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Chest ; 162(4):A2571-A2572, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060966


SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Issues in Transplantation Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: We describe two unvaccinated lung transplant recipients (LTRs) with mild COVID-19 and prolonged SARS-CoV-2 colonization who presented with recrudescence of symptoms due to superinfection. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1: A 57-year-old LTR (August 2018) presented to the emergency room (ER) in July 2020 with headache, positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab-PCR result, and elevated D-Dimer. He recovered at home and tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 on day 28. He presented to the ER again in October 2020 with chest pain. At this time, evaluation revealed a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab-PCR result, positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG (index 3.41), leukocytosis, and elevated inflammatory markers. Of note, nasopharyngeal swab was also positive for rhinovirus. Imaging showed new mild bibasilar ground-glass opacities. Patient was treated with remdesevir, convalescent plasma, and pulse corticosteroid. His SARS-CoV-2 PCR test was negative on day 3 of the remdesevir regimen;he remains clear of SARS-CoV-2 and rhinovirus to date, with complete clinical and radiologic recovery (Figure 1, Case 1). His immunosuppression was unchanged. Case 2: A 75-year-old LTR (July 2016) with pancytopenia presented for a sick visit in May 2020 with cough and fever. His SARS-CoV-2 nasal wash-PCR test was positive;imaging was unremarkable. He was sent home on pulse corticosteroid and levofloxacin. A week later in June 2020, he presented to the ER with worsening cough. At this time, evaluation revealed positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG (index 7.58), leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated inflammatory markers, and new radiographic bibasilar ground-glass opacities (Figure 1, Case 2). His condition improved with intravenous antibiotics and corticosteroids. He consistently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in nasal wash samples for 3 months, with the first negative test in September 2020. He was hospitalized in January 2021 for neutropenic fever, P. Aeruginosa (PsA) infection in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and anti-PsA antibodies in the serum. At this time, he also had SARS-CoV-2 colonization in BAL despite negative PCR results of nasal wash samples. His condition improved with 14 days of antibiotics. He was stable at his last follow-up. DISCUSSION: Both patients had an initial episode of mild COVID-19 pneumonitis, appropriate seroconversion, and prolonged viral colonization in the respiratory tract. Immunosuppression may have predisposed to rhinovirus and PsA superinfection in case 1 and 2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion for superimposed infections in LTRs recovering from COVID-19 is warranted. Reference #1: 1. Hogan JI, Kotton CN. A Call for Caution in the Immunocompromised: Coronavirus Disease 2019 Associated With Mortality in a Vaccinated Lung Transplant Recipient. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2021 Nov 10;8(12):ofab557. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Hesham Abdelrazek No relevant relationships by Ashwini Arjuna No relevant relationships by Bhuvin Buddhdev No relevant relationships by Deepika Razia No relevant relationships by Rajat Walia, value=Honoraria Removed 04/04/2022 by Rajat Walia No relevant relationships by Rajat Walia, value=Honoraria Removed 04/04/2022 by Rajat Walia No relevant relationships by Rajat Walia, value=Honoraria Removed 04/04/2022 by Rajat Walia No relevant relationships by Rajat Walia, value=Honoraria Removed 04/04/2022 by Rajat Walia No relevant relationships by Rajat Walia, value=Honoraria Removed 04/04/2022 by Rajat Walia

Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation ; 41(4):S433-S434, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849175
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation ; 41(4):S433-S434, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782175


Introduction Lung transplantation (LTx) is lifesaving for patients with irreversible lung injury due to COVID-19;however, all viable virus must be cleared before transplant. Prolonged viral shedding is common, particularly among immunosuppressed patients. Thus, ongoing detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA may delay transplant and prolong hospitalization. We report a case of an LTx recipient who developed COVID-19-associated lung injury with prolonged viral shedding that persisted following redo LTx. Case Report A 48-year-old man developed COVID-19 17 months after bilateral LTx. His illness rapidly progressed to hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring bilevel ventilation and prone positioning. He was treated with corticosteroids, remdesevir, convalescent plasma, anticoagulation, and reduced immunosuppression. Tocilizumab was not administered as data supporting its use was unavailable. Despite aggressive therapy, he remained hypoxemic and developed radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis. SARS-CoV-2 was persistently isolated between November 2020 and April 2021;the PCR cycle threshold in March 2021 was 32, indicating a low level of viral RNA. There was no evidence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Finally, after 2 negative nasopharyngeal swabs in April, he underwent redo bilateral LTx in May 2021, 163 days after his initial diagnosis. Postoperative critical illness myopathy required prolonged mechanical ventilation, nutrition via a feeding tube, and 19 days at an acute rehabilitation center. Routine surveillance bronchoscopy 40 days after retransplant revealed SARS-CoV-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and again in a nasal wash sample. He had no COVID-19 symptoms at the time of viral isolation, and inflammatory markers were normal. He was empirically treated with casirivimab and imdevimab, with resolution of SARS-CoV-2 isolation 8 days later. Summary Prolonged viral shedding is common in immunocompromised patients with COVID-19;however, ongoing viral isolation is not a reliable indicator of active viral replication and transmissibility. Our patient had persistent SARS-CoV-2 isolation after redo LTx with no evidence of COVID-19 or allograft injury. Thus, persistent viral shedding alone may not be an absolute contraindication to LTx and additional factors such as PCR cycle threshold and time from original infection should be considered.