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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050647, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416675

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality and devastated economies globally. Among groups at increased risk are healthcare workers (HCWs) and ethnic minority groups. Emerging evidence suggests that HCWs from ethnic minority groups are at increased risk of adverse COVID-19-related outcomes. To date, there has been no large-scale analysis of these risks in UK HCWs or ancillary workers in healthcare settings, stratified by ethnicity or occupation, and adjusted for confounders. This paper reports the protocol for a prospective longitudinal questionnaire study of UK HCWs, as part of the UK-REACH programme (The United Kingdom Research study into Ethnicity And COVID-19 outcomes in Healthcare workers). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A baseline questionnaire will be administered to a national cohort of UK HCWs and ancillary workers in healthcare settings, and those registered with UK healthcare regulators, with follow-up questionnaires administered at 4 and 8 months. With consent, questionnaire data will be linked to health records with 25-year follow-up. Univariate associations between ethnicity and clinical COVID-19 outcomes, physical and mental health, and key confounders/explanatory variables will be tested. Multivariable analyses will test for associations between ethnicity and key outcomes adjusted for the confounder/explanatory variables. We will model changes over time by ethnic group, facilitating understanding of absolute and relative risks in different ethnic groups, and generalisability of findings. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is approved by Health Research Authority (reference 20/HRA/4718), and carries minimal risk. We aim to manage the small risk of participant distress about questions on sensitive topics by clearly participant information that the questionnaire covers sensitive topics and there is no obligation to answer these or any other questions, and by providing support organisation links. Results will be disseminated with reports to Government and papers submitted to pre-print servers and peer reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11811602; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046392, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286744

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has spread rapidly worldwide, causing significant morbidity and mortality. People from ethnic minorities, particularly those working in healthcare settings, have been disproportionately affected. Current evidence of the association between ethnicity and COVID-19 outcomes in people working in healthcare settings is insufficient to inform plans to address health inequalities. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study combines anonymised human resource databases with professional registration and National Health Service data sets to assess associations between ethnicity and COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalisation and death in healthcare workers in the UK. Adverse COVID-19 outcomes will be assessed between 1 February 2020 (date following first confirmed COVID-19 case in UK) and study end date (31 January 2021), allowing 1-year of follow-up. Planned analyses include multivariable Poisson, logistic and flexible parametric time-to-event regression within each country, adjusting for core predictors, followed by meta-analysis of country-specific results to produce combined effect estimates for the UK. Mediation analysis methods will be explored to examine the direct, indirect and mediated interactive effects between ethnicity, occupational group and COVID-19 outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for the UK-REACH programme has been obtained via the expedited HRA COVID-19 processes (REC ref: 20/HRA/4718, IRAS ID: 288316). Research information will be anonymised via the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank before release to researchers. Study results will be submitted for publication in an open access peer-reviewed journal and made available on our dedicated website (https://uk-reach.org/). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11811602.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Health Personnel , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Routinely Collected Health Data , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , United Kingdom
4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 34: 100830, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230444

ABSTRACT

Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is the most prevalent metabolic disorder during pregnancy, however, the association between dyslipidaemia and GDM remains unclear. Methods: We searched Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, Maternity and Infant Care database (MIDIRS) and ClinicalTrials.gov up to February 2021 for relevant studies which reported on the circulating lipid profile during pregnancy, in women with and without GDM. Publications describing original data with at least one raw lipid [triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), or very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C)] measurement were retained. Data extraction was performed using a piloted data extraction form. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42019139696). Findings: A total of 292 studies, comprising of 97,880 pregnant women (28232 GDM and 69,648 controls) were included. Using random-effects meta-analysis models to pool study estimates, women with GDM had significantly higher (by 20%) TG levels, with a pooled weighted mean difference between GDM and non-GDM pregnancies of 0.388 mM (0.336, 0.439, p < 0.001). Further analyses revealed elevated TG levels occur in the first trimester and persist afterwards. Meta-regression analyses showed that differences in TG levels between women with GDM and healthy controls were significantly associated with age, BMI, study continent, OGTT procedure, and GDM diagnosis criteria. Interpretation: Elevated lipids, particularly, TG, are associated with GDM.

6.
EClinicalMedicine ; 29: 100630, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919678

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients from ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relationship between ethnicity and clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Methods: Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PROSPERO, Cochrane library and MedRxiv) were searched up to 31st August 2020, for studies reporting COVID-19 data disaggregated by ethnicity. Outcomes were: risk of infection; intensive therapy unit (ITU) admission and death. PROSPERO ID: 180654. Findings: 18,728,893 patients from 50 studies were included; 26 were peer-reviewed; 42 were from the United States of America and 8 from the United Kingdom. Individuals from Black and Asian ethnicities had a higher risk of COVID-19 infection compared to White individuals. This was consistent in both the main analysis (pooled adjusted RR for Black: 2.02, 95% CI 1.67-2.44; pooled adjusted RR for Asian: 1.50, 95% CI 1.24-1.83) and sensitivity analyses examining peer-reviewed studies only (pooled adjusted RR for Black: 1.85, 95%CI: 1.46-2.35; pooled adjusted RR for Asian: 1.51, 95% CI 1.22-1.88). Individuals of Asian ethnicity may also be at higher risk of ITU admission (pooled adjusted RR 1.97 95% CI 1.34-2.89) (but no studies had yet been peer-reviewed) and death (pooled adjusted RR/HR 1.22 [0.99-1.50]). Interpretation: Individuals of Black and Asian ethnicity are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection compared to White individuals; Asians may be at higher risk of ITU admission and death. These findings are of critical public health importance in informing interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality amongst ethnic minority groups.

7.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1607

ABSTRACT

Background: Age is a predictor of COVID-19 related outcomes, but frailty may better measure the potential to benefit from critical care. The aim of this study w

8.
Age Ageing ; 50(2): 307-316, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe outcomes in hospitalised older people with different levels of frailty and COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We undertook a single-centre, retrospective cohort study examining COVID-19-related mortality using electronic health records, for older people (65 and over) with frailty, hospitalised with or without COVID-19 infection. Baseline covariates included demographics, early warning scores, Charlson Comorbidity Indices and frailty (Clinical Frailty Scale, CFS), linked to COVID-19 status. FINDINGS: We analysed outcomes on 1,071 patients with COVID-19 test results (285 (27%) were positive for COVID-19). The mean age at ED arrival was 79.7 and 49.4% were female. All-cause mortality (by 30 days) rose from 9 (not frail) to 33% (severely frail) in the COVID-negative cohort but was around 60% for all frailty categories in the COVID-positive cohort. In adjusted analyses, the hazard ratio for death in those with COVID-19 compared to those without COVID-19 was 7.3 (95% CI: 3.00, 18.0) with age, comorbidities and illness severity making small additional contributions. INTERPRETATION: In this study, frailty measured using the CFS appeared to make little incremental contribution to the hazard of dying in older people hospitalised with COVID-19 infection; illness severity and comorbidity had a modest association with the overall adjusted hazard of death, whereas confirmed COVID-19 infection dominated, with a sevenfold hazard for death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty , Geriatric Assessment , Hospital Mortality , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Early Warning Score , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Geriatric Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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