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2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321594

ABSTRACT

Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) of the joints, gut and skin are treated with inhibitors of inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Investigating anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in IMIDs we observed a significantly reduced incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in IMID patients treated with cytokine inhibitors compared to patients receiving no such inhibitors and two healthy control populations, despite similar social exposure. Hence, cytokine inhibitors seem to at least partially protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection.Authors David Simon and Koray Tascilar contributed equally to this work. Authors Markus F. Neurath and Georg Schett share senior authorship.

3.
Can J Nurs Res ; : 8445621211066721, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty about vaccination among nurses are major barriers to managing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. PURPOSE: To explore nurses perceptions about receiving the SARS CoV-2 vaccine to inform the upcoming Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH) vaccination efforts. METHODS: Four focus groups were conducted with nurses between January 18 and 30, 2021, before MOH launched vaccinations in Palestine. Participants working in government and private facilities were invited to participate and completed an online or paper form to provide demographics, review the study purpose, and give consent. Meetings were facilitated in Arabic either online via the Zoom platform or face-to-face using the same interview guide. Transcripts were translated into English and coded using a template analysis approach. RESULTS: Forty-six nurses, with a median age of 29.5y (range, 22-57) from across Palestine participated. Three major themes emerged: uncertainty, trust, and the knowledge needed to move forward. Uncertainty related to the evolving nature of COVID-19, the rapidity of vaccine development, the types and timing of available vaccines. The need for trusted experts to share scientific information about the vaccines to counteract the misinformation in social media. Moreover, reliable vaccine information may help vaccine-hesitant nurses move to vaccine-acceptors and to convince others, including their patients. CONCLUSION: The negative perception of nurses towards vaccines is problematic in Palestine and uncertainty about which vaccine(s) will be available adds to the lack of education and mass-media misinformation. Other countries with vaccination efforts that are not wholly planned or implemented and may be struggling with similar concerns.

4.
Sustainability ; 13(9):5258, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1239005

ABSTRACT

The tribal belt of the Hindu Kush mountains is famous for its unique culture, ethnography, wild food plants, food systems, and traditional knowledge. People in this region gather wild plants and plant parts using them directly or in traditional cuisine, or sell them in local markets. However, there is a huge lack of documentation of the food system, particularly that related to wild food plants (WFP). In the current study, we focus on the uses and contributions of WFPs in the traditional tribal food system of the Hindu Kush valleys along the Pakistan–Afghanistan border. Ethnobotanical data were gathered through questionnaire surveys of 84 informants, including 69 men and 15 women, belonging to 21 different villages of the chosen area. In tribal societies men and women rarely mix and thus very few women took part in the surveys. We documented 63 WFP species belonging to 34 botanical families, of which 27 were used as vegetables, 24 as fruits, six in different kinds of chutneys (starters), and six as fresh food species. Fruits were the most used part (41%), followed by leaves (24%), aerial parts (24%), seeds (7%), stems (3%), and young inflorescences (1%). The reported uses of Carthamus oxyacantha, Pinus roxburghii seeds, and Marsilea quadrifolia leaves are novel for the gastronomy of Pakistan. The results reveal that WFPs provide a significant contribution to local food systems and play a role in addressing human nutritional needs, which are usually not met through farming practices. The tribal peoples of the Hindu Kush use WFPs for their nutritional value, but also as a cultural practice—an inseparable component of the tribal community’s lifestyle. This important traditional knowledge about the gathering and consumption of WFPs, however, is eroding at an alarming rate among younger generations due to the introduction of fast-food, modernization, and globalization. Therefore, appropriate strategies are imperative not only to safeguard traditional plants and food knowledge and practices, as well as the cultural heritage attached to them, but also to foster food security and thus public healthcare via local wild foods in the region.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3774, 2020 07 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-672188

ABSTRACT

Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) of the joints, gut and skin are treated with inhibitors of inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Investigating anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in IMIDs we observe a reduced incidence of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in IMID patients treated with cytokine inhibitors compared to patients receiving no such inhibitors and two healthy control populations, despite similar social exposure. Hence, cytokine inhibitors seem to at least partially protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Immune System Diseases/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Seroconversion , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk
6.
Visc Med ; 36(4): 338-342, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618476

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, represents a potentially major challenge to patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases who are treated with immunomodulatory therapies. We report the case of an 18-year-old ulcerative colitis patient in sustained clinical remission who 4 days after application of her ongoing therapy with the anti-TNF antibody infliximab developed mild respiratory and abdominal symptoms. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19 but did not need hospitalization. The clinical symptoms completely resolved within 1 week after onset and there was no change in ulcerative colitis activity. The recently applied anti-TNF therapy did not lead to exacerbation of the infectious symptoms. Current recommendations strongly favor continuation of effective maintenance anti-TNF therapy in inflammatory bowel disease patients, as there is no evidence for aggravated CO-VID-19 upon infection. It is unclear whether anti-TNF treatment might even have assisted in preventing worsening of COVID-19 and improving outcome. Further data in the group of immune-mediated inflammatory disease patients under anti-TNF therapy are urgently needed.

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