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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic seems to have a different picture in Africa; the first case was identified in the continent after it had already caused a significant loss to the rest of the world and the reported number of cases and mortality rate has been low. Understanding the characteristics and outcome of the pandemic in the African setup is therefore crucial. AIM: To assess the characteristics and outcome of Patients with COVID-19 and to identify determinants of the disease outcome among patients admitted to Millennium COVID-19 Care Center in Ethiopia. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 1345 consecutively admitted RT-PCR confirmed Patients with COVID-19 from July to September, 2020. Frequency tables, KM plots, median survival times and Log-rank test were used to describe the data and compare survival distribution between groups. Cox proportional hazard survival model was used to identify determinants of time to clinical recovery and the independent variables, where adjusted hazard ratio, P-value and 95% CI for adjusted hazard ratio were used for testing significance and interpretation of results. Binary logistic regression model was used to assess the presence of a statistically significant association between disease outcome and the independent variables, where adjusted odds ratio, P-value and 95% CI for adjusted odds ratio were used for testing significance and interpretation of results. RESULTS: Among the study population, 71 (5.3%) died, 72 (5.4%) were transferred and the rest 1202 (89.4%) were clinically improved. The median time to clinical recovery was 14 days. On the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model; temperature (AHR = 1.135, 95% CI = 1.011, 1.274, p-value = 0.032), COVID-19 severity (AHR = 0.660, 95% CI = 0.501, 0.869, p-value = 0.003), and cough (AHR = 0.705, 95% CI = 0.519, 0.959, p-value = 0.026) were found to be significant determinants of time to clinical recovery. On the binary logistic regression, the following factors were found to be significantly associated with disease outcome; SPO2 (AOR = 0.302, 95% CI = 0.193, 0.474, p-value = 0.0001), shortness of breath (AOR = 0.354, 95% CI = 0.213, 0.590, p-value = 0.0001) and diabetes mellitus (AOR = 0.549, 95% CI = 0.337, 0.894, p-value = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: The average duration of time to clinical recovery was 14 days and 89.4% of the patients achieved clinical recovery. The mortality rate of the studied population is lower than reports from other countries including those in Africa. Having severe COVID-19 disease severity and presenting with cough were found to be associated with delayed clinical recovery of the disease. On the other hand, being hyperthermic is associated with shorter disease duration (faster time to clinical recovery). In addition, lower oxygen saturation, subjective complaint of shortness of breath and being diabetic were associated with unfavorable disease outcome. Therefore, patients with these factors should be followed cautiously for a better outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
2.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 31(4): 699-708, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497599

ABSTRACT

Background: With the rising number of new cases of COVID-19, understanding the oxygen requirement of severe patients assists in identifying at risk groups and in making an informed decision on building hospitals capacity in terms of oxygen facility arrangement. Therefore, the study aimed to estimate time to getting off supplemental oxygen therapy and identify predictors among COVID-19 patients admitted to Millennium COVID-19 Care Center in Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted among 244 consecutively admitted COVID-19 patients from July to September, 2020. Kaplan Meier plots, median survival times and Log-rank test were used to describe the data and compare survival distribution between groups. Cox proportional hazard survival model was used to identify determinants of time to getting off supplemental oxygen therapy, where hazard ratio (HR), P-value and 95%CI for HR were used for testing significance and interpretation of results. Results: Median time to getting off supplemental oxygen therapy among the studied population was 6 days (IQR,4.3-20.0). Factors that affect time to getting off supplemental oxygen therapy were age group (AHR=0.52,95%CI=0.32,0.84, p-value=0.008 for ≥70 years) and shortness of breath (AHR=0.71,95%CI=0.52,0.96, p-value=0.026). Conclusion: Average duration of supplemental oxygen therapy requirement among COVID-19 patients was 6 days and being 70 years and older and having shortness of breath were found to be associated with prolonged duration of supplemental oxygen therapy requirement. This result can be used as a guide in planning institutional resource allocation and patient management to provide a well-equipped care to prevent complications and death from the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Ethiopia , Humans , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 759, 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies show that having some symptoms seems to be associated with more severe disease and poor prognosis. Therefore, knowing who is more susceptible to symptomatic COVID-19 disease is important to provide targeted preventive and management practice. The aim of the study was to assess factors associated with the development of symptomatic disease among COVID-19 patients admitted to Millennium COVID-19 Care Center in Ethiopia. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted from August to September 2020 among a randomly selected 730 COVID-19 patients (337 Asymptomatic and 393 Symptomatic patients). Chi-square test and independent t-test were used to detect the presence of a statistically significant difference in the characteristics of the cases (symptomatic) and controls (asymptomatic), where p-value of < 0.05 considered as having a statistically significant difference. Multivariable binary logistic regression was used to assess a statistically significant association between the independent variables and developing symptomatic COVID-19 where Adjusted Odds ratio (AOR), 95% CIs for AOR, and P-values were used for testing significance and interpretation of results. RESULTS: The result of the multivariable binary logistic regression shows that age group (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.25, 2.87, p-value = 0.002 for 30-39 years; AOR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.06, 2.73, p-value = 0.028 for 40-49 years and AOR = 4.42, 95% CI = 2.75, 7.12, p-value = 0.0001 for ≥50 years), sex (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.26, 2.45, p-value = 0.001) and history of diabetes mellitus (AOR = 3.90, 95% CI = 1.92, 7.94, p-value = 0.0001) were found to be significant factors that determine the development of symptomatic disease in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Developing a symptomatic COVID-19 disease was found to be associated with exposures of old age, male sex, and being diabetic. Therefore, patients with the above factors should be given enough attention in the prevention and management process, including inpatient management, to pick symptoms earlier and to manage accordingly so that these patients can have a favorable treatment outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133680

ABSTRACT

AIM: To identify laboratory biomarkers that predict disease severity and outcome among COVID-19 patients admitted to the Millennium COVID-19 Care Center in Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 429 COVID-19 patients who were on follow up from July to October 2020. Data was described using frequency tables. Robust Poisson regression model was used to identify predictors of COVID-19 severity where adjusted relative risk (ARR), P-value and 95 CI for ARR were used to test significance. Binary Logistic regression model was used to assess the presence of statistically significant association between the explanatory variables and COVID-19 outcome where adjusted odds ratio (AOR), P-value and 95%CI for AOR were used for testing significance. RESULTS: Among the 429 patients studied, 182 (42.4%) had Severe disease at admission and the rest 247 (57.6%) had Non-severe disease. Regarding disease outcome, 45 (10.5%) died and 384 (89.5%) were discharged alive. Age group (ARR = 1.779, 95%CI = 1.405-2.252, p-value <0.0001), Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (ARR = 4.769, 95%CI = 2.419-9.402 p-value <0.0001), Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (ARR = 1.358, 95%CI = 1.109-1.662 p-value = 0.003), Sodium (ARR = 1.321, 95%CI = 1.091-1.600 p-value = 0.004) and Potassium (ARR = 1.269, 95%CI = 1.059-1.521 p-value = 0.010) were found to be significant predictors of COVID-19 severity. The following factors were significantly associated with COVID-19 outcome; age group (AOR = 2.767, 95%CI = 1.099-6.067, p-value = 0.031), white blood cell count (WBC) (AOR = 4.253, 95%CI = 1.918-9.429, p-value = 0.0001) and sodium level (AOR = 3.435, 95%CI = 1.439-8.198, p-value = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Assessing and monitoring the laboratory markers of WBC, NLR, SGOT, sodium and potassium levels at the earliest stage of the disease could have a considerable role in halting disease progression and death.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
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