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J Pharm Technol ; 38(2): 75-87, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666613


Background: Understanding medication use patterns for patients with COVID-19 will provide needed insight into the evolution of COVID-19 treatment over the course of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and aid clinical management considerations. Objectives: To systematically determine most frequently used medications among COVID-19 patients overall and by hospitalization status. Secondary objective was use measurement of medications considered potential therapeutic options. Methods: Retrospective cohort study was performed using data from the University of California COVID Research Data Set (UC CORDS) patients between March 10, 2020, and December 31, 2020. Main outcomes were percentages of patients prescribed medications, overall, by age group, and by comorbidity based on hospitalization status for COVID-19 patients. Use percentage by month of COVID-19 diagnosis was measured. Cumulative count of potential therapeutic options was measured over time. Results: Dataset included 22 896 unique patients with COVID-19 (mean [SD] age, 42.4 [20.4] years; 12 154 [53%] women). Most frequently used medications in patients overall were acetaminophen (21.2%), albuterol (14.9%), ondansetron (13.9%), and enoxaparin (10.8%). Dexamethasone use increased from fewer than 50 total hospitalized patients through April who had received the medication, to more than 500 patients by mid-August. Cumulative count of enoxaparin users was the largest throughout the study period. Conclusion and Relevance: In this retrospective cohort study, across age and comorbidity groups, predominant utilization was for supportive care therapy. Dexamethasone and remdesivir experienced large increases in use. Conversely, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use markedly dropped. Medication utilization rapidly shifted toward more evidence-concordant treatment of patients with COVID-19 as rigorous study findings emerged.

J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e23571, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596242


BACKGROUND: There is a pressing need for digital tools that can leverage big data to help clinicians select effective antibiotic treatments in the absence of timely susceptibility data. Clinical presentation and local epidemiology can inform therapy selection to balance the risk of antimicrobial resistance and patient risk. However, data and clinical expertise must be appropriately integrated into clinical workflows. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to leverage available data in electronic health records, to develop a data-driven, user-centered, clinical decision support system to navigate patient safety and population health. METHODS: We analyzed 5 years of susceptibility testing (1,078,510 isolates) and patient data (30,761 patients) across a large academic medical center. After curating the data according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, we analyzed and visualized the impact of risk factors on clinical outcomes. On the basis of this data-driven understanding, we developed a probabilistic algorithm that maps these data to individual cases and implemented iBiogram, a prototype digital empiric antimicrobial clinical decision support system, which we evaluated against actual prescribing outcomes. RESULTS: We determined patient-specific factors across syndromes and contexts and identified relevant local patterns of antimicrobial resistance by clinical syndrome. Mortality and length of stay differed significantly depending on these factors and could be used to generate heuristic targets for an acceptable risk of underprescription. Combined with the developed remaining risk algorithm, these factors can be used to inform clinicians' reasoning. A retrospective comparison of the iBiogram-suggested therapies versus the actual prescription by physicians showed similar performance for low-risk diseases such as urinary tract infections, whereas iBiogram recognized risk and recommended more appropriate coverage in high mortality conditions such as sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: The application of such data-driven, patient-centered tools may guide empirical prescription for clinicians to balance morbidity and mortality with antimicrobial stewardship.

Anti-Infective Agents , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Retrospective Studies
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(Supplement_1):S286-S287, 2020.
Article in English | Oxford Academic | ID: covidwho-1010495