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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 929689, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987474

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection currently remains one of the biggest global challenges that can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) in severe cases. In line with this, prior pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for long-term respiratory impairment. Post-TB lung dysfunction often goes unrecognized, despite its relatively high prevalence and its association with reduced quality of life. In this study, we used a metabolomics analysis to identify potential biomarkers that aid in the prognosis of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in post-TB infected patients. This analysis involved blood samples from 155 SARS-CoV-2 infected adults, of which 23 had a previous diagnosis of TB (post-TB), while 132 did not have a prior or current TB infection. Our analysis indicated that the vast majority (~92%) of post-TB individuals showed severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, required intensive oxygen support with a significantly high mortality rate (52.2%). Amongst individuals with severe COVID-19 symptoms, we report a significant decline in the levels of amino acids, notably the branched chains amino acids (BCAAs), more so in the post-TB cohort (FDR <= 0.05) in comparison to mild and asymptomatic cases. Indeed, we identified betaine and BCAAs as potential prognostic metabolic biomarkers of severity and mortality, respectively, in COVID-19 patients who have been exposed to TB. Moreover, we identified serum alanine as an important metabolite at the interface of severity and mortality. Hence, our data associated COVID-19 mortality and morbidity with a long-term metabolically driven consequence of TB infection. In summary, our study provides evidence for a higher mortality rate among COVID-19 infection patients who have history of prior TB infection diagnosis, which mandates validation in larger population cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Adult , Alanine , Humans , Morbidity , Prognosis , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
2.
Arch Virol ; 167(9): 1773-1783, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899184

ABSTRACT

Currently, health authorities around the world are struggling to limit the spread of COVID-19. Since the beginning of the pandemic, social distancing has been the most important strategy used by most countries to control disease spread by flattening and elongating the epidemic curve. Another strategy, herd immunity, was also applied by some countries through relaxed control measures that allow the free spread of natural infection to build up solid immunity within the population. In 2021, COVID-19 vaccination was introduced with tremendous effort as a promising strategy for limiting the spread of disease. Therefore, in this review, we present the current knowledge about social distancing, herd immunity strategies, and aspects of their implementation to control the COVID-19 pandemic in the presence of the newly developed vaccines. Finally, we suggest a short-term option for controlling the pandemic during vaccine application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3685-3697, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802442

ABSTRACT

Malaria and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) share several characteristics that could lead to cross-infection, particularly in malaria-endemic areas. Early COVID-19 symptoms might be misdiagnosed for malaria in clinical settings. Also, both diseases can cause fatal complications. So, laboratory testing for both diseases was recommended by the World Health Organization. To study the clinical characteristics and outcomes of Adult Sudanese patients with COVID-19 and malaria coinfection. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2021 to October 2021 in Wad Medani. Total coverage of all Sudanese patients above 18 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of coinfection with COVID-19 and malaria was included, and data were collected using a data collection sheet. Data were analyzed using R software version 4.0.2. Data were described and presented as mean, standard deviation, and number (percentage). To find associated factors with in-hospital outcome, χ2 test, fisher exact test, and independent t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used. In this study, 156 participants were diagnosed with COVID-19 and malaria coinfection. Most of them were between 60 and 70 years (30.8%), the majority were males (59%). Shortness of breath (76.3%) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (35.3%) were the most common symptom and complications among coinfected patients, respectively. Ground glass opacity (n = 47/49, 95.9%) is the most common result for computed tomography scan. Atrial fibrillation was the most common abnormal electrocardiogram finding (n = 6/62, 9.7%). Overall mortality among all participants was (63/156, 40.4%). High mortality rate was found among the coinfected patients. More attention is needed towards fighting COVID-19 and malaria coinfection. There may be a link between malaria and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Malaria , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Malaria/complications , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Sudan/epidemiology
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