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Neurologist ; 26(6): 271-273, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501227


INTRODUCTION: Wake-up strokes are challenging to manage due to unknown time of onset. Recently, the wake-up trial demonstrated that recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) could be administered based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- diffusion weighted imaging/fluid attenuated inversion recovery mismatch. Many still doubt the safety results due to the higher rate of hemorrhagic conversion reported. Although it was statistically insignificant, the study was terminated early. Furthermore, Corona virus disease-19 is associated with coagulopathy and a higher risk of hemorrhagic conversion. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old fully functioning male presented with a wake-up right hemiparesis, right facial droop, and expressive aphasia. His National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 4 upon arrival. Last known well state was >4.5 hours. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. He had left distal-M2 occlusion. He was deemed not a candidate for rtPA. Hyperacute-MRI protocol showed diffusion weighted imaging/fluid attenuated inversion recovery mismatch. The patient received rtPA at 6.5 hours from the last knwn well state. Follow-up MRI-susceptibility weighted imaging revealed fragmented clot. The stroke burden was less than that shown on the initial computed tomography-perfusion scans implying saved penumbra. There was no hemorrhagic conversion despite low fibrinogen levels. CONCLUSION: The hyperacute-MRI protocol for wake-up COVID-19 associated strokes might be a safe option.

Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
J Neuroimmunol ; 349: 577405, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796110


Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an uncommon diagnosis in adults. It is known to be due to an abnormal immune response to a systemic infection rather than direct viral invasion to the central nervous system. There have been few reports of ADEM diagnosed in the setting of COVID-19 systemic infection. However, we report a case of Coxsackie induced ADEM that remitted but got exacerbated by COVID-19 infection. The patient contracted the COVID-19 infection shortly after being discharged to a rehabilitation facility. Direct COVID-19 neuroinvasion was ruled out via CSF PCR testing for the virus. The patient responded well to pulse steroid therapy and plasmapheresis in both occasions. We hypothesize that COVID-19 infection can flare-up a recently remitted ADEM via altering the immune responses. It is known now that COVID-19 infection can produce cytokine storming. Cytokine pathway activation is known to be involved in the pathology of ADEM. Caution regarding discharging immune suppressed patient to the inpatient rehabilitation facility should be made in the era of COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19/complications , Coxsackievirus Infections/complications , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/virology , Symptom Flare Up , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/pathology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2