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J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(1): 64-73, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568446


BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus 2019 is a pandemic that has spread worldwide, threatening human health. The main cause of death in patients with COVID-19 is a systemic pro-inflammatory mechanism that quickly progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Hematological ratios as affordable indicators of inflammatory response were studied in COVID-19 patients. The study aimed to study the importance of the blood cell indexes of the systemic inflammatory response, as the Aggregate Index of Systemic Inflammation (AISI), neutrophils lymphocyte to platelet ratio (NLPR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and, systemic inflammation response index (SIRI) in predicting intensive care unit (ICU) admission of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: 495 COVID-19 patients managed in four tertiary centers; divided into non-ICU and ICU groups. RESULTS: Total leucocyte count (TLC), AISI, NLPR, SII, and SIRI were more elevated in the ICU group (P < 0.001 for all except AMC P = 0.006), while this group had less absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) (P = 0.047). We estimated the optimal cut-off values of the hematological ratio; AISI (729), NLPR (0.0195), SII (1346), and SIRI (2.5). SII had the highest specificity (95.6%), while NLPR had the highest sensitivity (61.3%). Age, AISI, CRP, D-dimer, and oxygen aid were the independent predictors for ICU admission in COVID-19 in multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSION: AISI is a predictor for severity and ICU admission in COVID-19 patients, SII is a predictor of survival, while NLPR and SIRI have an additive role that needs further evaluation.

COVID-19 , Humans , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
J Blood Med ; 12: 505-515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302063


INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses belong to a large family that leads to respiratory infection of various severity. Hematological ratios are indicators of inflammatory response widely used in viral pneumonia with affordability in developing countries. PURPOSE: Study the role of the neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR ratio (d-NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte monocyte ratio (LMR) in predicting the outcome of COVID-19 Egyptian patients. METHODS: A retrospective study on 496 COVID-19 Egyptian patients, managed in four tertiary centers, grouped into non-severe, severe, and critical. Patients' laboratory assessment including total leucocyte count (TLC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC), NLR, d-NLR, LMR and, PLR were reported as well as C reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer and serum ferritin. RESULTS: TLC, ANC, AMC, NLR, d-NLR and, PLR were highest in the critical group (p<0.001 for all except AMC p=0.033), while this group had the least ALC and LMR (p=0.049 and <0.001, respectively). Higher CRP and d-dimer levels were reported in the critical group (p<0.001). At the same time, higher ferritin was found in the severe group more than the critical and non-severe groups (p<0.001, p=0.005, respectively). We calculated the optimal cut-off values of the hematological ratio; NLR (3.5), d-NLR (2.86), PLR (192), and LMR (3). D-NLR had the highest specificity (89.19%), while NLR had the highest sensitivity (71.38%). By univariate logistic regression, age, DM, HTN, cardiovascular diseases, COPD, NLR, d-NLR, LMR and PLR, CRP, steroid, oxygen aids, and mechanical ventilation were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Still, only age, NLR, CRP, and oxygen aid were independent predictors in multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSION: NLR is a predictor for severity in COVID-19. LMR, d-NLR, and PLR may assist in risk stratification.