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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 314, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To improve understanding of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we examined seroprevalence, incidence of infection, and seroconversion among a cohort of young adults living on university campuses during the fall of 2020. METHODS: At the beginning (semester start) and end (semester end) of an 11-week period, serum collected from 107 students was tested using the qualitative Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG and AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II assays. Results were matched to interim weekly surveillance viral testing and symptom data. RESULTS: With the SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay, 15 (14.0%) students were seropositive at semester start; 29 (27.1%) students were seropositive at semester end; 10 (9.3%) were seropositive at both times. With the AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II assay, 17 (16.3%) students were seropositive at semester start, 37 (35.6%) were seropositive at semester end, and 16 (15.3%) were seropositive at both times. Overall, 23 students (21.5%) had positive viral tests during the semester. Infection was identified by serial testing in a large majority of individuals who seroconverted using both assays. Those seropositive at semester end more frequently reported symptomatic infections (56.5%) than asymptomatic infections (30.4%). CONCLUSION: Differences between antibody targets were observed, with more declines in antibody index values below the threshold of positivity with the anti-nucleocapsid assay compared to the anti-spike assay. Serology testing, combined with serial viral testing, can detect seroconversions, and help understand the potential correlates of protection provided by antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Students , Universities
2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofab664, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692168

ABSTRACT

We quantify antibody and memory B-cell responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at 6 and 12 months postinfection among 7 unvaccinated US coronavirus disease 2019 cases. All had detectable S-specific memory B cells and immunoglobulin G at both time points, with geometric mean titers of 117.2 BAU/mL and 84.0 BAU/mL at 6 and 12 months, respectively.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1348-e1355, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and antigen tests are important diagnostics for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Sensitivity of antigen tests has been shown to be lower than that of rRT-PCR; however, data to evaluate epidemiologic characteristics that affect test performance are limited. METHODS: Paired mid-turbinate nasal swabs were collected from university students and staff and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using both Quidel Sofia SARS Antigen Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA) and rRT-PCR assay. Specimens positive by either rRT-PCR or antigen FIA were placed in viral culture and tested for subgenomic RNA (sgRNA). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate characteristics associated with antigen results, rRT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values, sgRNA, and viral culture. RESULTS: Antigen FIA sensitivity was 78.9% and 43.8% among symptomatic and asymptomatic participants, respectively. Among rRT-PCR positive participants, negative antigen results were more likely among asymptomatic participants (odds ratio [OR] 4.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-15.4) and less likely among participants reporting nasal congestion (OR 0.1, 95% CI: .03-.8). rRT-PCR-positive specimens with higher Ct values (OR 0.5, 95% CI: .4-.8) were less likely, and specimens positive for sgRNA (OR 10.2, 95% CI: 1.6-65.0) more likely, to yield positive virus isolation. Antigen testing was >90% positive in specimens with Ct values < 29. Positive predictive value of antigen test for positive viral culture (57.7%) was similar to that of rRT-PCR (59.3%). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 antigen test advantages include low cost, wide availability and rapid turnaround time, making them important screening tests. The performance of antigen tests may vary with patient characteristics, so performance characteristics should be accounted for when designing testing strategies and interpreting results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral , Humans , RNA , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , Sensitivity and Specificity , Universities
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(9): ofab405, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreaks occurred at universities during Fall 2020, but little is known about risk factors for campus-associated infections or immunity provided by anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in young adults. METHODS: We conducted surveys and serology tests among students living in dormitories in September and November to examine infection risk factors and antibody presence. Using campus weekly reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results, the relationship between survey responses, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and infections was assessed. RESULTS: Of 6136 students, 1197 completed the survey and 572 also completed serologic testing in September compared with 517 and 414 in November, respectively. Participation in fraternity or sorority events (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.9 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.4-2.5]) and frequent alcohol consumption (aRR, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.2-2.2]) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mask wearing during social events (aRR, 0.6 [95% CI, .6-1.0]) was associated with decreased risk. None of the 20 students with antibodies in September tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the semester, while 27.8% of students who tested RT-PCR positive tested negative for antibodies in November. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent drinking and attending social events were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antibody presence in September appeared to be protective from reinfection, but this finding was not statistically significant.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 224(5): 771-776, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410005

ABSTRACT

We aimed to characterize presence of culturable virus in clinical specimens during acute illness, and antibody kinetics up to 6 months after symptom onset, among 14 early patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in the United States. We isolated viable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-positive respiratory specimens collected during days 0-8 after onset, but not after. All 13 patients with 2 or more serum specimens developed anti-spike antibodies; 12 developed detectable neutralizing antibodies. We did not isolate virus after detection of neutralizing antibodies. Eight participants provided serum at 6 months after onset; all retained detectable anti-spike immunoglobulin G, and half had detectable neutralizing antibodies. Two participants reported not feeling fully recovered at 6 months.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Seroconversion/physiology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(5152): 1642-1647, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005171

ABSTRACT

Antigen-based tests for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), are inexpensive and can return results within 15 minutes (1). Antigen tests have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for use in asymptomatic and symptomatic persons within the first 5-12 days after symptom onset (2). These tests have been used at U.S. colleges and universities and other congregate settings (e.g., nursing homes and correctional and detention facilities), where serial testing of asymptomatic persons might facilitate early case identification (3-5). However, test performance data from symptomatic and asymptomatic persons are limited. This investigation evaluated performance of the Sofia SARS Antigen Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA) (Quidel Corporation) compared with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 detection among asymptomatic and symptomatic persons at two universities in Wisconsin. During September 28-October 9, a total of 1,098 paired nasal swabs were tested using the Sofia SARS Antigen FIA and real-time RT-PCR. Virus culture was attempted on all antigen-positive or real-time RT-PCR-positive specimens. Among 871 (79%) paired swabs from asymptomatic participants, the antigen test sensitivity was 41.2%, specificity was 98.4%, and in this population the estimated positive predictive value (PPV) was 33.3%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 98.8%. Antigen test performance was improved among 227 (21%) paired swabs from participants who reported one or more symptoms at specimen collection (sensitivity = 80.0%; specificity = 98.9%; PPV = 94.1%; NPV = 95.9%). Virus was isolated from 34 (46.6%) of 73 antigen-positive or real-time RT-PCR-positive nasal swab specimens, including two of 18 that were antigen-negative and real-time RT-PCR-positive (false-negatives). The advantages of antigen tests such as low cost and rapid turnaround might allow for rapid identification of infectious persons. However, these advantages need to be balanced against lower sensitivity and lower PPV, especially among asymptomatic persons. Confirmatory testing with an FDA-authorized nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), such as RT-PCR, should be considered after negative antigen test results in symptomatic persons, and after positive antigen test results in asymptomatic persons (1).


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Student Health Services , Adolescent , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Universities , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9): 1998-2004, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634848

ABSTRACT

To determine prevalence of, seroprevalence of, and potential exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among a cohort of evacuees returning to the United States from Wuhan, China, in January 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional study of quarantined evacuees from 1 repatriation flight. Overall, 193 of 195 evacuees completed exposure surveys and submitted upper respiratory or serum specimens or both at arrival in the United States. Nearly all evacuees had taken preventive measures to limit potential exposure while in Wuhan, and none had detectable SARS-CoV-2 in upper respiratory tract specimens, suggesting the absence of asymptomatic respiratory shedding among this group at the time of testing. Evidence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 1 evacuee, who reported experiencing no symptoms or high-risk exposures in the previous 2 months. These findings demonstrated that this group of evacuees posed a low risk of introducing SARS-CoV-2 to the United States.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Travel , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(7): 1571-1574, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610771

ABSTRACT

During March 2016-March 2019, a total of 200,936 suspected cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection were identified in Saudi Arabia; infections were confirmed in 698 cases (0.3% [0.7/100,000 population per year]). Continued surveillance is necessary for early case detection and timely infection control response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
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