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1.
Rev Recent Clin Trials ; 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The international health emergency caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which, at the end of 2019, hit the world, forced the governments of all countries to adopt stringent restrictive measures to contain the spread of the virus. Several studies have revealed worsening levels of anxiety, depression and perceived stress related to these restrictions and the resulting lifestyle changes. Some studies have also confirmed the presence of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2-related emotional distress and drinking behavior. Indeed, is a well-known fact that alcohol consumption is one of the behavioral strategies used to reduce negative emotional states. However, it was documented that young people developed different responses to alcohol use during the pandemic than adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to investigate the consumption habits of young Italians and how the consumption and purchase of alcoholic beverages have changed following the pandemic. New ways of drinking alcohol were also interesting to observe, such as online. METHODS: Young people between 18 and 35 years old were subjected to an anonymous questionnaire of 22 questions on the adoption of forms of behavior at risk through alcohol consumption, on the quantity and occasions of preferential consumption, and on the methods and quantities of alcoholic beverage purchase, before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The subjects who declared themselves "non-drinkers" were not included in the statistical survey. RESULTS: About 33% of the enrolled "drinkers" (268/823), adopted risky forms of alcoholic behavior. Males reported a higher average habit of drinking wine or alcohol (M = 1.9953 ± 1.39743, F = 1.7373 ± 1.36688, p <0.005); an increased frequency of drinking (M = 2.3025 ± 0.80610 F = 2.0494 ± 0.75043 p <0.001); a higher average number of drinks consumed (M = 1.5182 ± 0.85646, F = 1.2618 ± 0.53292, p <0.001) and binge drinking to the greatest extent (M = 1.1933 ± 0.96522 F = 0.8176 ± 0.85446 p <0.001). Education and employment were significantly correlated with the frequency of alcohol consumption (r = 0.107 p <0.005 and r = 0.120 p = 0.001 respectively). Subjects reported buying alcoholic beverages during the pandemic with a frequency of "less than once a month" (N = 291, 35.36%) and mainly in shops (N = 556, 67.56%), while before the pandemic they mainly bought alcohol once a week (N = 431, 52.37%) and predominantly in bars / clubs (N = 619, 75.21%). New ways of drinking alcohol such as online drinking, have not been significantly identified. CONCLUSION: A change in alcohol consumed and alcohol purchased before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was revealed.

2.
Curr Med Chem ; 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The digestive tract represents an interface between the external environment and the body where the interaction of a complex polymicrobial ecology has an important influence on health and disease. The physiological mechanisms that are altered during the hospitalization and in the intensive care unit (ICU) contribute to the pathobiota's growth. Intestinal dysbiosis occurs within hours of being admitted to ICU. This may be due to different factors, such as alterations of normal intestinal transit, administration of variuos medications or alterations in the intestinal wall which causes a cascade of events that will lead to the increase of nitrates and decrease of oxygen concentration, liberation of free radicals. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to report the latest updates on the microbiota's contribution to developing sepsis in patients in the ICU department. In this short review were reviewed the latest scientific findings on the mechanisms of intestinal immune defenses performed both locally and systemically. In addition, we considered it necessary to review the literature to report the current best treatment strategies to prevent the infection spread which can bring systemic infections in patients admitted to ICU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This review has been written to answer at three main questions: what are the main intestinal flora's defense mechanisms that help us to prevent the risk of developing systemic diseases on a day-to-day basis? What are the main dysbiosis' systemic abnormalities? What are the modern strategies that are used in the ICU patients to prevent the infection spread? Using the combination of following keywords: microbiota and ICU, ICU and gut, microbiota and critical illness, microbiota and critical care, microbiota and sepsis, microbiota and infection, gastrointestinal immunity,in the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, medline and pubmed, google scholar, ovid/wiley. Finally, we reviewed and selected 72 articles. We also consulted the site ClinicalTrials.com to find out studies that are recently conducted or ongoing. RESULTS: The critical illness can alter intestinal bacterial flora leading to homeostasis disequilibrium. Despite numerous mechanisms, such as epithelial cells with calciform cells that together build a mechanical barrier for pathogenic bacteria, the presence of mucous associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) which stimulates an immune response through the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-y) and THN-a or by stimulating lymphocytes T helper-2 produces anti-inflammatory cytokines. But these defenses can be altered following a hospitalization in ICU and lead to serious complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), health care associated pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), Systemic infection and multiple organ failure (MOF), but also in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In addition, the microbiota has a significant impact on the development of intestinal complications and the severity of the SARS-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The microbiota is recognized as one of the important factors that can worsen the clinical conditions of patients who are already very frailty in intensive care unit. At the same time, the microbiota also plays a crucial role in the prevention of ICU associated complications. By using the resources, we have available, such as probiotics, symbiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), we can preserve the integrity of the microbiota and the GUT, which will later help maintain homeostasis in ICU patients.

3.
Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) ; 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), causal agent of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has infected millions of people worldwide. Currently, the scientific community debates on the direct viral responsibility of liver damage or whether the observed changes are secondary manifestations of systemic inflammation triggered by COVID-19. The hepatic involvement is associated with worse clinical outcomes and higher risk of COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 infection may predispose patients to thrombotic disease due to excessive inflammation, platelet activation, and endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: In this paper, we reported a cross-sectional analysis of five patients affected by a severe form of COVID-19, who died between April 11 and May 1, 2020. Each patient has been subjected to a medico-legal autopsy in which both gross and histological liver changes were evaluated, as well as the correlation with the related coagulation profile. RESULTS: In three cases of our cohort, the thromboembolism was recognized as cause of death. Furthermore, a significant statistical difference between D-dimer values at hospital admission and death among enrolled patients (p= 0.033), was evaluated. No patient has recorded a pre-existing liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the evidence that hepatic damage in subjects with severe form of COVID-19 is related to the changes in coagulative and fibrinolytic pathways. Hence, the evaluation of D-dimer blood levels may be useful in clinical practice to predict the involvement of the liver and the prognosis of these patients. This data highlights the fundamental role of coagulation balance in subjects with advanced form of COVID-19.

4.
Biofactors ; 48(2): 294-306, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712029

ABSTRACT

Microelements represent an emerging resource for medicine and its preventive branch. Zinc is the second most abundant element in our organism with peculiar physiologic functions and pathophysiologic implications in systemic and gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. It interacts very often with gut microbiota (GM) and can affect natural course of GI diseases through a bidirectional relationship with intestinal bugs. We aimed to review literature data regarding zinc chemistry, role in health, and GI diseases in man with a special focus on its interaction with GM. We conducted a search on the main medical databases for original articles, reviews, meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and case series using the following keywords and acronyms and their associations: zinc, microelements, gut microbiota, gut health, and COVID-19. Zinc has a rapid and simple metabolism and limited storage within our body. Its efficacy on immune system modulation reflects on improved response to pathogens, reduced inflammatory response, and improved atopic/allergic reactions. Zinc is also involved in cell cycle regulation (namely, apoptosis) with potential anti-cancerogenic effects. All these effects are in a "symbiotic" relationship with GM. Finally, zinc shows preliminary viral antireplicative effects. Zinc seems to gain more and more evidences on its efficacy in allergic, atopic and infectious diseases treatment, and prevention. COVID-19 can be the booster for research on future applications of zinc as perfect "postbiotic" in medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Humans , Immunity , Zinc/therapeutic use
5.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625723

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to a severe pandemic, starting from early 2020. Intensive care (ICU) management of the COVID-19 disease is difficult with high morbidity and mortality. Early nutritional support, especially with whey protein, seems to be crucial in this medical case. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of an adequate nutritional protocol rich in whey protein on nutritional and inflammatory status, extubating time, and mortality of critically ill COVID-19 patients (CICP). METHODS: A prospective single-center exploratory observational study was undertaken on 32 consecutive CICP admitted to the ICU of Santa Maria Hospital, Terni, Italy, and treated with whey protein-enriched formula. Patients' demographics, nutritional status, indexes of inflammation, daily pre-albumin serum levels, duration of mechanical ventilation, and mortality were recorded. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were enrolled. Ninety-five percent of them showed a gradual reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) values and increase in pre-albumin levels after the whey protein-enriched formula. Prealbumin levels were not correlated with a better nutritional status but with a shorter extubating time and better survival. CONCLUSIONS: An adequate administration of whey protein during COVID-19 patients' ICU stays can provide fast achievement of protein targets, reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation, and improving inflammatory status and ICU survival. Further prospective and large-scale, controlled studies are needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Whey Proteins
6.
Curr Med Chem ; 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The digestive tract represents an interface between the external environment and the body where the interaction of a complex polymicrobial ecology has an important influence on health and disease. The physiological mechanisms that are altered during the hospitalization and in the intensive care unit (ICU) contribute to the pathobiota's growth. Intestinal dysbiosis occurs within hours of being admitted to ICU. This may be due to different factors, such as alterations of normal intestinal transit, administration of variuos medications or alterations in the intestinal wall which causes a cascade of events that will lead to the increase of nitrates and decrease of oxygen concentration, liberation of free radicals. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to report the latest updates on the microbiota's contribution to developing sepsis in patients in the ICU department. In this short review were reviewed the latest scientific findings on the mechanisms of intestinal immune defenses performed both locally and systemically. In addition, we considered it necessary to review the literature to report the current best treatment strategies to prevent the infection spread which can bring systemic infections in patients admitted to ICU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This review has been written to answer at three main questions: what are the main intestinal flora's defense mechanisms that help us to prevent the risk of developing systemic diseases on a day-to-day basis? What are the main dysbiosis' systemic abnormalities? What are the modern strategies that are used in the ICU patients to prevent the infection spread? Using the combination of following keywords: microbiota and ICU, ICU and gut, microbiota and critical illness, microbiota and critical care, microbiota and sepsis, microbiota and infection, gastrointestinal immunity,in the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, medline and pubmed, google scholar, ovid/wiley. Finally, we reviewed and selected 72 articles. We also consulted the site ClinicalTrials.com to find out studies that are recently conducted or ongoing. RESULTS: The critical illness can alter intestinal bacterial flora leading to homeostasis disequilibrium. Despite numerous mechanisms, such as epithelial cells with calciform cells that together build a mechanical barrier for pathogenic bacteria, the presence of mucous associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) which stimulates an immune response through the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-y) and THN-a or by stimulating lymphocytes T helper-2 produces anti-inflammatory cytokines. But these defenses can be altered following a hospitalization in ICU and lead to serious complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), health care associated pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), Systemic infection and multiple organ failure (MOF), but also in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In addition, the microbiota has a significant impact on the development of intestinal complications and the severity of the SARS-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The microbiota is recognized as one of the important factors that can worsen the clinical conditions of patients who are already very frailty in intensive care unit. At the same time, the microbiota also plays a crucial role in the prevention of ICU associated complications. By using the resources, we have available, such as probiotics, symbiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), we can preserve the integrity of the microbiota and the GUT, which will later help maintain homeostasis in ICU patients.

7.
Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr ; 9(3): 322-324, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389913
8.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308299

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, the medical-scientific community has been facing a terrible pandemic caused by a new airborne viral agent known as SARS-CoV2. Already in the early stages of the pandemic, following the discovery that the virus uses the ACE2 cell receptor as a molecular target to infect the cells of our body, it was hypothesized that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Since then, numerous studies have been published on the subject, but the exact role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still a matter of debate. RAAS represents an important protagonist in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, providing the virus with the receptor of entry into host cells and determining its organotropism. Furthermore, following infection, the virus is able to cause an increase in plasma ACE2 activity, compromising the normal function of the RAAS. This dysfunction could contribute to the establishment of the thrombo-inflammatory state characteristic of severe forms of COVID-19. Drugs targeting RAAS represent promising therapeutic options for COVID-19 sufferers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Discovery , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
Rev Recent Clin Trials ; 16(3): 309-315, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167207

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first case of infection by SARS-CoV-2 (i.e., COVID-19) has been officially recorded by the Italian National Health Service on February 21st, 2020. Lombardy was the first Italian region to be affected by the pandemic. Subsequently, the entire Northern part of Italy recorded a high number of cases, while the South was hit following the migratory waves. On March 8th, the Italian Government has issued a decree that imposed a total lockdown, defining it as a state of isolation and restricting access in Lombardy and the other 14 provinces of Northern Italy. METHODS: We analyzed the virus trend in the period between February 24th and September 8th, 2020, focusing on Calabria, with regards to the following items: new positives, change of total positives, and total cases. Furthermore, we included other information, such as the incubation period, symptom resolution period, quarantine period. RESULTS: On March 27th, the epidemic curve spiked with 101 new positive cases validating the hypothesis that this abnormal event was related to the displacement of non-residents people, living in the Northern part of Italy, to the home regions in the South. The epidemic curve showed a decreasing trend in the period after lockdown, proving the effectiveness of this measure. From the end of the lockdown May 04th to September 8th, the registered trend was -94.51%. A negative growth rate indicates that the number of new positive cases is lower than the number of healed patients. CONCLUSION: This study describes the effectiveness of the Italian Government policy, particularly the role of lockdown, for the containment of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Calabria, a region with a low SARS-CoV-2 infection rate within the registered period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics
10.
Rev Recent Clin Trials ; 16(1): 2, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147059
11.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136515

ABSTRACT

The first case of infection by SARS-CoV-2 (i.e., COVID-19) was officially recorded by the Italian National Health Service on 21 February 2020. Respiratory tract manifestations are the most common symptoms, such as gastrointestinal symptoms (GISs) like nausea or sickness, diarrhea, and anorexia, and psychological effects may be reported in affected individuals. However, similar symptoms may be observed in healthy people as a consequence of an anxiety state. METHODS: We analyzed GISs and anxiety state during the COVID-19 lockdown period; from 9 March 2020 to 4 May 2020. A web-based survey consisting of 131 items was administered to 354 students affiliated with the School of Medicine of the University "Magna Graecia" of Catanzaro; Italy. A set of statistical analyses was performed to analyze the relationships among the answers to assess a correlation between the topics of interest. RESULTS: The statistical analysis showed that 54.0% of interviewed reported at least one GISs, 36.16% of which reported a positive history for familial GISs (FGISs). The 354 subjects included in our cohort may be stratified as follows: 25.99% GISs and FGISs, 27.97% GISs and no-FGISs, 10.17% no-GISs and FGISs, 35.87% no-GISs and no-FGISs. Results indicated an anxiety state for 48.9% of respondents, of which 64.74% also presented GISs. In addition, considered dietary habits, we detect the increased consumption of hypercaloric food, sweetened drinks, and alcoholic beverages. CONCLUSIONS: The increase of GISs during the lockdown period in a population of medical students, may be correlated to both dietary habits and anxiety state due to a concern for one's health.

12.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(1): 247-255, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064480

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The presence of many asymptomatic COVID-19 cases may increase the risks of disease dissemination, mainly for physicians. There are numerous reports on the frequent findings of sudden anosmia or hyposmia, before or at the same time of the typical COVID-19 symptoms onset. The aim of this study was to verify the association of olfactory impairment and COVID-19, providing a basis for subsequent research in the field of COVID-19 clinical heterogeneity. METHODS: We developed a 15-item online questionnaire on "Sudden Olfactory Loss (SOL) and COVID-19" that was administered during March 2020 to Italian general practitioners registered to a social media group. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty responses were received. SOL was identified as a significant sign of infection in COVID-19 patients, mainly aged between 30 and 40 years, even in the absence of other symptoms. SOL was present as an initial symptom in 46.7% of subjects, and in 16.7%, it was the only symptom. Among the COVID-19 confirmed cases, SOL occurred as the only symptom in 19.2% of patients. CONCLUSION: SOL could represent a possible early symptom in otherwise asymptomatic COVID-19 subjects. Subjects affected by SOL should be considered as potential COVID-19 cases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Adult , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/epidemiology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055064

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease. Bilateral pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation are key features of severe COVID-19. Fibrinogen and D-dimer levels are typically increased. The risk for venous thromboembolism is markedly increased, especially in patients in the intensive care unit despite prophylactic dose anticoagulation. Pulmonary microvascular thrombosis has also been described and the risk for arterial thrombotic diseases also appears to be increased while bleeding is less common than thrombosis, but it can occur. Evaluation for venous thromboembolism may be challenging because symptoms of pulmonary embolism overlap with COVID-19, and imaging studies may not be feasible in all cases. The threshold for evaluation or diagnosis of thromboembolism should be low given the high frequency of these events. Management and treatment are new challenges due to the paucity of high-quality evidence regarding efficacy and safety of different approaches to prevent or treat thromboembolic complications of the disease. All inpatients should receive thromboprophylaxis unless contraindicated. Some institutional protocols provide more aggressive anticoagulation with intermediate or even therapeutic dose anticoagulation for COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. Therapeutic dose anticoagulation is always appropriate to treat deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, unless contraindicated. This article reviews evaluation and management of coagulation abnormalities in individuals with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Risk Management , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
14.
Med Leg J ; 89(1): 40-53, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039970

ABSTRACT

The activity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has not yet been studied in a post-mortem setting. The absence of these data has led to the prohibition of exposure of infected corpses during burial procedures. Our aim was to assess the virus's persistence and the possibility of transmission in the post-mortem phase including autopsy staff. The sample group included 29 patients who were admitted to our Covid-19 Centre who died during hospitalisation and the autopsy staff. All the swabs were subjected to a one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with cycle threshold (Ct) values. Swab collection was performed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 12 h, over 24 since death. The following were the analysis of patients' swabs: 10 cases were positive 2 h after death; 10 cases positive 4 h after death; 9 cases were found positive 6 h after death; 7 cases positive 12 h after death; 9 cases remained positive 24 h after death. The swabs performed on all the forensic pathologist staff on duty who performed the autopsies were negative. The choice to avoid rituals and the display of corpses before and at the burial procedures given appears cautiously valid due to the persistence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the post-mortem period. Although the caution in choosing whether or not to perform an autopsy on infected corpses is acceptable, not to perform autopsies is not biologically supported.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , COVID-19/transmission , Cadaver , Postmortem Changes , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors , Young Adult
15.
Biology (Basel) ; 9(10)2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-905833

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to assess thrombotic risk in CoViD-19/pneumonia patients with acute respiratory failure and to compare populations treated with three different antithrombotic prophylaxis protocols. The primary outcome is to analyze the prevalence of thrombotic events in hospitalized patients, while the secondary outcome is to analyze the correlation between different anticoagulation targets with thrombotic events. All patients referred to our hospital for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia between 18 and 31 May 2020 were included. Seventy-four patients were enrolled (44 men and 30 women, average age 68.6). Diagnosis of venous thromboembolism was made in 21 cases (28.4%) and thrombotic events were associated with positive pressure ventilation support (p = 0.024) and hospitalization in ICU (p < 0.0001). These patients presented higher levels of D-dimer (p < 0.0001) and their hospital length of stay was >16 days longer. Forty-seven out of 74 patients (63.5%) received intermediate or therapeutic dose of anticoagulation, while twenty-seven patients (34.5%) received standard antithrombotic prophylaxis. The analysis showed that an intermediate or therapeutic dose of anticoagulation did not decrease the prevalence of thrombotic events. On the other hand, six patients reported severe hemorrhagic complications. Despite intermediate or therapeutic-dose of anticoagulation, a high number of patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 developed thrombotic complications.

16.
Biology ; 9(10):310, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-792728

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to assess thrombotic risk in CoViD-19/pneumonia patients with acute respiratory failure and to compare populations treated with three different antithrombotic prophylaxis protocols. The primary outcome is to analyze the prevalence of thrombotic events in hospitalized patients, while the secondary outcome is to analyze the correlation between different anticoagulation targets with thrombotic events. All patients referred to our hospital for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia between 18 and 31 May 2020 were included. Seventy-four patients were enrolled (44 men and 30 women, average age 68.6). Diagnosis of venous thromboembolism was made in 21 cases (28.4%) and thrombotic events were associated with positive pressure ventilation support (p = 0.024) and hospitalization in ICU (p <0.0001). These patients presented higher levels of D-dimer (p <0.0001) and their hospital length of stay was >16 days longer. Forty-seven out of 74 patients (63.5%) received intermediate or therapeutic dose of anticoagulation, while twenty-seven patients (34.5%) received standard antithrombotic prophylaxis. The analysis showed that an intermediate or therapeutic dose of anticoagulation did not decrease the prevalence of thrombotic events. On the other hand, six patients reported severe hemorrhagic complications. Despite intermediate or therapeutic-dose of anticoagulation, a high number of patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 developed thrombotic complications.

17.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(9): 1048-1056, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771248

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is significantly changing methodologic approaches in all branches of the health system. From a forensic point of view, this event is partly changing the manner in which forensic pathologists and all those who work in autopsy services operate, but above all, it is changing the patterns established for years by which cadavers are analyzed postmortem. OBJECTIVE.­: To present a review of the literature and a proposal for COVID-19 autopsy protocols. To contain the infection risk, a revision of all the protocols that until now have been applied to the examination of bodies that require autopsy services is required. DATA SOURCES.­: Currently, the diagnosis and postmortem analysis of positive or suspected COVID-19 cases plays a crucial role in scientific research. A review of the main recommendations proposed by international scientific societies regarding the risk of infection during autopsy was carried out. Scientific papers currently available via the PubMed NCBI search engine on COVID-19 postmortem diagnosis were also examined. CONCLUSIONS.­: Throughout the history of medicine, autopsy has been fundamental to the understanding of multiple pathogenic processes that are investigated postmortem. The purpose of the study is to propose an operating protocol that can be useful for all clinical and forensic autopsies, with particular reference to the correct methods to be applied to the examination of positive or suspected COVID-19 cases, regarding both the autopsy procedure and the collection and analysis of biological samples.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/methods , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Autopsy/standards , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/methods , Specimen Handling/standards
18.
Rev Recent Clin Trials ; 16(2): 138-145, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771653

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Corona virus is a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, these families of viruses can cause respiratory infections from a mild form to fatal. It is preferably called coronavirus. Formally, it is known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and this disease is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is infectious in humans and the world health organization has announced COVID-19 as pandemic disease. Tocilizumab is a biological agent that inhibits the cytokine, interleukin 6 (IL-6 inhibitor). As SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to the development of cytokine storm syndrome, the drug, tocilizumab, seems to have a positive effect on patients with COVID-19. AIM: To analyze and review the possible effects and efficacy of the tocilizumab (monoclonal antibody against IL-6 receptors) in SARS-CoV-2 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search was carried out for all recent review articles, which were used to study the SARS-CoV-2 disease and their characteristics. Furthermore, we have analyzed the most recent research articles on monoclonal antibody against IL-6 receptors (tocilizumab) and their possible clinical effects in COVID-19 and its' clinical trials. RESULTS: COVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is a life threatening condition, which can give rise to fatal outcomes if left untreated. However, there are no approved treatments for COVID-19 globally. Furthermore, we can conclude that SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the worsening of lung conditions, characterized by interstitial pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome as a result of cytokine storm syndrome. According to available research data, tocilizumab, a recombinant humanized anti-human monoclonal antibody of IgG1τ (gamma 1, kappa), can improve patient's condition from cytokine storm syndrome by inhibiting the IL-6 (Interleukin 6) receptors. CONCLUSION: The rational use of the tocilizumab in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients can prevent the development of irreversible lung injury and death of the patient. Three retrospective studies of Xiaoling Xu et al., Pan luo et al., and Paola Tonaiti et al. have shown the efficacy of tocilizumab in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients. However, we need more randomized research studies with a significant number of patients which can confirm the promising results on tocilizumab treatment in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, ongoing clinical trails such as TOSCA, COVACTA results have not been published yet which are expected to give better and more significant results on tocilizumab's effectiveness and safety.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Treatment Outcome
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(8)2020 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717750

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Spreading of SARS-CoV-2 infection from China to countries with a higher prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has generated concern among gastroenterologists and patients. The aim of this survey is to evaluate knowledge about clinical importance of COVID-19, disease management, prevention measures, and anxiety level during pandemic among patients with IBD. Material and methods: From 15th March to 15th April 2020, a questionnaire survey was administered to 200 patients with IBD by email or phone application. The questionnaire consisted of five sections: (1) anthropometric, demographic and clinical characteristics, (2) knowledge about clinical importance of COVID-19, (3) IBD management, (4) prevention measures, (5) anxiety level during pandemic. Results: One hundred forty two questionnaires were completed. Ninety-seven patients (68.3%) were males with a mean age of 46 years (SD 13; range 17-76). Fifty-four individuals (38%) were affected by Crohn disease and 88 (62%) by Ulcerative Colitis. Most patients reported high knowledge about clinical importance of COVID-19 (80%), IBD management (72%), and prevention measures (97%). Sixty-two percent of them showed moderate-high level of anxiety. High education level was independently associated with high knowledge about clinical importance of COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-16.6, p = 0.009) and older age (OR 1, 95%, CI 1.01-1.1, p = 0.01), while the receipt of e-format educational material with low knowledge about clinical importance of COVID-19 (OR 3, 95%, CI 1.08-9.3, p = 0.03). Displaying an active disease appeared to be independently associated with low knowledge of IBD management (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.4-22.8, p = 0.01) and no variables other than an older age was independently associated with higher level of anxiety (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.009-1.09, p = 0.01). Conclusions: High educational level and aging promote knowledge about clinical importance of COVID-19, while e-format educational material does not. Taken together with findings that an active disease status compromises knowledge of IBD management and the high level of anxiety related to increasing age, these data suggest the need of further supporting patient-oriented strategies in IBD during Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
J Clin Med ; 9(8)2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem containing bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts and other single-celled organisms. It is involved in the development and maintenance of both innate and systemic immunity of the body. Emerging evidence has shown its role in liver diseases through the immune system cross-talk. We review herein literature data regarding the triangular interaction between gut microbiota, immune system and liver in health and disease. METHODS: We conducted a search on the main medical databases for original articles, reviews, meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and case series using the following keywords and acronyms and their associations: gut microbiota, microbiome, gut virome, immunity, gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH), alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS: The gut microbiota consists of microorganisms that educate our systemic immunity through GALT and non-GALT interactions. The latter maintain health but are also involved in the pathophysiology and in the outcome of several liver diseases, particularly those with metabolic, toxic or immune-mediated etiology. In this context, gut virome has an emerging role in liver diseases and needs to be further investigated, especially due to the link reported between severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and hepatic dysfunctions. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in gut microbiota composition and alterations in the immune system response are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic and immune-mediated liver diseases.

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