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Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(24): 7069-7084, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035026


The outbreak rate of human coronaviruses (CoVs) especially highly pathogenic CoVs is increasing alarmingly. Early detection of these viruses allows treatment interventions to be provided more quickly to people at higher risk, as well as helping to identify asymptomatic carriers and isolate them as quickly as possible, thus preventing the disease transmission chain. The current diagnostic methods such as RT-PCR are not ideal due to high cost, low accuracy, low speed, and probability of false results. Therefore, a reliable and accurate method for the detection of CoVs in biofluids can become a front-line tool in order to deal with the spread of these deadly viruses. Currently, the nanomaterial-based sensing devices for detection of human coronaviruses from laboratory diagnosis to point-of-care (PoC) diagnosis are progressing rapidly. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have revolutionized the field of biosensors because of the outstanding optical and electrochemical properties. In this review paper, a detailed overview of AuNP-based biosensing strategies with the varied transducers (electrochemical, optical, etc.) and also different biomarkers (protein antigens and nucleic acids) was presented for the detection of human coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and MERS-CoV and lowly pathogenic CoVs. The present review highlights the newest trends in the SARS-CoV-2 nanobiosensors from the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic until 2022. We hope that the presented examples in this review paper convince readers that AuNPs are a suitable platform for the designing of biosensors.

Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Gold , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Microchem J ; 179: 107585, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946066


Currently, the development of biosensors is an urgent need due to the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the limitations of current standard methods for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Hence, many researchers have focused on the design of high-performance biosensors for measuring coronavirus genes. In this study, a voltammetric genosensor was developed for the determination of SARS-CoV-2 RdRP gene based on the format of cDNA probe/Au@CD core-shell NPs/graphite nanocrystals (GNCs)/paper electrode. For the first time, graphite nanocrystals were used in the electrochemical biosensor design. This genosensor was exposed to different concentrations of virus gene and then the hybridization between cDNA probe and RdRP gene was monitored by redox-active toluidine blue (TB). With increasing the RdRP concentration, the reduction peak current of TB enhanced in a linear range of 0.50 pM-12.00 nM according to the regression equation of I (µA) = 7.60 log CRdRP (pM) + 25.78. The repeatability with a RSD of 2.2% clearly exhibited that the response of modified electrode is stable because of the high adhesion of GNC layer on the paper substrate and the high stability of cDNA-Au@CD bioconjugates. The spike-and-recovery studies showed the acceptable recoveries for the sputum samples (>95%).