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Sens Actuators B Chem ; 369: 132379, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028512


According to World Health Organization reports, large numbers of people around the globe have been infected or died for Covid-19 due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Researchers are still trying to find a rapid and accurate diagnostic method for revealing infected people by low viral load with the overriding goal of effective diagnostic management. Monitoring the body metabolic changes is known as an effective and inexpensive approach for the evaluation of the infected people. Here, an optical sniffer is introduced to detect exhaled breath metabolites of patients with Covid-19 (60 samples), healthy humans (55 samples), and cured people (15 samples), providing a unique color pattern for differentiation between the studied samples. The sniffer device is installed on a thin face mask, and directly exposed to the exhaled breath stream. The interactions occurring between the volatile compounds and sensing components such as porphyrazines, modified organic dyes, porphyrins, inorganic complexes, and gold nanoparticles allowing for the change of the color, thus being tracked as the sensor responses. The assay accuracy for the differentiation between patient, healthy and cured samples is calculated to be in the range of 80%-84%. The changes in the color of the sensor have a linear correlation with the disease severity and viral load evaluated by rRT-PCR method. Interestingly, comorbidities such as kidney, lung, and diabetes diseases as well as being a smoker may be diagnosed by the proposed method. As a powerful detection device, the breath sniffer can replace the conventional rapid test kits for medical applications.

Anal Chim Acta ; 1226: 340286, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995927


This study aims to use a paper-based sensor array for point-of-care detection of COVID-19 diseases. Various chemical compounds such as nanoparticles, organic dyes and metal ion complexes were employed as sensing elements in the array fabrication, capturing the metabolites of human serum samples. The viral infection caused the type and concentration of serum compositions to change, resulting in different color responses for the infected and control samples. For this purpose, 118 serum samples of COVID-19 patients and non-COVID controls both men and women with the age range of 14-88 years were collected. The serum samples were initially subjected to the sensor, followed by monitoring the variation in the color of sensing elements for 5 min using a scanner. By taking into consideration the statistical information, this method was capable of discriminating COVID-19 patients and control samples with 83.0% accuracy. The variation of age did not influence the colorimetric patterns. The desirable correlation was observed between the sensor responses and viral load values calculated by the PCR test, proposing a rapid and facile way to estimate the disease severity. Compared to other rapid detection methods, the developed assay is cost-effective and user-friendly, allowing for screening COVID-19 diseases reliably.

COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Colorimetry/methods , Electronic Nose , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Point-of-Care Systems , Young Adult
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(9): 316, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971724


A colorimetric sensor array designed on a paper substrate with a microfluidic structure has been developed. This array is capable of detecting COVID-19 disease by tracking metabolites of urine samples. In order to determine minor metabolic changes, various colorimetric receptors consisting of gold and silver nanoparticles, metalloporphyrins, metal ion complexes, and pH-sensitive indicators are used in the array structure. By injecting a small volume of the urine sample, the color pattern of the sensor changes after 7 min, which can be observed visually. The color changes of the receptors (recorded by a scanner) are subsequently calculated by image analysis software and displayed as a color difference map. This study has been performed on 130 volunteers, including 60 patients infected by COVID-19, 55 healthy controls, and 15 cured individuals. The resulting array provides a fingerprint response for each category due to the differences in the metabolic profile of the urine sample. The principal component analysis-discriminant analysis confirms that the assay sensitivity to the correctly detected patient, healthy, and cured participants is equal to 73.3%, 74.5%, and 66.6%, respectively. Apart from COVID-19, other diseases such as chronic kidney disease, liver disorder, and diabetes may be detectable by the proposed sensor. However, this performance of the sensor must be tested in the studies with a larger sample size. These results show the possible feasibility of the sensor as a suitable alternative to costly and time-consuming standard methods for rapid detection and control of viral and bacterial infectious diseases and metabolic disorders.

COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Microfluidics , Silver/chemistry
Talanta ; 246: 123537, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852116


The monitoring of profile concentrations of chemical markers in saliva samples can be used to diagnose COVID-19 patients, and differentiate them from healthy individuals. Here, this purpose is achieved by designing a paper-based colorimetric sensor with an origami structure, containing general receptors such as pH-sensitive organic dyes, Lewis donors or acceptors, functionalized nanoparticles, and ion metal complexes. The color changes taking place in the receptors in the presence of chemical markers are visually observed and recorded with a digital instrument. Different types and amounts of the chemical markers provide the sensor with a unique response for patients (60 samples) or healthy (55 samples) individuals. These two categories can be discriminated with 84.3% accuracy. This study evidences that the saliva composition of cured and healthy participants is different from each other with accuracy of 85.7%. Moreover, viral load values obtained from the rRT-PCR method can be estimated by the designed sensor. Besides COVID-19, it may possible to simultaneously identify smokers and people with kidney disease and diabetes using the specified electronic tongue. Due to its high efficiency, the prepared paper device can be employed as a rapid detection kit to detect COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Electronic Nose , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Point-of-Care Systems