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2.
CMAJ ; 194(21): E751-E760, 2022 05 30.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875139

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: Les différences d'immunogénicité entre les vaccins anti-SRAS-CoV-2 à ARNm n'ont pas été bien caractérisées chez les patients hémodialysés. Nous avons comparé la réponse sérologique chez les patients sous hémodialyse après la vaccination contre le SRAS-CoV-2 au moyen des vaccins BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) et mRNA-1273 (Moderna). MÉTHODES: Nous avons procédé à une étude de cohorte observationnelle et prospective dans 2 centres universitaires de Toronto, au Canada, du 2 février au 20 juillet 2021, et avons inclus 129 et 95 patients qui ont reçu respectivement les vaccins anti-SRAS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 et mRNA-1273. Nous avons mesuré les taux d'anticorps IgG dirigés contre la protéine S (anti-S), contre le domaine de liaison au récepteur (ou RBD, pour receptor-binding domain [anti-RBD]) et contre la protéine de la nucléocapside (anti-N) du SRAS-CoV-2 6­7) puis 12 semaines après la deuxième dose de vaccin et nous avons comparé ces taux aux taux médians d'anticorps présents dans le sérum de 211 témoins convalescents qui avaient déjà contracté le SRAS-CoV-2. RÉSULTATS: Six à 7 semaines après la deuxième dose de vaccin, nous avons constaté que 51 patients sur 70 (73 %) ayant reçu le BNT162b2 et 83 patients sur 87 (95 %) ayant reçu le mRNA-1273, ont obtenu des taux équivalents à ceux du sérum de convalescents pour ce qui est de l'anticorps anti-S (p < 0,001). Chez ceux qui ont reçu le BNT162b2, 35 sur 70 (50 %) ont atteint le taux du sérum de convalescents pour l'anti-RBD, contre 69 sur 87 (79 %) de ceux qui ont reçu le mRNA-1273 (p < 0,001). Douze semaines après la deuxième dose, les taux d'anti-S et d'anti-RBD étaient significativement moindres chez les patients ayant reçu le BNT162b2 que chez ceux qui avaient reçu le mRNA-1273. Pour l'anti-S, 70 patients sur 122 (57,4 %) ayant reçu le BNT162b2 ont maintenu un taux équivalent à celui du sérum de convalescents, contre 68 sur 71 (96 %) de ceux qui avaient reçu le mRNA-1273 (p < 0,001). Pour l'anti-RBD, 47 patients sur 122 (38,5 %) ayant reçu le BNT162b2 ont maintenu des taux anti-RBD équivalant à celui du sérum de convalescents, contre 45 sur 71 (63 %) de ceux qui avaient reçu le mRNA-1273 (p = 0,002). INTERPRÉTATION: Chez les patients hémodialysés, le mRNA-1273 a généré une réponse humorale plus forte que le BNT162b2. Étant donné le déclin rapide de l'immunogénicité à 12 semaines chez les patients ayant reçu le BNT162b2, une troisième dose est recommandée chez les patients hémodialysés dans le cadre d'une première série, ce qui concorde avec les recommandations concernant d'autres populations vulnérables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , Humans , Renal Dialysis
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0113422, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874515

ABSTRACT

Our group has previously used laboratory and commercially developed assays to understand the IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, including nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), and receptor binding domain (RBD), in Canadian blood donors. In this current study, we analyzed 17,428 available and previously characterized retention samples collected from April 2020 to March 2021. The analysis compared the characteristics of the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (Abbott anti-spike [S], Abbott, Chicago, IL) against four other IgG assays. The Abbott anti-S assay has a qualitative threshold of 50 AU/mL. The four comparator assays were the Abbott anti-nucleocapsid (N) assay and three commonly used Canadian in-house IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) recognizing distinct recombinant viral antigens, full-length spike glycoprotein, glycoprotein RBD, and nucleocapsid. The strongest qualitative relationship was between Sinai RBD and the Abbott anti-S assay (kappa, 0.707; standard error [SE] of kappa, 0.018; 95% confidence interval, 0.671 to 0.743). We then scored each previously characterized specimen as positive when two anti-SARS-COV-2 assays identified anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the specimen. Using this composite reference standard approach, the sensitivity of the Abbott anti-S assay was 95.96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.27 to 97.63%). The specificity of the Abbott anti-S assay was 99.35% (95% CI, 99.21 to 99.46%). Our study provides context on the use of commonly used SARS-CoV-2 serologies in Canada and identifies how these assays qualitatively compare to newer commercial assays. Our next steps are to assess how well the Abbott anti-S assays quantitatively detect wild-type and SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. IMPORTANCE We describe the qualitative test characteristics of the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay against four other anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG assays commonly used in Canada. Although there is no gold standard for identifying anti-SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, aggregate standards can be used to assess seropositivity. In this study, we used a specimen bank of previously well-characterized specimens collected between April 2020 and March 2021. The Abbott anti-S assay showed the strongest qualitative relationship with a widely used laboratory-developed IgG assay for the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain. Using the composite reference standard approach, we also showed that the Abbott anti-S assay was highly sensitive and specific. As new anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays are developed, it is important to compare their test characteristics against other assays that have been extensively used in prior research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Canada , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
JCI Insight ; 7(11)2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDLimited information is available on the impact of immunosuppressants on COVID-19 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID).METHODSThis observational cohort study examined the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or psoriatic disease, with or without maintenance immunosuppressive therapies. Ab and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2, including neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 variants, were determined before and after 1 and 2 vaccine doses.RESULTSWe prospectively followed 150 subjects, 26 healthy controls, 9 patients with IMID on no treatment, 44 on anti-TNF, 16 on anti-TNF with methotrexate/azathioprine (MTX/AZA), 10 on anti-IL-23, 28 on anti-IL-12/23, 9 on anti-IL-17, and 8 on MTX/AZA. Ab and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 were detected in all participants, increasing from dose 1 to dose 2 and declining 3 months later, with greater attrition in patients with IMID compared with healthy controls. Ab levels and neutralization efficacy against variants of concern were substantially lower in anti-TNF-treated patients than in healthy controls and were undetectable against Omicron by 3 months after dose 2.CONCLUSIONSOur findings support the need for a third dose of the mRNA vaccine and for continued monitoring of immunity in these patient groups.FUNDINGFunded by a donation from Juan and Stefania Speck and by Canadian Institutes of Health (CIHR)/COVID-Immunity Task Force (CITF) grants VR-1 172711 and VS1-175545 (to THW and ACG), CIHR FDN-143250 (to THW), GA2-177716 (to VC, ACG, and THW), and GA1-177703 (to ACG) and the CIHR rapid response network to SARS-CoV-2 variants, CoVaRR-Net (to ACG).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
5.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 11(3): e1380, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750347

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Antibody testing against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been instrumental in detecting previous exposures and analyzing vaccine-elicited immune responses. Here, we describe a scalable solution to detect and quantify SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, discriminate between natural infection- and vaccination-induced responses, and assess antibody-mediated inhibition of the spike-angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction. Methods: We developed methods and reagents to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The main assays focus on the parallel detection of immunoglobulin (Ig)Gs against the spike trimer, its receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N). We automated a surrogate neutralisation (sn)ELISA that measures inhibition of ACE2-spike or -RBD interactions by antibodies. The assays were calibrated to a World Health Organization reference standard. Results: Our single-point IgG-based ELISAs accurately distinguished non-infected and infected individuals. For seroprevalence assessment (in a non-vaccinated cohort), classifying a sample as positive if antibodies were detected for ≥ 2 of the 3 antigens provided the highest specificity. In vaccinated cohorts, increases in anti-spike and -RBD (but not -N) antibodies are observed. We present detailed protocols for serum/plasma or dried blood spots analysis performed manually and on automated platforms. The snELISA can be performed automatically at single points, increasing its scalability. Conclusions: Measuring antibodies to three viral antigens and identify neutralising antibodies capable of disrupting spike-ACE2 interactions in high-throughput enables large-scale analyses of humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. The reagents are available to enable scaling up of standardised serological assays, permitting inter-laboratory data comparison and aggregation.

6.
CMAJ ; 194(8): E297-E305, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Differences in immunogenicity between mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have not been well characterized in patients undergoing dialysis. We compared the serologic response in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study at 2 academic centres in Toronto, Canada, from Feb. 2, 2021, to July 20, 2021, which included 129 and 95 patients who received the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, respectively. We measured SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G antibodies to the spike protein (anti-spike), receptor binding domain (anti-RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (anti-NP) at 6-7 and 12 weeks after the second dose of vaccine and compared those levels with the median convalescent serum antibody levels from 211 controls who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: At 6-7 weeks after 2-dose vaccination, we found that 51 of 70 patients (73%) who received BNT162b2 and 83 of 87 (95%) who received mRNA-1273 attained convalescent levels of anti-spike antibody (p < 0.001). In those who received BNT162b2, 35 of 70 (50%) reached the convalescent level for anti-RBD compared with 69 of 87 (79%) who received mRNA-1273 (p < 0.001). At 12 weeks after the second dose, anti-spike and anti-RBD levels were significantly lower in patients who received BNT162b2 than in those who received mRNA-1273. For anti-spike, 70 of 122 patients (57.4%) who received BNT162b2 maintained the convalescent level versus 68 of 71 (96%) of those who received mRNA-1273 (p < 0.001). For anti-RBD, 47 of 122 patients (38.5%) who received BNT162b2 maintained the anti-RBD convalescent level versus 45 of 71 (63%) of those who received mRNA-1273 (p = 0.002). INTERPRETATION: In patients undergoing hemodialysis, mRNA-1273 elicited a stronger humoral response than BNT162b2. Given the rapid decline in immunogenicity at 12 weeks in patients who received BNT162b2, a third dose is recommended in patients undergoing dialysis as a primary series, similar to recommendations for other vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario , Prospective Studies , Vaccination
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0256321, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700249

ABSTRACT

We have previously used composite reference standards and latent class analysis (LCA) to evaluate the performance of laboratory assays in the presence of tarnished gold standards. Here, we apply these techniques to repeated, cross-sectional study of Canadian blood donors, whose sera underwent parallel testing with four separate SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays. We designed a repeated cross-sectional design with random cross-sectional sampling of all available retention samples (n = 1500/month) for a 12 -month period from April 2020 until March 2021. Each sample was evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies using four assays an Abbott Architect assay targeting the nucleocapsid antigen (Abbott-NP, Abbott, Chicago IL) and three in-house IgG ELISAs recognizing distinct recombinant viral antigens: full-length spike glycoprotein (Spike), spike glycoprotein receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (NP). We used two analytic approaches to estimate SAR-CoV-2 seroprevalence: a composite reference standard and LCA. Using LCA to estimate true seropositivity status based on the results of the four antibody tests, we estimated that seroprevalence increased from 0.8% (95% CI: 0.5-1.4%) in April 2020 to 6.3% (95% CI: 5.1-7.6%) in March 2021. Our study provides further support for the use of LCA in upcoming public health crises, epidemics, and pandemics when a gold standard assay may not be available or identifiable. IMPORTANCE Here, we describe an approach to estimating seroprevalence in a low prevalence setting when multiple assays are available and yet no known gold standard exists. Because serological studies identify cases through both diagnostic testing and surveillance, and otherwise silent, unrecognized infections, serological data can be used to estimate the true infection fatality ratio of a disease. However, seroprevalence studies rely on assays with imperfect sensitivity and specificity. Seroreversion (loss of antibody response) also occurs over time, and with the advent of vaccination, distinction of antibody response resulting from vaccination as opposed to antibody response due to infection has posed an additional challenge. Our approach indicates that seroprevalence on Canadian blood donors by the end of March 2021was less than 10%. Our study supports the use of latent class analysis in upcoming public health crises, epidemics, and pandemics when a gold standard assay may not be available or identifiable.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Canada/epidemiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2146798, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694847

ABSTRACT

Importance: The incidence of infection during SARS-CoV-2 viral waves, the factors associated with infection, and the durability of antibody responses to infection among Canadian adults remain undocumented. Objective: To assess the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 2 viral waves in Canada by measuring seropositivity among adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Action to Beat Coronavirus study conducted 2 rounds of an online survey about COVID-19 experience and analyzed immunoglobulin G levels based on participant-collected dried blood spots (DBS) to assess the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first and second viral waves in Canada. A sample of 19 994 Canadian adults (aged ≥18 years) was recruited from established members of the Angus Reid Forum, a public polling organization. The study comprised 2 phases (phase 1 from May 1 to September 30, 2020, and phase 2 from December 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021) that generally corresponded to the first (April 1 to July 31, 2020) and second (October 1, 2020, to March 1, 2021) viral waves. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G seropositivity (using a chemiluminescence assay) by major geographic and demographic variables and correlation with COVID-19 symptom reporting. Results: Among 19 994 adults who completed the online questionnaire in phase 1, the mean (SD) age was 50.9 (15.4) years, and 10 522 participants (51.9%) were female; 2948 participants (14.5%) had self-identified racial and ethnic minority group status, and 1578 participants (8.2%) were self-identified Indigenous Canadians. Among participants in phase 1, 8967 had DBS testing. In phase 2, 14 621 adults completed online questionnaires, and 7102 of those had DBS testing. Of 19 994 adults who completed the online survey in phase 1, fewer had an educational level of some college or less (4747 individuals [33.1%]) compared with the general population in Canada (45.0%). Survey respondents were otherwise representative of the general population, including in prevalence of known risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among unvaccinated adults increased from 1.9% in phase 1 to 6.5% in phase 2. The seropositivity pattern was demographically and geographically heterogeneous during phase 1 but more homogeneous by phase 2 (with a cumulative incidence ranging from 6.4% to 7.0% in most regions). The exception was the Atlantic region, in which cumulative incidence reached only 3.3% (odds ratio [OR] vs Ontario, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.21-1.02). A total of 47 of 188 adults (25.3%) reporting COVID-19 symptoms during phase 2 were seropositive, and the OR of seropositivity for COVID-19 symptoms was 6.15 (95% CI, 2.02-18.69). In phase 2, 94 of 444 seropositive adults (22.2%) reported having no symptoms. Of 134 seropositive adults in phase 1 who were retested in phase 2, 111 individuals (81.8%) remained seropositive. Participants who had a history of diabetes (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.90) had lower odds of having detectable antibodies in phase 2. Conclusions and Relevance: The Action to Beat Coronavirus study found that the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Canada was modest until March 2021, and this incidence was lower than the levels of population immunity required to substantially reduce transmission of the virus. Ongoing vaccination efforts remain central to reducing viral transmission and mortality. Assessment of future infection-induced and vaccine-induced immunity is practicable through the use of serial online surveys and participant-collected DBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0226221, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691401

ABSTRACT

This study attempted to understand the levels of neutralizing titers and the breadth of antibody protection against wild-type and variant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Canadian blood donors during the first 3 months of 2021. During this period, it is unlikely that many of the blood donors had received a second dose, since vaccine rollout had not yet ramped up, and less than 2% of the Canadian population had received a second dose of vaccine. A repeated cross-sectional design was used. A random cross-sectional sampling of all available Canadian Blood Services retention samples (n = 1,500/month) was drawn monthly for January, February, and March 2021. A tiered testing approach analyzed 4,500 Canadian blood donor specimens for potential evidence of a signal for anti-spike (anti-S), anti-receptor-binding domain (anti-RBD), and anti-nucleocapsid protein (anti-N). Specimens were stratified based on donor-declared vaccination history and then stratified on the presence or absence of anti-N as follows: (i) "vaccinated plus anti-N" (n = 5), (ii) "vaccinated and no anti-N" (n = 20), (iii) "unvaccinated plus anti-N" (n = 20), and (iv) "unvaccinated and no anti-N" (n = 20). Randomized specimens were then characterized for neutralizing capacity against wild-type as well as SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) (Alpha [B.1.1.7], Beta [B.1.351], Gamma [P.1], and Delta [B.1.617.2]) using S-pseudotyped virus-like particle (VLP) neutralization assays. There was no neutralizing capacity against wild-type and VOC VLPs within the "no vaccine and no anti-N" group. Neutralization of Beta VLPs was less than wild-type VLPs within "vaccinated plus anti-N," "vaccinated and no anti-N", and "unvaccinated plus anti-N" groups. IMPORTANCE In the first 3 months of 2021 as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination was in the initial stages of a mass rollout, Canadian blood donors had various levels of humoral protection against wild-type and variant of concern (VOC) SARS-CoV-2. Very few Canadians would have received a second dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. In this study, we identified elevated levels of neutralizing capacity, albeit with reduced neutralization capacity against one or more SARS-CoV-2 strains (wild type and VOCs) in vaccinated blood donors. This broad neutralizing response we present regardless of evidence of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection. Neutralizing capacity against wild type and VOCs varied significantly within the unvaccinated group, with one subset of unvaccinated plasma specimens (unvaccinated and no anti-N) having no measurable wild type- nor variant-neutralizing capacity. The study is important because it indicates that vaccination can be associated with a broad neutralizing antibody capacity of donor plasma against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Young Adult
10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0088621, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522922

ABSTRACT

The evaluation of humoral protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 remains crucial in understanding both natural immunity and protective immunity conferred by the several vaccines implemented in the fight against COVID-19. The reference standard for the quantification of antibodies capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 is the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). However, given that it is a laboratory-developed assay, validation is crucial in order to ensure sufficient specificity and intra- and interassay precision. In addition, a multitude of other serological assays have been developed, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry-based assays, luciferase-based lentiviral pseudotype assays, and commercially available human ACE2 receptor-blocking antibody tests, which offer practical advantages in the evaluation of the protective humoral response against SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we validated a SARS-CoV-2 PRNT to assess both 50% and 90% neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 according to guidelines outlined by the World Health Organization. Upon validation, the reference-standard PRNT demonstrated excellent specificity and both intra- and interassay precision. Using the validated assay as a reference standard, we characterized the neutralizing antibody response in specimens from patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Finally, we conducted a small-scale multilaboratory comparison of alternate SARS-CoV-2 PRNTs and surrogate neutralization tests. These assays demonstrated substantial to perfect interrater agreement with the reference-standard PRNT and offer useful alternatives to assess humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, the causal agent of COVID-19, has infected over 246 million people and led to over 5 million deaths as of October 2021. With the approval of several efficacious COVID-19 vaccines, methods to evaluate protective immune responses will be crucial for the understanding of long-term immunity in the rapidly growing vaccinated population. The PRNT, which quantifies SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies, is used widely as a reference standard to validate new platforms but has not undergone substantial validation to ensure excellent inter- and intraassay precision and specificity. Our work is significant, as it describes the thorough validation of a PRNT, which we then used as a reference standard for the comparison of several alternative serological methods to measure SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies. These assays demonstrated excellent agreement with the reference-standard PRNT and include high-throughput platforms, which can greatly enhance capacity to assess both natural and vaccine-induced protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vero Cells
11.
Transfusion ; 62(1): 37-43, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This pilot study assesses the ability of plasma collected from Canadian blood donors in the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to neutralize later SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional design was used, and a random cross-sectional sample of all available Canadian Blood Services retention samples (n = 1500/month) was drawn monthly for April and May of 2020. Qualitative IgG analysis was performed on aliquots of specimens using anti-spike, anti-receptor binding domain, and anti-nucleocapsid protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays as well as the Abbott Architect SARS CoV-2 IgG assay (Abbott Laboratories) against the anti-nucleocapsid protein. Selected plasma specimens were then assessed for neutralization against VOCs using pseudotyped lentivirus inhibition assays as well as plaque reduction neutralization test 50% (PRNT50 ). RESULTS: Six specimens with a high neutralizing titer against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and three specimens with a low neutralizing titer against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 were chosen for further analysis against VOCs. Four of six high neutralizing titer specimens had a reduced neutralizing capacity against beta VOCs by both neutralization methods. Three of six high neutralizing titer specimens had reduced neutralization capacity against gamma VOCs. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary data can be used as a justification for limiting the use of first wave plasma products in upcoming clinical trials but cannot be used to speculate on general trends in the immunity of Canadian blood donors to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/therapy , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2123622, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391523

ABSTRACT

Importance: Patients undergoing hemodialysis have a high mortality rate associated with COVID-19, and this patient population often has a poor response to vaccinations. Randomized clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccines included few patients with kidney disease; therefore, vaccine immunogenicity is uncertain in this population. Objective: To evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis following 1 vs 2 doses of BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination compared with health care workers serving as controls and convalescent serum. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, single-center cohort study was conducted between February 2 and April 17, 2021, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants included 142 patients receiving in-center hemodialysis and 35 health care worker controls. Exposures: BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies to the spike protein (anti-spike), receptor binding domain (anti-RBD), and nucleocapsid protein (anti-NP). Results: Among the 142 participants undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, 94 (66%) were men; median age was 72 (interquartile range, 62-79) years. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were measured in 66 patients receiving 1 vaccine dose following a public health policy change, 76 patients receiving 2 vaccine doses, and 35 health care workers receiving 2 vaccine doses. Detectable anti-NP suggestive of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected in 15 of 142 (11%) patients at baseline, and only 3 patients had prior COVID-19 confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing. Two additional patients contracted COVID-19 after receiving 2 doses of vaccine. In 66 patients receiving a single BNT162b2 dose, seroconversion occurred in 53 (80%) for anti-spike and 36 (55%) for anti-RBD by 28 days postdose, but a robust response, defined by reaching the median levels of antibodies in convalescent serum from COVID-19 survivors, was noted in only 15 patients (23%) for anti-spike and 4 (6%) for anti-RBD in convalescent serum from COVID-19 survivors. In patients receiving 2 doses of BNT162b2 vaccine, seroconversion occurred in 69 of 72 (96%) for anti-spike and 63 of 72 (88%) for anti-RBD by 2 weeks following the second dose and median convalescent serum levels were reached in 52 of 72 patients (72%) for anti-spike and 43 of 72 (60%) for anti-RBD. In contrast, all 35 health care workers exceeded the median level of anti-spike and anti-RBD found in convalescent serum 2 to 4 weeks after the second dose. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests poor immunogenicity 28 days following a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine in the hemodialysis population, supporting adherence to recommended vaccination schedules and avoiding delay of the second dose in these at-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
J Immunol ; 206(1): 37-50, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934539

ABSTRACT

There is a pressing need for an in-depth understanding of immunity to SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we investigated human T cell recall responses to fully glycosylated spike trimer, recombinant N protein, as well as to S, N, M, and E peptide pools in the early convalescent phase and compared them with influenza-specific memory responses from the same donors. All subjects showed SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses to at least one Ag. Both SARS-CoV-2-specific and influenza-specific CD4+ T cell responses were predominantly of the central memory phenotype; however SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells exhibited a lower IFN-γ to TNF ratio compared with influenza-specific memory responses from the same donors, independent of disease severity. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were less multifunctional than influenza-specific T cells, particularly in severe cases, potentially suggesting exhaustion. Most SARS-CoV-2-convalescent subjects also produced IFN-γ in response to seasonal OC43 S protein. We observed granzyme B+/IFN-γ+, CD4+, and CD8+ proliferative responses to peptide pools in most individuals, with CD4+ T cell responses predominating over CD8+ T cell responses. Peripheral T follicular helper (pTfh) responses to S or N strongly correlated with serum neutralization assays as well as receptor binding domain-specific IgA; however, the frequency of pTfh responses to SARS-CoV-2 was lower than the frequency of pTfh responses to influenza virus. Overall, T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 are robust; however, CD4+ Th1 responses predominate over CD8+ T cell responses, have a more inflammatory profile, and have a weaker pTfh response than the response to influenza virus within the same donors, potentially contributing to COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
14.
Sci Immunol ; 5(52)2020 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842548

ABSTRACT

While the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively studied in blood, relatively little is known about the antibody response in saliva and its relationship to systemic antibody levels. Here, we profiled by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) IgG, IgA and IgM responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (full length trimer) and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) in serum and saliva of acute and convalescent patients with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 ranging from 3-115 days post-symptom onset (PSO), compared to negative controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were readily detected in serum and saliva, with peak IgG levels attained by 16-30 days PSO. Longitudinal analysis revealed that anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgM antibodies rapidly decayed, while IgG antibodies remained relatively stable up to 105 days PSO in both biofluids. Lastly, IgG, IgM and to a lesser extent IgA responses to spike and RBD in the serum positively correlated with matched saliva samples. This study confirms that serum and saliva IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are maintained in the majority of COVID-19 patients for at least 3 months PSO. IgG responses in saliva may serve as a surrogate measure of systemic immunity to SARS-CoV-2 based on their correlation with serum IgG responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JCI Insight ; 5(19)2020 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737501

ABSTRACT

Most of the patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mount a humoral immune response to the virus within a few weeks of infection, but the duration of this response and how it correlates with clinical outcomes has not been completely characterized. Of particular importance is the identification of immune correlates of infection that would support public health decision-making on treatment approaches, vaccination strategies, and convalescent plasma therapy. While ELISA-based assays to detect and quantitate antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in patient samples have been developed, the detection of neutralizing antibodies typically requires more demanding cell-based viral assays. Here, we present a safe and efficient protein-based assay for the detection of serum and plasma antibodies that block the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) with its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The assay serves as a surrogate neutralization assay and is performed on the same platform and in parallel with an ELISA for the detection of antibodies against the RBD, enabling a direct comparison. The results obtained with our assay correlate with those of 2 viral-based assays, a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) that uses live SARS-CoV-2 virus and a spike pseudotyped viral vector-based assay.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Area Under Curve , COVID-19 , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , Sampling Studies , Treatment Outcome , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology
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