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Lupus ; 32(8): 974-982, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate depression and anxiety in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the post-coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) period and their potential association with the disease activity and related organ damage. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a case-control study including 120 adult Egyptian patients with SLE: sixty patients with SLE who were proven previously to be positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and recovered during the 3 months prior to the study were included in the case group and an equal number of age- and sex-matched patients with SLE and no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in the control group. Patients' clinical history was collected, and they underwent clinical evaluation, including SLE disease activity, damage assessment, and psychological assessment. RESULTS: The mean depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher in cases than in the control group. Both scores showed a significant positive correlation with age, disease duration, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index for SLE (SDI), and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and a significant negative correlation with education years. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses revealed that COVID-19 infection was a predictor for severe depression and moderate-to-severe anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SLE, who are already vulnerable to physiological stressors, are especially predisposed to more risk of anxiety and depression when they are contracted with COVID-19 disease. Furthermore, anxiety and depression are associated with SLE activity and damage scores, and COVID-19 infection is a significant predictor for their severity. These results suggest that healthcare providers should give special attention to the mental health of SLE patients, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adult , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
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