health outcomes, including clarifying the scope of government use rights, making it easier to invoke march-in rights for failure to meet health and safety needs, increasing transparency in how patents are licensed, and testing different approaches to foster the development and application of inventions.

4.
Trends Immunol ; 44(5): 329-332, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293389

ABSTRACT

Profiling immune responses across several dimensions, including time, patients, molecular features, and tissue sites, can deepen our understanding of immunity as an integrated system. These studies require new analytical approaches to realize their full potential. We highlight recent applications of tensor methods and discuss several future opportunities.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Immunity , Humans
5.
PLOS global public health ; 2(7), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2265564

ABSTRACT

Transmission of respiratory pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, is more likely during close, prolonged contact and when sharing a poorly ventilated space. Reducing overcrowding of health facilities is a recognised infection prevention and control (IPC) strategy;reliable estimates of waiting times and ‘patient flow' would help guide implementation. As part of the Umoya omuhle study, we aimed to estimate clinic visit duration, time spent indoors versus outdoors, and occupancy density of waiting rooms in clinics in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Western Cape (WC), South Africa. We used unique barcodes to track attendees' movements in 11 clinics, multiple imputation to estimate missing arrival and departure times, and mixed-effects linear regression to examine associations with visit duration. 2,903 attendees were included. Median visit duration was 2 hours 36 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 01:36–3:43). Longer mean visit times were associated with being female (13.5 minutes longer than males;p<0.001) and attending with a baby (18.8 minutes longer than those without;p<0.01), and shorter mean times with later arrival (14.9 minutes shorter per hour after 0700;p<0.001). Overall, attendees spent more of their time indoors (median 95.6% [IQR 46–100]) than outdoors (2.5% [IQR 0–35]). Attendees at clinics with outdoor waiting areas spent a greater proportion (median 13.7% [IQR 1–75]) of their time outdoors. In two clinics in KZN (no appointment system), occupancy densities of ~2.0 persons/m2 were observed in smaller waiting rooms during busy periods. In one clinic in WC (appointment system, larger waiting areas), occupancy density did not exceed 1.0 persons/m2 despite higher overall attendance. In this study, longer waiting times were associated with early arrival, being female, and attending with a young child. Occupancy of waiting rooms varied substantially between rooms and over the clinic day. Light-touch estimation of occupancy density may help guide interventions to improve patient flow.

7.
J Health Polit Policy Law ; 2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275828

ABSTRACT

Since 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has had the authority to allow access to unapproved medical products via the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) pathway during times of emergency. It was rarely used until the COVID-19 pandemic, when concerns arose regarding the role of political pressure in the FDA's issuance of some EUAs, such as for hydroxychloroquine. Although US government officials should be responsive to the public, democratic accountability must be balanced against the need for thoughtful science-based decisionmaking. Inadequate agency independence can diminish public confidence in government leaders and the FDA. To consider whether reform of the EUA process might be appropriate, we considered three possible sources of inspiration for balancing independence and accountability in government scientific decisionmaking: models in other countries, in other U.S. agencies, and within the FDA itself. Strategies used in these settings include: (1) expanding the role of advisory committees, (2) increasing transparency of the agency's decisionmaking process and supporting rationale, and (3) improving management of internal agency disagreement. Such reforms could improve public trust in public health regulation both related to and separate from future emergencies.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263301

ABSTRACT

Several factors have been identified to influence the registration and retention of apprentices in the construction trades. Employer engagement is a key factor to promote growth in apprenticeships in the construction trades as participation rates continue to be low among small-to-medium-sized employers. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the Ontario Electrical League's (OEL) employer mentorship program through the perspectives of small-to-medium-sized employers using a qualitative approach. Two focus groups were conducted virtually with 11 employers. Focus group audio transcripts were recorded and transcribed for thematic analysis. Themes were generated using a data-driven approach to examine the relationships between mentorship program outcomes and perspectives on industry-related recruitment and retention barriers. Three themes were identified: (a) long-term apprentice recruitment and retention challenges; (b) equity and mental health in the workplace; and (c) industry challenges and mentorship program outcomes. Generally, this sample of employers appreciated the value of the OEL mentorship program through praise of the continued educational support, employer management expertise, hiring resources, and apprentice onboarding tools despite industry barriers in trade stigma, equity and mental health in the workplace, and recruitment and retention challenges. Industry partners should work with these small-to-medium-sized employers to develop workplace initiatives and engage external partners to provide ongoing apprenticeship mentorship support to address the recruitment and retention barriers identified in this study.


Subject(s)
Health Promotion , Workplace , Ontario , Focus Groups , Workplace/psychology , Inservice Training
9.
BMJ ; 380: e073747, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate US public investment in the development of mRNA covid-19 vaccines. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Publicly funded science from January 1985 to March 2022. DATA SOURCES: National Institutes of Health (NIH) Report Portfolio Online Reporting Tool Expenditures and Results (RePORTER) and other public databases. Government funded grants were scored as directly, indirectly, or not likely related to four key innovations underlying mRNA covid-19 vaccines-lipid nanoparticle, mRNA synthesis or modification, prefusion spike protein structure, and mRNA vaccine biotechnology-on the basis of principal investigator, project title, and abstract. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Direct public investment in research and vaccine development, stratified by the rationale, government funding agency, and pre-pandemic (1985-2019) versus pandemic (1 January 2020 to 31 March 2022). RESULTS: 34 NIH funded research grants that were directly related to mRNA covid-19 vaccines were identified. These grants combined with other identified US government grants and contracts totaled $31.9bn (£26.3bn; €29.7bn), of which $337m was invested pre-pandemic. Pre-pandemic, the NIH invested $116m (35%) in basic and translational science related to mRNA vaccine technology, and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) ($148m; 44%) and the Department of Defense ($72m; 21%) invested in vaccine development. After the pandemic started, $29.2bn (92%) of US public funds purchased vaccines, $2.2bn (7%) supported clinical trials, and $108m (<1%) supported manufacturing plus basic and translational science. CONCLUSIONS: The US government invested at least $31.9bn to develop, produce, and purchase mRNA covid-19 vaccines, including sizeable investments in the three decades before the pandemic through March 2022. These public investments translated into millions of lives saved and were crucial in developing the mRNA vaccine technology that also has the potential to tackle future pandemics and to treat diseases beyond covid-19. To maximize overall health impact, policy makers should ensure equitable global access to publicly funded health technologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , United States , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Investments , RNA, Messenger
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267161

ABSTRACT

Vaccines prevent 4-5 million deaths every year, but inequities in vaccine coverage persist among key disadvantaged subpopulations. Under-immunized subpopulations (e.g., migrants, slum residents) may be consistently missed with conventional methods for estimating immunization coverage and assessing vaccination barriers. Adaptive sampling, such as respondent-driven sampling, may offer useful strategies for identifying and collecting data from these subpopulations that are often "hidden" or hard-to-reach. However, use of these adaptive sampling approaches in the field of global immunization has not been systematically documented. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases to identify eligible studies published through November 2020 that used an adaptive sampling method to collect immunization-related data. From the eligible studies, we extracted relevant data on their objectives, setting and target population, and sampling methods. We categorized sampling methods and assessed their frequencies. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria out of the 3069 articles screened for eligibility. Peer-driven sampling was the most frequently used adaptive sampling method (57%), followed by geospatial sampling (30%), venue-based sampling (17%), ethnographic mapping (9%), and compact segment sampling (9%). Sixty-one percent of studies were conducted in upper-middle-income or high-income countries. Data on immunization uptake were collected in 65% of studies, and data on knowledge and attitudes about immunizations were collected in 57% of studies. We found limited use of adaptive sampling methods in measuring immunization coverage and understanding determinants of vaccination uptake. The current under-utilization of adaptive sampling approaches leaves much room for improvement in how immunization programs calibrate their strategies to reach "hidden" subpopulations.

11.
J Hand Surg Am ; 48(5): 499-505, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232695

ABSTRACT

Accelerated in part by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, medical education has increasingly moved into the virtual sphere in recent years. Virtual surgical education encompasses several domains, including live virtual surgery and virtual and augmented reality. These technologies range in complexity from streaming audio and video of surgeries in real-time to fully immersive virtual simulations of surgery. This article reviews the current use of virtual surgical education and its possible applications in hand surgery. Applications of virtual technologies for preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance, as well as care in underresourced settings, are discussed. The authors describe their experience creating a virtual surgery subinternship with live virtual surgeries. There are many roles virtual technology can have in surgery, and this review explores potential value these technologies may have in hand surgery.


Subject(s)
Augmented Reality , COVID-19 , Specialties, Surgical , Virtual Reality , Humans , Hand/surgery
12.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(5): 351-365, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184803

ABSTRACT

This Review describes current knowledge on the epidemiology and causes of child and adolescent obesity, considerations for assessment, and current management approaches. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, obesity prevalence in children and adolescents had plateaued in many high-income countries despite levels of severe obesity having increased. However, in low-income and middle-income countries, obesity prevalence had risen. During the pandemic, weight gain among children and adolescents has increased in several jurisdictions. Obesity is associated with cardiometabolic and psychosocial comorbidity as well as premature adult mortality. The development and perpetuation of obesity is largely explained by a bio-socioecological framework, whereby biological predisposition, socioeconomic, and environmental factors interact together to promote deposition and proliferation of adipose tissue. First-line treatment approaches include family-based behavioural obesity interventions addressing diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and sleep quality, underpinned by behaviour change strategies. Evidence for intensive dietary approaches, pharmacotherapy, and metabolic and bariatric surgery as supplemental therapies are emerging; however, access to these therapies is scarce in most jurisdictions. Research is still needed to inform the personalisation of treatment approaches of obesity in children and adolescents and their translation to clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Diet , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy
14.
International Journal of Stroke ; 17(3_SUPPL):162-163, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2112270
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(44): 1396-1400, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100530

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Immunization Agenda 2030, an ambitious global immunization strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report updates a 2020 report (2) with global, regional,* and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends through 2021. Global estimates of coverage with 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTPcv3) decreased from an average of 86% during 2015-2019 to 83% in 2020 and 81% in 2021. Worldwide in 2021, 25.0 million infants (19% of the target population) were not vaccinated with DTPcv3, 2.1 million more than in 2020 and 5.9 million more than in 2019. In 2021, the number of infants who did not receive any DTPcv dose by age 12 months (18.2 million) was 37% higher than in 2019 (13.3 million). Coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) decreased from an average of 85% during 2015-2019 to 84% in 2020 and 81% in 2021. These are the lowest coverage levels for DTPcv3 and MCV1 since 2008. ​Global coverage estimates were also lower in 2021 than in 2020 and 2019 for bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) as well as for the completed series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), polio vaccine (Pol), and rubella-containing vaccine (RCV). The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in disruptions to routine immunization services worldwide. Full recovery to immunization programs will require context-specific strategies to address immunization gaps by catching up missed children, prioritizing essential health services, and strengthening immunization programs to prevent outbreaks (3).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Infant , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Immunization Programs , Vaccination , Measles Vaccine , Rubella Vaccine , Immunization Schedule
17.
J Neurol Sci ; 443: 120487, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exists evaluating predictors of long-term outcomes after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The following outcomes were collected at 6 and 12-months post-diagnosis: disability using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), activities of daily living assessed with the Barthel Index, cognition assessed with the telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (t-MoCA), Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep, and post-acute symptoms of COVID-19. Predictors of these outcomes, including demographics, pre-COVID-19 comorbidities, index COVID-19 hospitalization metrics, and life stressors, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 790 COVID-19 patients who survived hospitalization, 451(57%) completed 6-month (N = 383) and/or 12-month (N = 242) follow-up, and 77/451 (17%) died between discharge and 12-month follow-up. Significant life stressors were reported in 121/239 (51%) at 12-months. In multivariable analyses, life stressors including financial insecurity, food insecurity, death of a close contact and new disability were the strongest independent predictors of worse mRS, Barthel Index, depression, fatigue, and sleep scores, and prolonged symptoms, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.5 to 20.8. Other predictors of poor outcome included older age (associated with worse mRS, Barthel, t-MoCA, depression scores), baseline disability (associated with worse mRS, fatigue, Barthel scores), female sex (associated with worse Barthel, anxiety scores) and index COVID-19 severity (associated with worse Barthel index, prolonged symptoms). CONCLUSIONS: Life stressors contribute substantially to worse functional, cognitive and neuropsychiatric outcomes 12-months after COVID-19 hospitalization. Other predictors of poor outcome include older age, female sex, baseline disability and severity of index COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Activities of Daily Living , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Hospitalization , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2235328, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059200

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study describes and compares key characteristics of state COVID-19 vaccine incentive programs in the US.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Medically Underserved Area , Motivation
20.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047394

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited evidence for therapeutic options for pediatric COVID-19 outside of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Objective: To determine whether the use of steroids within 2 days of admission for non-MIS-C COVID-19 in children is associated with hospital length of stay (LOS). The secondary objective was to determine their association with intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, inflammation, and fever defervescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed data retrospectively for children (<18 years) who required hospitalization for non-MIS-C COVID-19. Data from March 2020 through September 2021 were provided by 58 hospitals in 7 countries who participate in the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS) COVID-19 registry. Exposure: Administration of steroids within 2 days of admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Length of stay in the hospital and ICU. Adjustment for confounders was done by mixed linear regression and propensity score matching. Results: A total of 1163 patients met inclusion criteria and had a median (IQR) age of 7 years (0.9-14.3). Almost half of all patients (601/1163, 51.7%) were male, 33.8% (392/1163) were non-Hispanic White, and 27.9% (324/1163) were Hispanic. Of the study population, 184 patients (15.8%) received steroids within 2 days of admission, and 979 (84.2%) did not receive steroids within the first 2 days. Among 1163 patients, 658 (56.5%) required respiratory support during hospitalization. Overall, patients in the steroids group were older and had greater severity of illness, and a larger proportion required respiratory and vasoactive support. On multivariable linear regression, after controlling for treatment with remdesivir within 2 days, country, race and ethnicity, obesity and comorbidity, number of abnormal inflammatory mediators, age, bacterial or viral coinfection, and disease severity according to ICU admission within first 2 days or World Health Organization ordinal scale of 4 or higher on admission, with a random intercept for the site, early steroid treatment was not significantly associated with hospital LOS (exponentiated coefficient, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.81-1.09; P = .42). Separate analyses for patients with an LOS of 2 days or longer (n = 729), those receiving respiratory support at admission (n = 286), and propensity score-matched patients also showed no significant association between steroids and LOS. Early steroid treatment was not associated with ICU LOS, fever defervescence by day 3, or normalization of inflammatory mediators. Conclusions and Relevance: Steroid treatment within 2 days of hospital admission in a heterogeneous cohort of pediatric patients hospitalized for COVID-19 without MIS-C did not have a statistically significant association with hospital LOS.

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