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1.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 12(2):573, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200410

ABSTRACT

The study of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals who attended mental health services is needed to identify the specific vulnerabilities associated to this challenging period. Despite several analyses reporting the worsening of eating disorders symptomatology after the beginning of the pandemic, characterizations of adult inpatients with eating disorders are still lacking. We conducted a retrospective analysis to assess whether adult individuals who underwent hospitalization in a specialized eating disorders unit in the two years after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic differed in clinical presentation, psychopathological measures, and treatment outcomes from inpatients hospitalized in the two years before. In the comparison between the two groups, the individuals who began treatment after the start of the pandemic presented with more physical hyperactivity and more severe psychopathological scores in most of the areas investigated, with differences in eating symptoms still evident at discharge. Notably, body-related symptoms (i.e., body shape concerns, body checking, body avoidance) were associated with the pandemic, and also for inpatients with extreme anorexia nervosa. This retrospective analysis does not allow us to separate the impact of COVID-19 from other potentially relevant co-occurring factors;however, these findings help in understanding how the pandemic could have affected individuals that needed specialized intensive treatment.

2.
Eating and Weight Disorders ; 26(8):2443-2452, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1717279

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions had negative impact on the psychopathology of people with Eating Disorders (EDs). Factors involved in the vulnerability to stressful events have been under-investigated in this population. We aimed to assess which factors contributed to COVID-19-induced worsening in both general and specific psychopathology. Methods: Three-hundred and twelve people with a clinically defined diagnosis of an ED and undergoing a specialist ED treatment in different Italian ED services before the spreading of COVID-19 pandemic filled in an online survey. ED specific and general psychopathology changes after COVID-19 quarantine were retrospectively evaluated. Factors related to COVID-19 concerns (financial condition, fear of contagion, perceived social isolation/support, satisfaction in peer, family or sentimental relationships), illness duration and treatment-related variables (type of treatment provided, type of access to care, satisfaction with therapeutic relationships) were included as predicting factors in a structural equational model, which included latent variables consisting of general and ED psychopathology items as outcomes. Results: A perceived low quality of therapeutic relationships, fear of contagion and increased isolation were positively associated with psychopathology worsening. Reduced satisfaction with family and with friends' relationships and reduced perceived social support were associated with ED and general symptoms deterioration, respectively. No significant effect emerged for intimate relationships, illness duration, economic condition and type of treatment. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of clinical variables associated with psychopathological changes during the COVID-19 lockdown period highlighting potential risk and resilience factors and, possibly, informing treatment as well as prevention strategies for EDs. Level of evidence IV: Evidence obtained from multiple time series analysis such as case studies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674682

ABSTRACT

Timely data on attrition from weight loss programs for patients with obesity during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are lacking, so we aimed to contribute to filling this gap in the literature by comparing attrition during or outside of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and its possible association with patients' affective temperaments, psychopathology, and clinical variables. Two-hundred and eleven outpatients with obesity were recruited and completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire, Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Those who dropped out during the pandemic period were mostly men, with younger age of weight gain, and with a larger waist circumference than completers. Patients with obesity who dropped out outside of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic showed marked levels of depression, anxiety, binge eating episodes, and higher affective temperaments (but the hyperthymic one) when compared to their counterparts. The cyclothymic temperament slightly increased attrition (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.00-1.27 p = 0.05) outside the pandemic, while during the pandemic, male gender (OR = 3.50, 1.04-11.7, p = 0.04) was associated with attrition. These findings suggested that male patients with obesity are at particular risk of drop-out from weight-loss treatment during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; contrariwise, outside the pandemic, affective temperaments could be a useful baseline assessment for defining the attrition risk in these patients.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 789344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581145

ABSTRACT

The negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic on people with Eating Disorders (EDs) has been documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a history of traumatic experiences during childhood or adolescence was associated with a higher degree of psychopathological worsening during COVID-19 related lockdown and in the following re-opening period in this group of people. People with EDs undergoing a specialist ED treatment in different Italian services before the spreading of COVID-19 pandemic (n = 312) filled in an online survey to retrospectively evaluate ED specific and general psychopathology changes after COVID-19 quarantine. Based on the presence of self-reported traumatic experiences, the participants were split into three groups: patients with EDs and no traumatic experiences, patients with EDs and childhood traumatic experiences, patients with EDs and adolescent traumatic experiences. Both people with or without early traumatic experiences reported retrospectively a worsening of general and ED-specific psychopathology during the COVID 19-induced lockdown and in the following re-opening period. Compared to ED participants without early traumatic experiences, those with a self-reported history of early traumatic experiences reported heightened anxious and post-traumatic stress symptoms, ineffectiveness, body dissatisfaction, and purging behaviors. These differences were seen before COVID-19 related restrictions as well as during the lockdown period and after the easing of COVID-19 related restrictions. In line with the "maltreated ecophenotype" theory, these results may suggest a clinical vulnerability of maltreated people with EDs leading to a greater severity in both general and ED-specific symptomatology experienced during the exposure to the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 285: 77-83, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on specific Eating Disorder (ED) and general psychopathology in people with an ED diagnosis during the lockdown period and after the end of the related containment measures. METHODS: People with clinically defined diagnosis and undergoing treatment for an ED completed an online survey, which included adapted questions from standardized psychometric scales. Data relative to three different time periods (before, during and after the end of lockdown) were collected. Psychopathological changes over these periods were investigated and compared through one-way analysis of variance or covariance with repeated measures. RESULTS: Three hundred twelve people completed the survey (57.4% diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or atypical AN, 20.2% with Bulimia Nervosa, 15.4% with Binge Eating Disorder, 7.05% with Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders). The severity of both specific and general psychopathology increased during the lockdown and the rise of general symptoms persisted in the following re-opening phase, except for suicide ideation. Almost all of these findings were not affected by ED diagnosis, participants' age and illness duration. LIMITATIONS: The retrospective nature of data collection is the main limitation of the study. CONCLUSIONS: People with EDs showed a COVID-19 emergency-induced worsening of both general and specific psychopathology. The effect on general psychopathology persisted in the re-opening period. These findings suggest a high stress vulnerability of ED individuals with important effects on internalizing symptoms, which are worth of attention by clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Psychopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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