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1.
Mol Pharm ; 19(4): 1047-1058, 2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721386

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic launched an unprecedented global effort to rapidly develop vaccines to stem the spread of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines were developed quickly by companies that were actively developing mRNA therapeutics and vaccines for other indications, leading to two mRNA vaccines being not only the first SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to be approved for emergency use but also the first mRNA drugs to gain emergency use authorization and to eventually gain full approval. This was possible partly because mRNA sequences can be altered to encode nearly any protein without significantly altering its chemical properties, allowing the drug substance to be a modular component of the drug product. Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) technology required to protect the ribonucleic acid (RNA) and mediate delivery into the cytoplasm of cells is likewise modular, as are technologies and infrastructure required to encapsulate the RNA into the LNP. This enabled the rapid adaptation of the technology to a new target. Upon the coattails of the clinical success of mRNA vaccines, this modularity will pave the way for future RNA medicines for cancer, gene therapy, and RNA engineered cell therapies. In this review, trends in the publication records and clinical trial registrations are tallied to show the sharp intensification in preclinical and clinical research for RNA medicines. Demand for the manufacturing of both the RNA drug substance (DS) and the LNP drug product (DP) has already been strained, causing shortages of the vaccine, and the rise in development and translation of other mRNA drugs in the coming years will exacerbate this strain. To estimate demand for DP manufacturing, the dosing requirements for the preclinical and clinical studies of the two approved mRNA vaccines were examined. To understand the current state of mRNA-LNP production, current methods and technologies are reviewed, as are current and announced global capacities for commercial manufacturing. Finally, a vision is rationalized for how emerging technologies such as self-amplifying mRNA, microfluidic production, and trends toward integrated and distributed manufacturing will shape the future of RNA manufacturing and unlock the potential for an RNA medicine revolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Liposomes , Nanoparticles , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(11)2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937530

ABSTRACT

In the recent of years, the use of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) for RNA delivery has gained considerable attention, with a large number in the clinical pipeline as vaccine candidates or to treat a wide range of diseases. Microfluidics offers considerable advantages for their manufacture due to its scalability, reproducibility and fast preparation. Thus, in this study, we have evaluated operating and formulation parameters to be considered when developing LNPs. Among them, the flow rate ratio (FRR) and the total flow rate (TFR) have been shown to significantly influence the physicochemical characteristics of the produced particles. In particular, increasing the TFR or increasing the FRR decreased the particle size. The amino lipid choice (cationic-DOTAP and DDAB; ionisable-MC3), buffer choice (citrate buffer pH 6 or TRIS pH 7.4) and type of nucleic acid payload (PolyA, ssDNA or mRNA) have also been shown to have an impact on the characteristics of these LNPs. LNPs were shown to have a high (>90%) loading in all cases and were below 100 nm with a low polydispersity index (≤0.25). The results within this paper could be used as a guide for the development and scalable manufacture of LNP systems using microfluidics.

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