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1.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(7): 1748-1753, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients who have had COVID-19 often report persistent symptoms after resolution of their acute illness. Recent reports suggest that vaccination may be associated with improvement in post-acute symptoms. We used data from a prospective cohort to assess differences in post-acute sequelae of COVID (PASC) among vaccinated vs. unvaccinated patients. METHODS: We used data from a cohort of COVID-19 patients enrolled into a prospective registry established at a tertiary care health system in New York City. Participants underwent a baseline evaluation before COVID-19 vaccines were available and were followed 6 months later. We compared unadjusted and propensity score-adjusted baseline to 6-month change for several PASC-related symptoms and measures: anosmia, respiratory (cough, dyspnea, phlegm, wheezing), depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; COVID-19-related and other trauma), and quality-of-life domains among participants who received vs. those who did not receive COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: The study included 453 COVID-19 patients with PASC, of which 324 (72%) were vaccinated between the baseline and 6-month visit. Unadjusted analyses did not show significant differences in the baseline to 6-month change in anosmia, respiratory symptoms, depression, anxiety, PTSD, or quality of life (p > 0.05 for all comparisons) among vaccinated vs. unvaccinated patients. Similar results were found in propensity-adjusted comparisons and in secondary analyses based on the number of vaccine doses received. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that COVID vaccination is not associated with improvement in PASC. Additional studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying PASC and to develop effective treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anosmia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Progression , Humans , Quality of Life , Vaccination
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding asymptomatic COVID-19 among people with HIV (PWH). Data on a representative subset of PWH enrolled in REPRIEVE, a global clinical trial are presented here. METHODS: REPRIEVE is an atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention trial among 7,770 PWH on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Beginning April 2020, targeted data on COVID-19 diagnosis and symptoms were collected during routine trial visits. SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined as either COVID-19 clinical diagnosis or presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG or IgA RBD protein (anti-spike) antibodies in the absence of prior COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: The group (N=2,464) had a median age 53 years, 35% female sex, 47% Black or African American race, median CD4 count 649 c/mm3, and 97% with HIV VL <400 cp/m. SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 318 persons (13%): 58 with clinical diagnosis and 260 with detectable antibodies. Of these PWH, 304 completed symptom questionnaires: 121 (40%) reported symptoms, but 183 (60%) were asymptomatic. PWH with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to be from Low or Middle Income Regions, of Black or African American race, older in age, and with higher ASCVD risk score. Symptomatic COVID was more common with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and low HDL levels. CD4 counts and HIV viral suppression rates were similar among PWH with symptomatic vs. asymptomatic COVID. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is common among ART-treated PWH globally. We determined that 60% of infections in PWH were asymptomatic. HIV clinicians must remain vigilant about COVID-19 testing among PWH to identify asymptomatic cases.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Open-label platform trials and a prospective meta-analysis suggest efficacy of anti-IL-6R therapies in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving corticosteroids. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of sarilumab, an anti-IL-6R monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this adaptive, phase 2/3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults hospitalized with COVID-19 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04315298) received intravenous sarilumab or placebo. The phase 3 primary analysis population included patients with critical COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation randomized to sarilumab 400 mg or placebo. The primary outcome was proportion of patients with ≥1-point improvement in clinical status from baseline to day 22. RESULTS: There were 457 and 1365 patients randomized and treated in phases 2 and 3, respectively. In phase 3, patients with critical COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation (n = 298; 28.2% on corticosteroids), the proportion with ≥1-point improvement in clinical status (alive, not receiving mechanical ventilation) at day 22 was 43.2% in sarilumab and 35.5% in placebo (risk difference +7.5%; 95% CI, -7.4 to 21.3; P = .3261), a relative risk improvement of 21.7%. In post-hoc analyses pooling phase 2 and 3 critical patients receiving mechanical ventilation, the hazard ratio for death in sarilumab versus placebo was 0.76 (95% CI, .51-1.13) overall and 0.49 (95% CI, .25-.94) in patients receiving corticosteroids at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not establish the efficacy of sarilumab in hospitalized patients with severe/critical COVID-19. Post-hoc analyses were consistent with other studies that found a benefit of sarilumab in patients receiving corticosteroids.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3572-e3605, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575760

ABSTRACT

Advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) have made it possible for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to live a near expected life span, without progressing to AIDS or transmitting HIV to sexual partners or infants. There is, therefore, increasing emphasis on maintaining health throughout the life span. To receive optimal medical care and achieve desired outcomes, persons with HIV must be consistently engaged in care and able to access uninterrupted treatment, including ART. Comprehensive evidence-based HIV primary care guidance is, therefore, more important than ever. Creating a patient-centered, stigma-free care environment is essential for care engagement. Barriers to care must be decreased at the societal, health system, clinic, and individual levels. As the population ages and noncommunicable diseases arise, providing comprehensive healthcare for persons with HIV becomes increasingly complex, including management of multiple comorbidities and the associated challenges of polypharmacy, while not neglecting HIV-related health concerns. Clinicians must address issues specific to persons of childbearing potential, including care during preconception and pregnancy, and to children, adolescents, and transgender and gender-diverse individuals. This guidance from an expert panel of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America updates previous 2013 primary care guidelines.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Adolescent , Child , Comorbidity , Female , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Primary Health Care
5.
J Infect Dis ; 225(4): 603-607, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522224

ABSTRACT

Little is known regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination rates in people with HIV (PWH), a vulnerable population with significant morbidity from COVID-19. We assessed COVID-19 vaccination rates among 6952 PWH in the Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE) compared to region- and country-specific vaccination data. The global probability of COVID-19 vaccination through end of July 2021 was 55% among REPRIEVE participants with rates varying substantially by Global Burden of Disease (GBD) superregion. Among PWH, factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination included residence in high-income regions, age, white race, male sex, body mass index, and higher cardiovascular risk. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT02344290.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Male , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1151-1158, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481184

ABSTRACT

The development of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines began in March 2020 in response to a request from the White House Coronavirus Task Force. Within 4 days of the request, the NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel was established and the first meeting took place (virtually-as did subsequent meetings). The Panel comprises 57 individuals representing 6 governmental agencies, 11 professional societies, and 33 medical centers, plus 2 community members, who have worked together to create and frequently update the guidelines on the basis of evidence from the most recent clinical studies available. The initial version of the guidelines was completed within 2 weeks and posted online on 21 April 2020. Initially, sparse evidence was available to guide COVID-19 treatment recommendations. However, treatment data rapidly accrued based on results from clinical studies that used various study designs and evaluated different therapeutic agents and approaches. Data have continued to evolve at a rapid pace, leading to 24 revisions and updates of the guidelines in the first year. This process has provided important lessons for responding to an unprecedented public health emergency: Providers and stakeholders are eager to access credible, current treatment guidelines; governmental agencies, professional societies, and health care leaders can work together effectively and expeditiously; panelists from various disciplines, including biostatistics, are important for quickly developing well-informed recommendations; well-powered randomized clinical trials continue to provide the most compelling evidence to guide treatment recommendations; treatment recommendations need to be developed in a confidential setting free from external pressures; development of a user-friendly, web-based format for communicating with health care providers requires substantial administrative support; and frequent updates are necessary as clinical evidence rapidly emerges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Advisory Committees , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Drug Approval , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stakeholder Participation , United States
7.
Lancet ; 397(10289): 2024-2025, 2021 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230822
8.
J Infect Dis ; 223(3): 403-408, 2021 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082007

ABSTRACT

We performed a retrospective study of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH). PWH with COVID-19 demonstrated severe lymphopenia and decreased CD4+ T cell counts. Levels of inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and tumor necrosis factor α were commonly elevated. In all, 19 of 72 hospitalized individuals (26.4%) died and 53 (73.6%) recovered. PWH who died had higher levels of inflammatory markers and more severe lymphopenia than those who recovered. These findings suggest that PWH remain at risk for severe manifestations of COVID-19 despite antiretroviral therapy and that those with increased markers of inflammation and immune dysregulation are at risk for worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e24018, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has infected millions of people worldwide and is responsible for several hundred thousand fatalities. The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated thoughtful resource allocation and early identification of high-risk patients. However, effective methods to meet these needs are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the electronic health records (EHRs) of patients who tested positive for COVID-19 and were admitted to hospitals in the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City; to develop machine learning models for making predictions about the hospital course of the patients over clinically meaningful time horizons based on patient characteristics at admission; and to assess the performance of these models at multiple hospitals and time points. METHODS: We used Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and baseline comparator models to predict in-hospital mortality and critical events at time windows of 3, 5, 7, and 10 days from admission. Our study population included harmonized EHR data from five hospitals in New York City for 4098 COVID-19-positive patients admitted from March 15 to May 22, 2020. The models were first trained on patients from a single hospital (n=1514) before or on May 1, externally validated on patients from four other hospitals (n=2201) before or on May 1, and prospectively validated on all patients after May 1 (n=383). Finally, we established model interpretability to identify and rank variables that drive model predictions. RESULTS: Upon cross-validation, the XGBoost classifier outperformed baseline models, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for mortality of 0.89 at 3 days, 0.85 at 5 and 7 days, and 0.84 at 10 days. XGBoost also performed well for critical event prediction, with an AUC-ROC of 0.80 at 3 days, 0.79 at 5 days, 0.80 at 7 days, and 0.81 at 10 days. In external validation, XGBoost achieved an AUC-ROC of 0.88 at 3 days, 0.86 at 5 days, 0.86 at 7 days, and 0.84 at 10 days for mortality prediction. Similarly, the unimputed XGBoost model achieved an AUC-ROC of 0.78 at 3 days, 0.79 at 5 days, 0.80 at 7 days, and 0.81 at 10 days. Trends in performance on prospective validation sets were similar. At 7 days, acute kidney injury on admission, elevated LDH, tachypnea, and hyperglycemia were the strongest drivers of critical event prediction, while higher age, anion gap, and C-reactive protein were the strongest drivers of mortality prediction. CONCLUSIONS: We externally and prospectively trained and validated machine learning models for mortality and critical events for patients with COVID-19 at different time horizons. These models identified at-risk patients and uncovered underlying relationships that predicted outcomes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Machine Learning/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Electronic Health Records , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
10.
Cancer Cell ; 38(5): 594-597, 2020 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972295

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), like cancer, is a complex disease with clinical phases of progression. Initially conceptualized as a respiratory disease, COVID-19 is increasingly recognized as a multi-organ and heterogeneous illness. Disease staging is a method for measuring the progression and severity of an illness using objective clinical and molecular criteria. Integral to cancer staging is "metastasis," defined as the spread of a disease-producing agent, including neoplastic cells and pathogens such as certain viruses, from the primary site to distinct anatomic locations. Staging provides valuable frameworks and benchmarks for clinical decision-making in patient management, improved prognostication, and evidence-based treatment selection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040736, 2020 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health crisis, with over 33 million cases and 999 000 deaths worldwide. Data are needed regarding the clinical course of hospitalised patients, particularly in the USA. We aimed to compare clinical characteristic of patients with COVID-19 who had in-hospital mortality with those who were discharged alive. DESIGN: Demographic, clinical and outcomes data for patients admitted to five Mount Sinai Health System hospitals with confirmed COVID-19 between 27 February and 2 April 2020 were identified through institutional electronic health records. We performed a retrospective comparative analysis of patients who had in-hospital mortality or were discharged alive. SETTING: All patients were admitted to the Mount Sinai Health System, a large quaternary care urban hospital system. PARTICIPANTS: Participants over the age of 18 years were included. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: We investigated in-hospital mortality during the study period. RESULTS: A total of 2199 patients with COVID-19 were hospitalised during the study period. As of 2 April, 1121 (51%) patients remained hospitalised, and 1078 (49%) completed their hospital course. Of the latter, the overall mortality was 29%, and 36% required intensive care. The median age was 65 years overall and 75 years in those who died. Pre-existing conditions were present in 65% of those who died and 46% of those discharged. In those who died, the admission median lymphocyte percentage was 11.7%, D-dimer was 2.4 µg/mL, C reactive protein was 162 mg/L and procalcitonin was 0.44 ng/mL. In those discharged, the admission median lymphocyte percentage was 16.6%, D-dimer was 0.93 µg/mL, C reactive protein was 79 mg/L and procalcitonin was 0.09 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of hospitalised patients, requirement of intensive care and mortality were high. Patients who died typically had more pre-existing conditions and greater perturbations in inflammatory markers as compared with those who were discharged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitals , Humans , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Transfusion ; 61(1): 78-93, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma (CP) for treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown preliminary signs of effectiveness in moderate to severely ill patients in reducing mortality. While studies have demonstrated a low risk of serious adverse events, the comprehensive incidence and nature of the spectrum of transfusion reactions to CP is unknown. We retrospectively examined 427 adult inpatient CP transfusions to determine incidence and types of reactions, as well as clinical parameters and risk factors associated with transfusion reactions. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed for 427 transfusions to 215 adult patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) within the Mount Sinai Health System, through the US Food and Drug Administration emergency investigational new drug and the Mayo Clinic Expanded Access Protocol to Convalescent Plasma approval pathways. Transfusions were blindly evaluated by two reviewers and adjudicated by a third reviewer in discordant cases. Patient demographics and clinical and laboratory parameters were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty-five reactions from 427 transfusions were identified (12.9% incidence), and 13 were attributed to transfusion (3.1% incidence). Reactions were classified as underlying COVID-19 (76%), febrile nonhemolytic (10.9%), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (9.1%), and allergic (1.8%) and hypotensive (1.8%) reactions. Statistical analysis identified increased transfusion reaction risk for ABO blood group B or Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores of 12 to 13, and decreased risk within the age group of 80 to 89 years. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the use of CP as a safe, therapeutic option from a transfusion reaction perspective, in the setting of COVID-19. Further studies are needed to confirm the clinical significance of ABO group B, age, and predisposing disease severity in the incidence of transfusion reaction events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Blood Transfusion , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transfusion Reaction
13.
Cancer Med ; 9(22): 8571-8578, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with malignancy are particularly vulnerable to infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Disease-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) given their immunodeficiency secondary to their underlying disease and cancer-directed therapy. We report a case series of patients with cancer who received convalescent plasma, an investigational therapy for severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Patients with cancer were identified who received convalescent plasma. Enrolled patients had confirmed COVID-19 with severe or life-threatening disease and were transfused with convalescent plasma from donors with a SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike antibody titer of ≥ 1:320 dilution. Oxygen requirements and clinical outcomes of interests were captured as well as laboratory parameters at baseline and 3 days after treatment. RESULTS: We identified 24 patients with cancer, 14 of whom had a hematological malignancy, who were treated with convalescent plasma. Fifteen patients (62.5%) were on cancer-directed treatment at the time of COVID-19 infection. After a median of hospital duration of 9 days, 13 patients (54.2%) had been discharged home, 1 patient (4.2%) was still hospitalized, and 10 patients had died (41.7%). Non-intubated patients, particularly those on nasal cannula alone, had favorable outcomes. Three mild febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions were observed. C-reactive protein significantly decreased after 3 days of treatment, while other laboratory parameters including ferritin and D-dimer remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Convalescent plasma may be a promising therapy in cancer patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology
14.
Nat Med ; 26(11): 1708-1713, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772953

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a new human disease with few effective treatments1. Convalescent plasma, donated by persons who have recovered from COVID-19, is the acellular component of blood that contains antibodies, including those that specifically recognize SARS-CoV-2. These antibodies, when transfused into patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, are thought to exert an antiviral effect, suppressing virus replication before patients have mounted their own humoral immune responses2,3. Virus-specific antibodies from recovered persons are often the first available therapy for an emerging infectious disease, a stopgap treatment while new antivirals and vaccines are being developed1,2. This retrospective, propensity score-matched case-control study assessed the effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy in 39 patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19 at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. Oxygen requirements on day 14 after transfusion worsened in 17.9% of plasma recipients versus 28.2% of propensity score-matched controls who were hospitalized with COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.98; chi-square test P value = 0.025). Survival also improved in plasma recipients (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89; chi-square test P = 0.027). Convalescent plasma is potentially effective against COVID-19, but adequately powered, randomized controlled trials are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
15.
Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 222(Supplement_1):S41-S51, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is a common comorbid condition among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH). We characterized baseline kidney function in the REPRIEVE (Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV) trial cohort. METHODS: REPRIEVE enrolled PWH with low to moderate cardiovascular risk based on traditional risk factors to evaluate the effect of statin therapy on cardiovascular events. We determined baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, and Cockcroft-Gault equations, and we evaluated baseline factors associated with eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 by logistic regression. We performed Bland-Altman plots and scatterplots to assess agreement between equations. RESULTS: Among 7770 participants enrolled, the median age was 50 years, 31% were female (natal sex), 43% black or African American and 15% Asian, the median body mass index (calculated as calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 25.8, and the median CD4 cell count 620/µL. The median CKD-EPI eGFR was 97 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 38% had an eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2. In the adjusted model, factors associated with eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 included white race, older age, higher body mass index, high-income region of enrollment, hypertension, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The CKD-EPI and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equations demonstrated strong agreement, particularly at lower eGFR values. Overall, there was 56% concordance between the 3 equations (categories <60, 60 to <90, ≥90 mL/min), improving to 73% after accounting for individual body surface area. CONCLUSIONS: REPRIEVE enrolled a diverse cohort including a substantial number of PWH with reduced kidney function. Factors associated with reduced eGFR included traditional risk factors and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate exposure. Three commonly used equations have only fair agreement, with potential implications for both clinical care and epidemiologic studies. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02344290.

16.
Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 222(Supplement_1):S8-S19, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patterns of antiretroviral therapy (ART) use and immunologic correlates vary globally, and contemporary trends are not well described. METHODS: The REPRIEVE trial (Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV) enrolled persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were aged 40-75 years, receiving ART, and had low-to-moderate cardiovascular disease risk. ART use was summarized within Global Burden of Disease (GBD) super-regions, with adjusted linear and logistic regression analyses examining associations with immune parameters and key demographics. RESULTS: A total of 7770 participants were enrolled, with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range, 45-55 years);31% were female, 43% were black or African American, 15% were Asian, 56% had a body mass index >25 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and 49% were current or former smokers. The median CD4 T-cell count was 620/µL (interquartile range, 447-826/ µ L), and the median duration of prior ART use, 9.5 years (5.3-14.8) years. The most common ART regimens were nucleoside/nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) plus nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (43%), NRTI plus integrase strand transfer inhibitor (25%), and NRTI plus protease inhibitor (19%). Entry ART varied by GBD region, with shifts during the trial enrollment period. In adjusted analyses, entry CD4 cell count and CD4/CD8 ratio were associated with GBD region, sex, entry regimen, duration of ART, and nadir CD4 cell count;CD4 and CD8 cell counts were also associated with body mass index and smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: There were substantial variations in ART use by geographic region and over time, likely reflecting the local availability of specific medications, changes in treatment guidelines and provider/patient preferences. The analyses of CD4 cell counts and CD4/CD8 ratios may provide valuable insights regarding immune correlates and outcomes in people living with HIV. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02344290.

18.
Clin Transplant ; 34(12): e14089, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751770

ABSTRACT

Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may be at higher risk for poor outcomes with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Convalescent plasma is an investigational therapy that may benefit immunosuppressed patients by providing passive immunity. Convalescent plasma was administered to hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) at an academic transplant center in New York City. Eligible patients were hospitalized and required to have positive nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, be at least 18 years old, and have either dyspnea, blood oxygen saturation ≤ 93% on ambient air, respiratory frequency ≥ 30 breaths/min, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio < 300, or lung infiltrates > 50%. Thirteen SOT recipients received convalescent plasma from April 9, 2020, to May 17, 2020. The median time from symptom onset to plasma infusion was 8 days. Eight of 13 patients (62%) had de-escalating oxygenation support by day 7 post-convalescent plasma. Nine (69%) patients were discharged, 1 (7%) patients remain hospitalized, and 3 (23%) patients died. This series supports the need for additional studies on convalescent plasma use in SOT recipients with COVID-19 to better determine efficacy and identify patients who are likely to benefit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Organ Transplantation , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Treatment Outcome
19.
Nat Med ; 26(10): 1636-1643, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728994

ABSTRACT

Several studies have revealed that the hyper-inflammatory response induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major cause of disease severity and death. However, predictive biomarkers of pathogenic inflammation to help guide targetable immune pathways are critically lacking. We implemented a rapid multiplex cytokine assay to measure serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1ß in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) upon admission to the Mount Sinai Health System in New York. Patients (n = 1,484) were followed up to 41 d after admission (median, 8 d), and clinical information, laboratory test results and patient outcomes were collected. We found that high serum IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels at the time of hospitalization were strong and independent predictors of patient survival (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0205 and P = 0.0140, respectively). Notably, when adjusting for disease severity, common laboratory inflammation markers, hypoxia and other vitals, demographics, and a range of comorbidities, IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels remained independent and significant predictors of disease severity and death. These findings were validated in a second cohort of patients (n = 231). We propose that serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels should be considered in the management and treatment of patients with COVID-19 to stratify prospective clinical trials, guide resource allocation and inform therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-8/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
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