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Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ; 21(1), 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-992595


Background: Upon re-examination of our human history, evolutionary perspectives, and genetics, a prevailing iron deficiency phenotype appears to have evolved to protect the human race from extinction. Body: In this review, we summarize the evolutionary and genetic perspectives pointing towards the hypothesis that low iron mitigates infection. The presence of infection promotes the generation of resistance alleles, and there are some evolutionary and genetic clues that suggest the presence of an iron deficiency phenotype that may have developed to protect against infection. Examples include the relative paucity of iron overload genes given the essential role of iron, as well as the persistence of iron deficiency among populations in spite of public health efforts to treat it. Additional examination of geographic areas with severe iron deficiency in the setting of pandemics including H1N1, SARS, and COVID-19 reveals that areas with higher prevalence of iron deficiency are less affected. RNA viruses have several evolutionary adaptations which suggest their absolute need for iron, and this dependency may be exploited during treatment. Conclusion: RNA viruses pose a unique challenge to modern healthcare, with an average of 2–3 new pathogens being discovered yearly. Their overarching requirements for iron, along with human evolutionary and genetic adaptations which favored an iron deficiency phenotype, ultimately suggest the potential need for iron control in these infections.

Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette ; 68 (1) (no pagination)(21), 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-658153


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged as a small outbreak in Wuhan rapidly progressing into the deadliest pandemic since the Spanish flu of 1918. The disease was deemed trivial in children, until the reporting, few days ago, of an emerging pediatric multi-inflammatory syndrome mimicking Kawasaki disease (KD). Main body: This report reveals that coronaviridae were implicated in induction of several post-infectious vasculitides, namely, KD, AHEI, and HSP. This occurs in genetically susceptible individuals to vascular inflammation. Shared genetic susceptibilities between KD and CoV include genes encoding for CD 40, HLAB-15:03, and ACE. This leads to augmented inflammation with hypersecretion of cytokines especially IL-6. Conclusion(s): The revealed relationships between KD and CoV can help to predict the risk of KD in COVID-19 patients through screening levels of upregulated cytokines. It might also signify that classic treatment of KD with IVIG might need to be replaced with anti-cytokine therapy in COVID-19 patients. Copyright © 2020, The Author(s).