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1.
2022 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE 2022 ; 2022-October, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191742

ABSTRACT

Changes in everyday activities, such as adapting to the new online format due to lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic and being far away from family and friends, greatly influenced the emotions and feelings of students and their parents. Assessing the emotions of students' parents at the higher education level is necessary since their emotional well-being has a direct impact on the emotional well-being of students throughout their distant learning experience. In this article, we held a quantitative study over 8 subsequent weeks from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in students and parents from the Mexican institution Tecnologico de Monterrey. Using a questionnaire from Inteligencia Audiencias (Intelligence Hearings), students and their parents could register their feelings and their valence from April 13th to July 20th, 2020. The results indicate that the most predominant emotions in both groups were very unpleasant and unpleasant in nature, being "worried"and "tired"the most common ones. The current study also provides some approaches for addressing the negative repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13:7120-7131, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2206808

ABSTRACT

Malaria is still a public health problem worldwide, which is increasingly difficult to handle due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Indonesia is a country targeted by WHO to become a Malaria-free country by 2030. Mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) on Buru Island, as a Malaria-vulnerable group, pose a particular challenge in efforts to accelerate and maintain elimination. The use of eucalyptus oil as a positive deviation (PD) in this group is an innovative strategy in Malaria control programs in this population. Method(s): This research is an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional design to see the relationship between PD and Malaria in MMPs. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression was performed to determine the most associated PD with Malaria in the MMPs group. Primary data was collected through interviews with a structured questionnaire and observation of 72 people from the MMPs group who met the criteria. Results and Discussion: From 19 PD identified, only seven related to Malaria in MMPs (p-value <alpha 0.05) in preventing Malaria: cleaning the environment (p=0.032), burning garbage (p=0.005), burning dry leaves (p=0.013), using the eucalyptus oil (0.001), consuming herbal medicine (p=0.013), "Baupu"/" Baukuf" (p=0.028) and utilizing hot steam from a "Kettle" (p=0.043). The logistic regression analysis showed that eucalyptus oil was the variable most related to Malaria prevention in MMPs (p=0.027;95% CI for EXP(B): 1.227 - 30.799). Conclusions and suggestions: Identification of PD and applying them in everyday life is essential in preventing Malaria in MMPs. Utilizing the potential of eucalyptus oil as a natural way to prevent Malaria in the era of elimination is an innovative and promising specific local-based approach, considering that Buru Island is a eucalyptus granary area in Maluku, Indonesia. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

3.
Computers, Materials and Continua ; 74(3):6195-6212, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2205945

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed the vulnerabilities of medical services across the globe, especially in underdeveloped nations. In the aftermath of the COVID-19 outbreak, a strong demand exists for developing novel computer-assisted diagnostic tools to execute rapid and cost-effective screenings in locations where many screenings cannot be executed using conventional methods. Medical imaging has become a crucial component in the disease diagnosis process, whereas X-rays and Computed Tomography (CT) scan imaging are employed in a deep network to diagnose the diseases. In general, four steps are followed in image-based diagnostics and disease classification processes by making use of the neural networks, such as network training, feature extraction, model performance testing and optimal feature selection. The current research article devises a Chaotic Flower Pollination Algorithm with a Deep Learning-Driven Fusion (CFPADLDF) approach for detecting and classifying COVID-19. The presented CFPA-DLDF model is developed by integrating two DL models to recognize COVID-19 in medical images. Initially, the proposed CFPA-DLDF technique employs the Gabor Filtering (GF) approach to pre-process the input images. In addition, a weighted voting-based ensemble model is employed for feature extraction, in which both VGG-19 and the MixNet models are included. Finally, the CFPA with Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) model is utilized for classification, showing the work's novelty. A comparative analysis was conducted to demonstrate the enhanced performance of the proposed CFPADLDF model, and the results established the supremacy of the proposed CFPA-DLDF model over recent approaches. © 2023 Tech Science Press. All rights reserved.

4.
Human Systems Management ; 41(6):731-743, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2154616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an ongoing virus disease also recognized as a coronavirus pandemic that propelled the world to rethink organizational strategies during this unprecedented challenge. Although research on CSR has broadly been done over the past decades;nonetheless, how CSR can contribute a leading role in engaging the stakeholders such as customers during this pandemic period and post-pandemic is an important research gap that ought to be uncovered. OBJECTIVES: This study explores the impact of CSR on external stakeholders like customers and how organizations can dramatically sustain the relationships during the COVID-19 period. First, this study investigates the relationships between CSR and customer satisfaction (CS). Second, this study explores the relationships between CSR and customer retention (CR). Finally, the moderating impact of gender and education were examined among the proposed relationships. METHODS: Using the survey of 500 respondents, this study prospected the linkages among CSR, CS, and CR from China using a convenience sampling approach. The questionnaires were disseminated to Chinese online shoppers between Jan 2020 and March 2020 and explored using SEM model. RESULTS: It found that customers are more attached and satisfied with those organizations that are socially responsible and value their stakeholders, especially during uncertain situations like COVID-19 since presently revealed a positive relationship between CSR and CS. Second, it is found that there is a positive influence of CSR on CR as well. Finally, the study affirmed the positive nexus of gender and education as the moderators among CSR, CR, and CS. CONCLUSION: CSR is always on the front line blending social and environmental goals into business operations, especially during uncertain times and challenges. Undeniably, the COVID-19 pandemic is not only a global health emergency but is also leading to a major global challenge that drives organizations to revisit policies to sustain the relationships with their stakeholders. This study concluded the positive nexus of CSR and affirmed the positive role in sustaining relationships with customers during distinct uncertainties like COVID-19.

5.
2022 Fourth International Conference on Blockchain Computing and Applications (Bcca) ; : 4-10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2136108

ABSTRACT

Given that COVID-19 symptoms might be similar to other viral infectious diseases, it becomes difficult to accurately diagnose for COVID-19 without traditional testing strategies like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. As the quarantine and testing requirements have been lifted from most countries, easier and innovative testing strategies are being adopted to maintain high awareness levels in regards to the spread of the disease for both authorities and the public. This paper presents a COVID19 detection strategy that uses Machine Learning (ML) models to accurately diagnose for the disease in patients. The Artificial Intelligence (AI)-enabled solution not only serves the purpose of detecting whether patients are diagnosed with COVID, but also to track their daily symptoms and accurately classify the type of viral disease. Different ML models are trained and tested for accuracy and prediction timings. A decentralized approach is taken for the disease prediction, and hence, blockchain is adapted within the solution to ensure the authenticity of the user data. The solution has been implemented to allow users to receive real-time disease diagnosis using a web-based interface.

6.
2022 Fourth International Conference on Blockchain Computing and Applications (Bcca) ; : 274-279, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2136107

ABSTRACT

The fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) has prompted new and innovative solutions that are reliant on Artificial Intelligence (AI) and contemporary technological advancements. Secure, intelligent, and on-demand healthcare services for patients is one of the core pillars of Industry 4.0. Patient medical data security and privacy is a crucial part of electronic healthcare systems. Disease diagnosis and treatment are highly dependent on the authenticity and security of patient data, both when stored and communicated. Blockchain technology plays a vital role in transaction authentication and secure decentralized immutable data storage. With that said, in this paper, we present an interactive healthcare information system that enables COVID-19 contact tracing and vaccine certificate validation for users. The solution uses a blockchain technique to validate the certificates. The implementation and evaluation details of the system are presented together with result findings.

7.
International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research ; 12(6):L11-L16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2111343

ABSTRACT

Frontline worker's prevalence of occupational skin disease has increased as a result of staff infection control measures such increased personal protective equipment (PPE) and stricter hand hygiene procedures. During the COVID-19 pandemic, assess the frequency of occupational skin disorders among healthcare workers at the general hospitals in the Najran region of southern Saudi Arabia is our main aim. Our objective comprises a cross-sectional study that will be carried out at the general hospitals in the Najran region of southern Saudi Arabia between March 1 and April 31, 2022, in order to achieve the goal. All medical professionals received a self-administered online survey (physicians, nurses and paramedics). The questionnaire asked about the severity of skin damage and the frequency and length of time that various infection prevention strategies were used. It was found that 68.2% had new onset of obvious skin damage and 31.8 % did not. 21.6% of the new onset of obvious skin damage was on the fingertips, 46.6% was on the hands, 22.4% was in paws, 3.4% was on the face and 6.0% was under the eye. 29.8% of the symptoms of the damaged site was itching, 44.7% dryness, 12.8% burning/pain, and 12.8% tenderness. 16.5 % of the type of skin lesions was peeling, 28.2% fissure, 18.8% erosion/ulcer, 24.7% redness, 4.7% papule (pimples) and 7.1% others. In our study, 68.2% of our participants suffered obvious skin damage during the pandemic: 90.6% of this occurred on the hands and 9.4% on the face. Contact dermatitis in the form of itching, dryness, burning, pain and tenderness were the most common adverse effects noted. Therefore, it is important to organize training on the prevention and management of possible skin lesions due to PPE use according to guidelines.

8.
International Journal of Engineering Education ; 38(5):1577-1583, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2101482

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic to explore whether team-based, online learning activities play a role in enhancing undergraduate engineering students' critical thinking skills. To conduct the study, we distributed a Google Form-based online survey among undergraduate engineering students through Tecnolo & PRIME;gico de Monterrey learning management system platform during the fall semester of 2020. In total, we received 50 complete responses through a convenient sampling approach. To analyze the quantitative data, we applied a hierarchical regression technique using the IBM SPSS 26.0 statistical software program. The findings of this study affirm that participation in team-based online learning activities meant to improve (1) the quality of learning and (2) reasoning ability have a significant positive correlation with critical thinking skills of undergraduate students in engineering programs. We also conclude that quality of learning has higher significant association with critical thinking skills as compared to reasoning ability

9.
HIV Nursing ; 22(2):981-985, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2100946

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global health issue. The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic necessitates the rapid development of therapies that enhance the outcomes of persons suffering from severe illness. To enhance the treatment of COVID-19 patients, early and effective indicators of disease severity are required. Gelsolin (GSN) is a circulating protein that is promptly consumed by extreme tissue injury and causes actin filament depolymerization, blocking downstream inflammatory processes. Objective: The aim of the presented work is to study if serum gelsolin levels had any relationship with Covid-19 infection and severity indicator in order to revealed if serum gelsolin could be utilized as a disease predictor marker severity. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted with 90 Covid-19 patients and 90 healthy volunteers as the control group (with age ranged between 45-60 years) The patients were obtained from Al-Amal hospitals in Najaf city, Iraq, between Nov., 2020 and June, 2021. COVID-19 patients were separated into two groups based on the degree of their condition, which are mild/moderate disease and severe disease. Blood samples were taken and all demographic and clinical data of the sick and healthy groups were recorded. GSN levels in the blood were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Colorimetric techniques were used to determine the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and albumin levels. ichroma assessed serum ferritin and D-dimer, and CBC by spincell3. Ran a statistical analysis to noticed if they were linked to illness severity. Results: GSN levels were considerably lower in some patient groups. However, as compared to the mild/moderate instance of patients, the level of GSN was considerably lower in the mild and severe COVID-19 groups. Patients (95.45 ± 35.36) had considerably lower serum (GSN) levels than mild/moderate patients (172.32 ± 44.76) while. Healthy group (289.52 ± 71.33) (P 0.001). suggesting that it is an independent predictor of coronavirus infection Serum (GSN) levels were significantly and adversely connected with Age (year), SBP mmHg ferritin, (AST, ALT, ALP activity levels), and D-dimer levels, whereas GSN levels were significantly and positively correlated with Lymph percent levels. Conclusion: In conclusion, serum GSN concentration was lower in COVID-19 patients compared to the mild/moderate case group and healthy controls. Extensive tissue injury depletes and quickly consumes serum gelsolin (GSN), a naturally occurring, abundant circulating protein. The finding that considerable depletion is linked to eventual bad outcomes in a variety of clinical situations in severe inflammatory diseases holds hope for preventing lung harm and other injury organs. © 2022, ResearchTrentz Academy Publishing Education Services. All rights reserved.

10.
Technology-Enabled Innovations in Education ; : 507-513, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2085310
12.
Annals of Neurology ; 92:S184-S184, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083335
13.
Annals of Neurology ; 92:S184-S184, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083334
14.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):88-91, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067739

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 first surfaced when cluster of pneumonia patients arose in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Although the current gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis is reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), chest x-ray (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) play a vital role in sickness diagnosis due to their limited sensitivity and availability. Aim: To evaluate retrospectively the role of CXR, the main radiological findings in it and its diagnostic accuracy in COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: This is a cross sectional study involving 264 PCR positive COVID-19 patients with their clinical-epidemiological findings admitted at Ziauddin Hospital from May-July 2020. CXRs were taken as digital radiographs in our emergency department's isolation wards using the same portable X-ray device, according to local norms. CXRs were taken in two directions: antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA). The hospitals' database had all of the images. To determine the number of radiological findings, multiple radiologists on duty completed an independent and retrospective examination of each CXR. In the event of disagreement, a mutual agreement was reached. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. Results: We were able to find 264 patients who met our criteria. With a mean age of 56.4214.89, the majority of individuals were determined to be males 189(71.6%) and females 75(28.4%). (Range of 16 to 87 years). 127 patients (48.1%) had severe illness symptoms and were admitted to the ICU, while the remaining 102(38.6%) had mild to moderate disease 35(13.3%). Diffuse (29.2%) and middle and lower co-existing distribution (25.8%) whereas just lower lobe (13.3%) were the most common predominance in severity. Peripheral involvement was also seen in (8.7%) cases. Conclusion: Both lungs are equally affected with the disease having the consolidation and opacifications while the effusion is the major complication in the severe cases. Diffuse involvement of the lung lobes is seen in the study followed by the middle and lower lobe involvement.

15.
British Journal of Surgery ; 109:vi32, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2042545

ABSTRACT

Aim: Virtual consultations (VC) in breast surgery have been successfully utilised during the COVID pandemic and have potential to reduce the costs of outpatient clinics as well as increase patient satisfaction. We aimed to assess the utility and safety of VC in new patient clinics in women under 30, which are considered a low-risk subgroup. Method: Data was prospectively collected on 118 women aged under 30 who were referred from primary care to the breast clinic between December 2020 and April 2021. Clinicopathological data was collected on referrals, imaging and follow up. Results: Median age was 24 years (range 17-30). The commonest presenting symptoms were a lump (69%), breast pain (16%) and nipple symptoms (14%). The VC was performed via video in 63 (53%) patients and via telephone alone in 55 (47%). Nineteen patients (16%) were reassured and discharged directly from VC. Ninety-four patients (80%) underwent an outpatient ultrasound with a sonographer trained in clinical palpation. Twenty-six (27%) ultrasounds showed benign pathology with the remainder being normal. Six biopsies were performed, all of which were benign. Seventeen (14%) patients required a face-to-face appointment with a breast surgeon after ultrasound or biopsy. Ninety-four (79%) patients were discharged after VC + ultrasound alone. No patients required surgery. Conclusions: Utilising VC, the majority of new referrals in women under 30 did not require face-to-face appointments. VC have potential to reduce burden on new patient clinics whilst improving patient convenience. Early data suggest a low risk of compromising safety in this subgroup.

16.
International journal of online and biomedical engineering ; 18(9):131-143, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1975003

ABSTRACT

Distress and mental health issues among students during the Covid19 pandemic are emerging in reviews. Surprisingly, while some studies argued that online learning was one of the causes that harm student mental health, like stress, anxiety, or depression, others indicated that a digital platform is one effective invention to design and develop an online program for improving learners’ mental health care. This study aims to the discussion of two sides the application of online learning involved in learner mental health issues, explaining the causes of reasons and giving a recommendation for stakeholders in further discussion and implication. The literature was accessed from Scopus and web of science databases covering research published between 2019 and 2022, and 20 items were analyzed to reach the objectives. The bibliometric analysis identifies the cluster themes based on texting frequency. The vital steps of data classification follow thoughtfully and carefully in the platform of concept, findings, author’s reputation, and years published. In the last conclusions of the study, reports explain the past literature and recent outbreak. The results cover two main themes: The effects of online learning on students’ mental health issues and online learning solutions to assist mental health care learners. These findings are expected to benefit stakeholders involved in online learning and mental health care for learners and the community. © 2022. International journal of online and biomedical engineering. All Rights Reserved.

17.
International Conference on Business and Technology, ICBT 2021 ; 486:51-59, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1971409

ABSTRACT

This research aimed to investigate;the extent to which Fintech affects the development of entrepreneurship and;the moderation role of banking institutions in the relationship between Fintech and entrepreneurship development during the Covid-19 pandemic. A detailed literature review of studies was undertaken to provide an academic and theoretical basis from which fieldwork could be carried out, studying impact of Fintech subtitles on entrepreneurship development;Fintech awareness, fintech data security and trust, ease of use of fintech, quality of fintech services and time spent on fintech. Lastly, conclude that the increased usage of information technology boosts enterprises’ capacity to innovate and increase their administrative and marketing processes. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

18.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963432

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to an economic crisis and health emergency, threatening energy efficiency consumption, sustainable food diversity, and households’ nutrition security. The literature documented that environmental threats can divert attention from renewable energy and food security challenges that affect humans’ environmental behaviors. The COVID-19 crisis has consistently influenced environmental behaviors, as it primarily decreased income and disrupted food systems worldwide. This study investigated the COVID-19 consequences on household income, sustainable food diversity, sustainable energy consumption, and nutritional security challenges. The study used a self-structured online survey due to non-pharmaceutical restrictions and collected data from 728 households. The investigators applied t-test and logit regression to analyze the data for drawing results. Descriptive statistics show that COVID-19 has adversely affected the income of more than two-thirds (67%) of households. The pandemic has influenced households’ food consumption, energy, and dietary patterns to safeguard their income. The t-test analysis indicated that households’ food diversity and energy consumption significantly declined during the pandemic, and households consumed low-diversified food to meet their dietary needs more than twofold compared to pre-pandemic levels. The results showed that all nutrient consumption remained considerably lower in the COVID-19. Cereals are the primary source of daily dietary needs, accounting for over two-thirds of total energy and half of the nutrient consumption amid COVID-19. The share of vegetables and fruits in household energy consumption dropped by 40 and 30%. Results exhibited that increasing monthly income was inversely associated with worsening food diversity and intake with energy efficiency. Compared with farmers and salaried employment, wage earners were 0.15 and 0.28 times more likely to experience a decline in consuming food diversity. Medium and large households were 1.95 times and 2.64 times more likely than small, to experience decreased food diversity consumption. Launching a nutrition-sensitive program will help minimize the COVID-19 impacts on energy consumption, food diversity, and nutritional security for low-income individuals. This survey relied on the recall ability of the households for the consumed quantities of food commodities, which may lack accuracy. Longitudinal studies employing probability sampling with larger samples can verify this study’s insightful results. Copyright © 2022 Geng, Haq, Abbas, Ye, Shahbaz, Abbas and Cai.

19.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 37(SUPPL 3):i214, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the lungs are the major targets of COVID-19, other organs such as the kidneys are also affected. Renal complications of COVID-19 are not yet well studied. We aimed to study the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) among positive COVID-19 cases that were managed in the intensive care unit (ICU) in a single isolation hospital during the pandemic, and to explore its impact on patient outcome. METHOD: This retrospective study included 616 patients with COVID-19 who were managed in the ICU in a single isolation hospital in Kuwait during the pandemic, from February to December 2020. AKI was defined according to the serum creatinine criteria in the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Of the 616 patients, 40.2% developed AKI (group 1, n = 248) and were compared with the patients without AKI (group 2, n = 368). RESULTS: Most of cases in the two groups were males (73% versus 70.7%), aged (60.8 ± 14 versus 51.7 ± 16 years), respectively. The two groups were comparable regarding chronic kidney disease (2% versus 0.8%) and chronic pulmonary disease. Other factors were significantly predominating among group 1 as diabetes mellitus (63.7 versus 40.5%), hypertension (74.2% versus 40.5%) and ischemic heart disease (26.2% versus 12.5%) (P < .05). Fever, cough, shortness of breath and dehydration were significantly more frequent presentations among patients of group 1, and had radiological findings that were synchronized with COVID-19 (89.5% versus 50.8%) (P < .05). Moreover, sepsis, volume depletion, shock, arrhythmias and ARDS predominated among the AKI group (P < .05). The number of cases who were managed by therapeutic anticoagulation was significantly higher in AKI patients (89.9% versus 51.9%);also, cases who received supportive vasopressors and convalescent plasma transfusion as well as steroid were significantly higher in the same group (P < .05). Other therapeutic modalities such as antivirals, tocilizumab and hydroxychloroquine were comparable in both groups. We found that acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation was significant among the AKI group (66.8% versus 29.4%), and the overall mortality rate was significantly higher in the same group (62.5% versus 32.8%). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AKI in patients with COVID-19 was 40.2%, and it was associated with poor prognosis among ICU COVID-19 positive cases.

20.
European Journal of Surgical Oncology ; 48(5):e200, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1881969

ABSTRACT

Aim: Virtual consultations (VC) in breast surgery have been successfully utilised during the COVID pandemic and have potential to reduce the costs of outpatient clinics as well as increase patient satisfaction. We aimed to assess the utility and safety of VC in new patient clinics in women under 30, which is considered a low-risk subgroup. Methods: Data was prospectively collected on 118 women aged under 30 who were referred from primary care to the breast clinic between December 2020 and April 2021. Clinicopathological data was collected on referrals, imaging and follow up. Results: Median age was 24 years (range 17-30). The commonest presenting symptoms were a lump (69%), breast pain (16%) and nipple symptoms (14%). The VC was performed via video in 63 (53%) patients and via telephone alone in 55 (47%). Nineteen patients (16%) were reassured and discharged directly from VC. Ninety-four patients (80%) underwent an outpatient ultrasound with a sonographer trained in clinical palpation. Twenty-six (27%) ultrasounds showed benign pathology with the remainder being normal. Six biopsies were performed, all of which were benign. Seventeen (14%) patients required a face-to-face appointment with a breast surgeon after ultrasound or biopsy. Ninety-four (79%) patients were discharged after VC + ultrasound alone. No patients required surgery. Conclusion: Utilising VC, the majority of new referrals in women under 30 did not require face-to-face appointments. VC have potential to reduce burden on new patient clinics whilst improving patient convenience. Early data suggest a low risk of compromising safety in this subgroup.

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