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3.
Metab Eng Commun ; 14: e00196, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751152

ABSTRACT

Interest in the potential therapeutic efficacy of psilocybin and other psychedelic compounds has escalated significantly in recent years. To date, little is known regarding the biological activity of the psilocybin pathway intermediate, norbaeocystin, due to limitations around sourcing the phosphorylated tryptamine metabolite for in vivo testing. To address this limitation, we first developed a novel E. coli platform for the rapid and scalable production of gram-scale amounts of norbaeocystin. Through this process we compare the genetic and fermentation optimization strategies to that of a similarly constructed and previously reported psilocybin producing strain, uncovering the need for reoptimization and balancing upon even minor genetic modifications to the production host. We then perform in vivo measurements of head twitch response to both biosynthesized psilocybin and norbaeocystin using both a cell broth and water vehicle in Long-Evans rats. The data show a dose response to psilocybin while norbaeocystin does not elicit any pharmacological response, suggesting that norbaeocystin and its metabolites may not have a strong affinity for the serotonin 2A receptor. The findings presented here provide a mechanism to source norbaeocystin for future studies to evaluate its disease efficacy in animal models, both individually and in combination with psilocybin, and support the safety of cell broth as a drug delivery vehicle.

4.
Geospat Health ; 17(s1)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709038

ABSTRACT

This study hypothesizes that public health responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including a mandated restriction of activity (commonly called a 'lockdown') resulted in reduced transportation activities and changes in air quality in Texas, USA. This presented a natural experiment where population mobility and air quality before and after the lockdown could be compared. Changes in mobility were measured by SafeGraph mobility data (from opt-in smart phone applications that transmit location data) and air quality changes were based on NO2 concentrations measured by the European Space Agency's Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite (from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument). The changes in population mobility and NO2 concentration between mid-March 2020 (lockdown initiated) and the end of 2020, as compared to the same time window in 2019, were the basis of exploring the lockdown hypothesis. Additionally, numerous socio-economic (place based) indicators were hypothesized to follow public health vulnerability assumptions based on COVID- 19 incidence patterns. This hypothesis was subjected to geovisualization techniques in order to find potential patterns and insights into the complex combinations of these place-based data. Our results suggest that simultaneously visualizing COVID-19, mobility, air quality and socio-economic data yields insights in underlying spatial processes related to public health policy decisions. The hypothesis that the lockdown resulted in reduced mobility and NO2 concentrations was found partially correct - this trend was observed in highly urbanized areas, but not in less populated areas. Data related public health vulnerability assumptions (e.g. a region's age, poverty, education, etc.) were agreed with in part, but disagreed with in part.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
5.
10th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, CSNT 2021 ; : 369-374, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1704647

ABSTRACT

WHO has declared “Coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19), which is caused by “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2” (SARS-CoV-2), a worldwide pandemic in March 2020. With its advent in December 2019, it has affected over 86,095,614 people worldwide as of January 4, 2021. Medical workers and researchers are working towards developing a vaccine and improving diagnostic methods for early detection and disease progression monitoring methods. The objective of this study is to provide a robust “Convolutional Neural Network” (CNN) architecture for COVID-19 detection using “Chest X-Rays” (CXR) and Chest CT Scans in order to reduce the response time to diagnose infected patients. We developed deep learning image classification models using Dilated Convolutional Neural Networks as the backend for our model and utilized various fine-tuned pre-trained CNN models as the feature extractor for our model. For both Chest X-Ray and Chest CT, we created datasets by combining various publicly available databases. The Chest X-Ray dataset contains 196 COVID positive frontal CXR images and 196 normal images, and out of two Chest CT datasets, one contains 349 covid and 349 non-covid images and the other contains 1252 covid and 1230 non-covid images. We also utilized transfer learning because of less publicly available data. Image Enhancement Techniques were also used to improve image contrast. The best classification accuracy achieved on Chest X-Ray dataset is 100% and accuracies achieved on the two Chest CT datasets are 91.6% and 98% respectively. © 2021 IEEE.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318806

ABSTRACT

Background: We conducted this study to identify the influence of prolonged use of hydroxychloroquine(HCQ), glucocorticoids (GC) and other immunosuppressants (IS) on occurrence and outcome of COVID-19 in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs). Methods This was a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional longitudinal study across 15 specialist rheumatology centers. Consecutive AIRD patients on treatment with immunosuppressants were recruited and followed up longitudinally to assess parameters contributing to development of COVID-19 and its outcome. Results COVID-19 occurred in 314(3.45%) of 9212 AIRD patients during a median follow up of 177 (IQR 129,219) days. Long term HCQ use had no major impact on the occurrence or the outcome of COVID-19. Glucocorticoids in moderate dose (7.5-20mg/day) conferred higher risk (RR = 1.72) of infection. Among the IS, Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), Cyclophosphamide (CYC) and Rituximab (RTX) use was higher in patients with COVID 19. However, the conventional risk factors such as male sex (RR = 1.51), coexistent diabetes mellitus (RR = 1.64), pre-existing lung disease (RR = 2.01) and smoking (RR = 3.32) were the major contributing risk factors for COVID-19. Thirteen patients (4.14%) died, the strongest risk factor being pre-existing lung disease (RR = 6.36, p = 0.01). Incidence ((17.5 vs 5.3 per 1 lakh (Karnataka) and 25.3 vs 7.9 per 1 lakh(Kerala) ) and case fatality (4.1% vs 1.3 % (Karnataka) and 4.3% vs 0.4% (Kerala)) rate of COVID-19 was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to the general population of the corresponding geographic region. Conclusions Immunosuppressants have a differential impact on the risk of COVID-19 occurrence in AIRD patients. Older age, males, smokers, hypertensive, diabetic and underlying lung disease contributed to higher risk. The incidence rate and the case fatality rate in AIRD patients is much higher than that in the general population.

7.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(6): 103224, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331271

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in multiple waves of infection worldwide. The large variations in case fatality rate among different geographical regions suggest that the human susceptibility against this virus varies substantially. Several studies from different parts of the world showed a significant association of ABO blood group and COVID-19 susceptibility. It was demonstrated that individuals with blood group O are at the lower risk of coronavirus infection. To establish the association of ABO blood group in SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility, we for the first time analysed SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies among 509 individuals, collected from three major districts of Eastern Uttar Pradesh region of India. Interestingly, we found neutralising antibodies in a significantly higher percentage of people with blood group AB (0.36) followed by B (0.31), A (0.22) and lowest in people with blood group O (0.11). We further estimated that people with blood group AB are at comparatively higher risk of infection than other blood groups. Thus, among the asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 recovered people blood group AB has highest, whilst individuals with blood group O has lowest risk of infection.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/blood , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(7): 1670-1692, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280829

ABSTRACT

Purpose: COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) has reached epidemic proportion during India's second wave of COVID-19 pandemic, with several risk factors being implicated in its pathogenesis. This study aimed to determine the patient demographics, risk factors including comorbidities, and medications used to treat COVID-19, presenting symptoms and signs, and the outcome of management. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study of patients with COVID-19-associated ROCM managed or co-managed by ophthalmologists in India from January 1, 2020 to May 26, 2021. Results: Of the 2826 patients, the states of Gujarat (22%) and Maharashtra (21%) reported the highest number of ROCM. The mean age of patients was 51.9 years with a male preponderance (71%). While 57% of the patients needed oxygen support for COVID-19 infection, 87% of the patients were treated with corticosteroids, (21% for > 10 days). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was present in 78% of all patients. Most of the cases showed onset of symptoms of ROCM between day 10 and day 15 from the diagnosis of COVID-19, 56% developed within 14 days after COVID-19 diagnosis, while 44% had delayed onset beyond 14 days. Orbit was involved in 72% of patients, with stage 3c forming the bulk (27%). Overall treatment included intravenous amphotericin B in 73%, functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS)/paranasal sinus (PNS) debridement in 56%, orbital exenteration in 15%, and both FESS/PNS debridement and orbital exenteration in 17%. Intraorbital injection of amphotericin B was administered in 22%. At final follow-up, mortality was 14%. Disease stage >3b had poorer prognosis. Paranasal sinus debridement and orbital exenteration reduced the mortality rate from 52% to 39% in patients with stage 4 disease with intracranial extension (p < 0.05). Conclusion: : Corticosteroids and DM are the most important predisposing factors in the development of COVID-19-associated ROCM. COVID-19 patients must be followed up beyond recovery. Awareness of red flag symptoms and signs, high index of clinical suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and early initiation of treatment with amphotericin B, aggressive surgical debridement of the PNS, and orbital exenteration, where indicated, are essential for successful outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/therapy , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
2020 National Conference on Materials, Mechanics and Modeling, NCMMM 2020 ; 2341, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1246470

ABSTRACT

Humanoid robot is the robot which is similar to human being in anthropometric structure. It has different body parts like two legs, two hands, head and trunk. Due to this anthropometric similarity, these robots can do everyday task but only being a humanoid robot doesn't allow that it can perform the entire task that a human being can do. The dynamic performance of the humanoid is promising and the present scenario it is a typical task to maintain its dynamic stability, that is the reason for targeting a special purpose in the designing a humanoid robot. Applications of humanoid robot are common in the field of healthcare and education but we are trying to use a humanoid in different field which can be hazardous for mankind but require human skill to perform that task like in mining where hazardous gas may be present, bomb disposal squad, spraying disinfectant as well as in field like cleaning jobs, distribution of required things. As we know we are currently surviving from noble Covid-19 disease where humanoid robot assistant can be fruitful in different applications like spreading of sanitizers, distribution of food materials as well as food packets, thermal scanning etc. but this can be technically challenging and fascinating. The humanoid robot using artificial intelligence (AI) can also be utilized for spreading awareness against the Covid-19 disease. This article is about the discussion and finding out the usefulness in different humanoid application and its technical aspects. © 2021 Author(s).

10.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21254681

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted several waves of infection in many countries worldwide. The large variations in case fatality ratio among different geographical regions suggests that the human susceptibility against this virus varies substantially. Several studies from different parts of the world showed a significant association of ABO blood group and COVID-19 susceptibility. It was shown that individuals with blood group O are at the lower risk of coronavirus infection. To establish the association of ABO blood group in SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility, we for the first time analysed SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies as well as blood groups among 509 random individuals from three major districts of Eastern Uttar Pradesh region of India.. Interestingly, we found neutralising antibodies in significantly higher percentage of people with blood group AB (0.36) followed by B (0.31), A (0.22) and lowest in people with blood group O (0.11). This indicates that people with blood group AB are at comparatively higher risk of infection than other blood groups. Further, in line to previous reports we too observed that people with blood group O have significantly decreased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, among the asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals with blood group AB has highest, whilst blood group O has lowest risk of infection.

11.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21251118

ABSTRACT

Infection born by Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has swept the world within a time of a few months. It has created a devastating effect on humanity with social and economic depression. Europe and America were the hardest hit continents. India has also lost lives, making the country fourth most deadly worldwide. However, the infection and death rate per million and the case fatality ratio in India were substantially lower than in many developed nations. Several factors have been proposed including genetics. One of the important facts is that a large chunk of Indian population is asymptomatic to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, the real infection in India is much higher than the reported number of cases. Therefore, the majority of people are already immune in the country. To understand the dynamics of real infection as well as the level of immunity against SARS-CoV-2, we have performed antibody testing (serosurveillance) in the urban region of fourteen Indian districts encompassing six states. In our survey, the seroprevalence frequency varied between 0.01-0.48, suggesting high variability of viral transmission between states. We also found out that the cases reported by the government were several fold lower than the real incidence of infection. This discrepancy is mainly driven by the higher number of asymptomatic cases. Overall, we suggest that with the high level of immunity developed against SARS-CoV-2 in the majority of the districts, the case fatality rate of second wave in India will be minor than first wave.

12.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-242073

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. While much has been learned in the first months of the pandemic, many features of COVID-19 pathogenesis remain to be determined. For example, anosmia is a common presentation and many patients with this finding show no or only minor respiratory signs. Studies in animals experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, provide opportunities to study aspects of the disease not easily investigated in human patients. COVID-19 severity ranges from asymptomatic to lethal. Most experimental infections provide insights into mild disease. Here, using K18-hACE2 mice that we originally developed for SARS studies, we show that infection with SARS-CoV-2 causes severe disease in the lung, and in some mice, the brain. Evidence of thrombosis and vasculitis was detected in mice with severe pneumonia. Further, we show that infusion of convalescent plasma (CP) from a recovered COVID-19 patient provided protection against lethal disease. Mice developed anosmia at early times after infection. Notably, while treatment with CP prevented significant clinical disease, it did not prevent anosmia. Thus K18-hACE2 mice provide a useful model for studying the pathological underpinnings of both mild and lethal COVID-19 and for assessing therapeutic interventions.

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