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1.
RSC advances ; 11(46):28876-28891, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812572

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated the potential of emergent pathogens to severely damage public health and global economies. As a consequence of the pandemic, millions of people have been forced into self-isolation, which has negatively affected the global economy. More efforts are needed to find new innovative approaches that could fundamentally change our understanding and management of this disaster. Herein, lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPH NPs) were utilized as a platform for the delivery of azithromycin or niclosamide in combination with piroxicam. The obtained systems were successfully loaded with both azithromycin and piroxicam (LPHAzi–Pir) with entrapment efficiencies (EE%) of 74.23 ± 8.14% and 51.52 ± 5.45%, respectively, or niclosamide and piroxicam (LPHNic–Pir) with respective EE% of 85.14 ± 3.47% and 48.75 ± 4.77%. The prepared LPH NPs had a core–shell nanostructure with particle size ≈ 125 nm and zeta potential ≈ −16.5 irrespective of drug payload. A dose-dependent cellular uptake of both LPH NPs was observed in human lung fibroblast cells. An enhanced in vitro antiviral efficacy of both LPHAzi–Pir and LPHNic–Pir was obtained over the mixed solution of the drugs. The LPH NPs of azithromycin or niclosamide with piroxicam displyed a promising capability to hinder the replication of SARS-CoV-2, with IC50 of 3.16 and 1.86 μM, respectively. These results provide a rationale for further in vivo pharmacological as well as toxicological studies to evaluate the potential activity of these drugs to combat the COVID-19 outbreak, especially the concept of combination therapy. Additionally, the molecular docking of macrolide bioactive compounds against papain-like protease (PDB ID:6wuu) was achieved. A ligand-based study, especially rapid overlay chemical structure (ROCS), was also examined to identify the general pharmacophoric features of these compounds and their similarity to reported anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. Molecular dynamic simulation was also implemented. Drug repurposing approach to combat SARS-CoV-2: lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPH) for the delivery of azithromycin or niclosamide in combination with piroxicam.

2.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(6): e5365, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739127

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a potential antiviral medication that has been recently licensed for Covid-19 treatment. In this work, a gadolinium-based magnetic ionic liquid was prepared and used as an extractant in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of favipiravir in human plasma. The high enriching ability of DLLME allowed the determination of favipiravir in real samples using HPLC/UV with sufficient sensitivity. The effects of several variables on extraction efficiency were investigated, including type of extractant, amount of extractant, type of disperser and disperser volume. The maximum enrichment was attained using 50 mg of the Gd-magnetic ionic liquid (MIL) and 150 µl of tetrahydrofuran. The Gd-based MIL could form a supramolecular assembly in the presence of tetrahydrofuran, which enhanced the extraction efficiency of favipiravir. The developed method was validated according to US Food and Drug Administration bioanalytical method validation guidelines. The coefficient of determination was 0.9999, for a linear concentration range of 25 to 1.0 × 105  ng/ml. The percentage recovery (accuracy) varied from 99.83 to 104.2%, with RSD values (precision) ranging from 4.07 to 11.84%. The total extraction time was about 12 min and the HPLC analysis time was 5 min. The method was simple, selective and sensitive for the determination of favipiravir in real human plasma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ionic Liquids , Liquid Phase Microextraction , Amides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Furans , Gadolinium , Humans , Liquid Phase Microextraction/methods , Magnetic Phenomena , Pyrazines
3.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1189: 123087, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587335

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a promising antiviral agent that has been recently approved for treatment of COVID-19 infection. In this study, a menthol-assisted homogenous liquid-liquid microextraction method has been developed for favipiravir determination in human plasma using HPLC/UV. The different factors that could affect the extraction efficiency were studied, including extractant type, extractant volume, menthol amount and vortex time. The optimum extraction efficiency was achieved using 300 µL of tetrahydrofuran, 30 mg of menthol and vortexing for 1 min before centrifuging the sample for 5 min at 3467g. Addition of menthol does not only induce phase separation, but also helps to form reverse micelles to facilitate extraction. The highly polar favipiravir molecules would be incorporated into the hydrophilic core of the formed reverse micelle to be extracted by the non-polar organic extractant. The method was validated according to the FDA bioanalytical method guidelines. The developed method was found linear in the concentration range of 0.1 to 100 µg/mL with a coefficient of determination of 0.9992. The method accuracy and precision were studied by calculating the recovery (%) and the relative standard deviation (%), respectively. The recovery (%) was in the range of 97.1-103.9%, while the RSD (%) values ranged between 2.03 and 8.15 %. The developed method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of Flupirava® 200 mg versus Avigan® 200 mg, after a single oral dose of favipiravir administered to healthy adult volunteers. The proposed method was simple, cheap, more eco-friendly and sufficiently sensitive for biomedical application.


Subject(s)
Amides/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/drug therapy , Liquid Phase Microextraction/methods , Pyrazines/isolation & purification , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/blood , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Humans , Liquid Phase Microextraction/instrumentation , Menthol/chemistry , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Arab J Chem ; 14(4): 103092, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574281

ABSTRACT

This work was a structured virtual screening for marine bioactive compounds with reported antiviral activities which were subjected to structure-based studies against SARS-CoV-2 co-crystallized proteins. The molecular docking of marine bioactive compounds against the main protease (Mpro, PDB ID: 6lu7 and 6y2f), the spike glycoprotein (PDB ID: 6vsb), and the RNA polymerase (PDB ID: 6m71) of SARS-CoV-2 was performed. Ligand-based approach with the inclusion of rapid overlay chemical structures (ROCS) was also addressed in order to examine the probability of these marine compounds sharing relevance and druggability with the reported drugs. Among the examined marine library, the highest scores in different virtual screening aspects were displayed by compounds with flavonoids core, acyl indole, and pyrrole carboxamide alkaloids. Moreover, a complete overlay with the co-crystallized ligands of Mpro was revealed by sceptrin and debromo-sceptrin. Thalassoilin (A-B) which was found in the Red Sea exhibited the highest binding and similarity outcomes among all target proteins. These data highlight the importance of marine natural metabolites in regard to further studies for discovering new drugs to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

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