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1.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 6(5): 420-427, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031554

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This study describes the risks and outcome in COVID-19 patients with CVD attending Primary Health Care Corporationsettings in Qatar. Objective: To report whether CVD increases the risk for hospitalization and further complications in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Retrospective cohort study. Results: A total of 10,178 CVD patients' data who tested positive for COVID-19 were extracted from electronic medical records on the basis of inclusion criteria and analyzed during the period of February 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020 (11 months). Among the patients included in the study, 64% (n=6527) were men and 36% (n=3651) were women; 23% (n=2299) were Qataris and 77% (n=7879) were non-Qataris. Among the selected age group of greater than 25 to less than 75 years, the median age was 50.83 years. More than half of the patients had diabetes (69.6%; n=7086) followed by hypertension (68.4%; n=6965) and dyslipidemia (45.1%; n=4590). Other comorbidities were obesity (18.3%; n=1862), kidney disease (6.5%; n=659), hematologic problems (4.2%; n=425), liver disorders (1.4%; n=142), rheumatic heart disease (1.3%; n=131) and neurologic symptoms (1.3%; n=128). Multivariate analysis for factors associated with inpatient admissions in last 28 days for patients with CVD reported that patients with age greater than 70 years are 2.8 (1.86-4.18) times higher risk of hospital admission as compared with the patients 25-30 years of age. Conclusion: The pre-existing CVD with age and other comorbidities predict the risk for hospitalization and further complications in patients with COVID-19. Further studies are needed to investigate the data from primary and secondary care about the long-term cardiovascular outcomes of patients who have survived COVID-19.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911730

ABSTRACT

Waning immunity following administration of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines remains a concern for many health systems. We undertook a study to determine if recent reports of waning for severe disease could have been attributed to design-related bias by conducting a study only among those detected with a first SARS-CoV-2 infection. We used a matched case-control study design with the study base being all individuals with first infection with SARS-CoV-2 reported in the State of Qatar between 1 January 2021 and 20 February 2022. Cases were those detected with first SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring intensive care (hard outcome), while controls were those detected with first SARS-CoV-2 infection who recovered without the need for intensive care. Cases and controls were matched in a 1:30 ratio for the calendar month of infection and the comorbidity category. Duration and magnitude of conditional vaccine effectiveness against requiring intensive care and the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one more case of COVID-19 requiring intensive care was estimated for the mRNA (BNT162b2/mRNA-1273) vaccines. Conditional vaccine effectiveness against requiring intensive care was 59% (95% confidence interval (CI), 50 to 76) between the first and second dose, and strengthened to 89% (95% CI, 85 to 92) between the second dose and 4 months post the second dose in persons who received a primary course of the vaccine. There was no waning of vaccine effectiveness in the period from 4 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 months after the second dose. This study demonstrates that, contrary to mainstream reports using hierarchical measures of effectiveness, conditional vaccine effectiveness against requiring intensive care remains robust till at least 12 months after the second dose of mRNA-based vaccines.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334155

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Waning immunity following administration of mRNA based COVID-19 vaccines remains a concern for many health systems. We undertook a study of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with and without requirement for intensive care to shed more light on the duration of vaccine effectiveness for protection against the need for intensive care. Methods We used a matched case-control study design with the study base being all individuals with first infection with SARS-CoV-2 reported in the State of Qatar between 1 Jan 2021 and 20 Feb 2022. Cases were those requiring intensive care while controls were those who recovered without need for intensive care. Vaccine effectiveness against requiring intensive care and number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one more case of COVID-19 requiring intensive care were computed for the mRNA (BNT162b2 / mRNA-1273) vaccines. Results Vaccine effectiveness against requiring intensive care was 59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50 to 76) between the first and second dose and strengthened to 89% (95% CI, 85 to 92) between the second dose and 4 months post the second dose in persons who received a primary course of the vaccine. There was no waning of vaccine effectiveness in the period from 4 to 12 months after the second dose. Conclusions This study demonstrates that vaccine effectiveness against requiring intensive care remains robust till at least 12 months after the second dose of mRNA based vaccines.

4.
Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare ; 15:531-540, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749460

ABSTRACT

Purpose Predisposition to acute illness from COVID-19 is suggested to correlate with cigarette smoking as it augments the risk of developing cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, including infections. However, the effects of smoking on COVID-19 symptoms are not well described and controversial. In this study, we aim to explore the associations between smoking and COVID-19 symptoms. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional study using the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH), Qatar database was administered to a Qatari population with confirmed COVID-19 disease who filled in pre-defined phone-call questionnaire between 27th February 2020 and 31st December 2020. We analyzed 11,701 non-vaccinated COVID-19 individuals (2952 smokers and 8749 non-smokers) with confirmed RT-PCR test results. The association of smoking and the presence of symptoms as well as patient characteristics was calculated using Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, adjusting for potential covariates. Results Compared with the non-smokers, symptomatic COVID-19 infection is significantly higher in smokers. In addition, we found fever as the most common symptom developed in COVID-19 patients followed by cough, headache, muscle ache, and sore throat. As compared to other symptoms, association of smoking with chills and abdominal pain was less evident (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). However, both groups showed similar rates of developing cough. Conclusion In conclusion, smoking is associated with COVID-19 symptoms frequency in non-vaccinated patients;nevertheless, further investigations are necessary to understand the mechanism of this association which could generate new targets for the management of COVID-19 in smoker patients.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314743

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 transmission was significant amongst Qatar’s working population during the March-July 2020 outbreak. The study aimed to estimate the risk of exposure for COVID-19 across various workplace settings in the State of Qatar. MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted utilizing surveillance data of all workplaces with ten or more laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19. These workplaces were categorized using a mapping table adapted from the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes 2017 version. The data was then analyzed to estimate and compare the positivity rate as an indicator of the risk of developing COVID-19 infection across various workplace settings in the State of Qatar. ResultsThe highest positivity rate was reported amongst the Construction (40.3%) and the Retail & Wholesale Trade sectors (40.3%) whereas, the lowest positivity rate was attributed to the healthcare workplace setting (11.0%). The private funded sector employees had higher positivity rates than employees of the governmental funded sector. ConclusionThe elevated risk of infection amongst screened workers in Construction and Retail & Wholesale Trade was probably due to Environmental and Educational vulnerabilities. On the other hand, the better containment within healthcare workplace settings can be attributed to the enforcement of infection control and occupational safety measures. These findings underline the importance of appropriately using preventive and surveillance strategies for high-risk workplace settings to mitigate the risk of infection.

7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e193, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366777

ABSTRACT

There is a paucity of evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for symptomatic infection among children. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its risk factors in children and adolescents aged 0-18 years in Qatar. We conducted a cross-sectional study of all children aged 0-18 years diagnosed with COVID-19 using polymerase chain reaction in Qatar during the period 1st March to 31st July 2020. A generalised linear model with a binomial family and identity link was used to assess the association between selected factors and the prevalence of symptomatic infection. A total of 11 445 children with a median age of 8 years (interquartile range (IQR) 3-13 years) were included in this study. The prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19 was 36.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 35.7-37.5), and it was similar between children aged <5 years (37.8%), 5-9 years (34.3%) and 10 + years (37.3%). The most frequently reported symptoms among the symptomatic group were fever (73.5%), cough (34.8%), headache (23.2%) and sore throat (23.2%). Fever (82.8%) was more common in symptomatic children aged <5 years, while cough (38.7%) was more prevalent in those aged 10 years or older, compared to other age groups. Variables associated with an increased risk of symptomatic infection were; contact with confirmed cases (RD 0.21; 95% CI 0.20-0.23; P = 0.001), having visited a health care facility (RD 0.54; 95% CI 0.45-0.62; P = 0.001), and children aged under 5 years (RD 0.05; 95% CI 0.02-0.07; P = 0.001) or aged 10 years or older (RD 0.04; 95% CI 0.02-0.06; P = 0.001). A third of the children with COVID-19 were symptomatic with a higher proportion of fever in very young children and a higher proportion of cough in those between 10 and 18 years of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Qatar/epidemiology , Risk Factors
8.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 16: 21, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277953

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 transmission was significant amongst Qatar's working population during the March-July 2020 outbreak. The study aimed to estimate the risk of exposure for COVID-19 across various workplace settings and demographics in the State of Qatar. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted utilizing surveillance data of all workplaces with 10 or more laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19. These workplaces were categorized using a mapping table adapted from the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes, 2017 version. The data was then analyzed to estimate and compare the positivity rate as an indicator of the risk of developing COVID-19 infection across various workplace settings in the State of Qatar. RESULTS: The highest positivity rate was reported amongst the Construction & Related (40.0%) and the Retail & Wholesale Trade sectors (40.0%), whereas, the lowest positivity rate was attributed to the healthcare workplace setting (11.0%). The highest incidence of COVID-19 infections occurred in South Asian nationalities and in the male gender. The private funded sector employees have seen higher positivity rate than employees of the governmental funded sector. CONCLUSION: The elevated risk of infection in Construction and Retail & Wholesale Trade is probably due to environmental and educational vulnerabilities. The predominant labor force of those workplace categories is South Asian craft and male manual workers. Alternatively, the better containment of the healthcare workplace setting can be attributed to the enforcement of infection control and occupational safety measures. These findings imply the importance of using preventive and surveillance strategies for high-risk workplace settings appropriately.

9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 679254, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259412

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 transmission was significant among Healthcare workers worldwide. In March 2020, Qatar started reporting numbers of COVID-19 positive cases among workers in Primary Health Care Corporation (PHCC). The study estimates the burden of the aforementioned infections and examines the demographic characteristics associated with the recorded positivity rates. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among Primary healthcare workers between March 1st and October 31st, 2020. The study examined the positivity rate of the different types of Primary healthcare workers and, analyzed the demographic characteristics of the infected persons. Results: 1,048 (87.4%) of the infected Health Care Workers (HCWs) belonged to the age group below 45 years, and 488 (40.7%) HCWs were females. 450 (37.5%) were HCWs clinical staff working in one of the 27 PHCC Health Centers (HCs) Despite the increased patient footfall and risk environment, the COVID dedicated HCs had an attack rate of 10.1%, which is not significantly different from the average attack rate of 8.9% among staff located in other HCs (p = 0.26). Storekeepers, engineering & maintenance staff, housekeeping staff, support staff, and security staff (outsourced non-clinical positions) had the highest positivity rates, 100, 67.2, 47.1, 32.4, and 29.5% respectively. Conclusion: The elevated risk of infection among outsourced non-clinical healthcare workers can be explained by environmental factors such as living conditions. Furthermore, better containment within clinical healthcare workers can be attributed to strict safety training and compliance with preventative measures which is recommended to be implemented across all settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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