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1.
J Res Med Sci ; 26: 115, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a major role in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Factors that convey information about the status of inflammation could predict disease severity and help identify patients prone to clinical deterioration. Here, we aimed to evaluate the predictive value of inflammatory markers on the extent of lung involvement and survival of patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected at admission. All patients underwent chest computed tomography (CT); the extent of lung involvement was assessed by a scoring system. Patients were followed up until death or discharge occurred. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of investigated variables with COVID-19-related death. The association between different variables and CT score was assessed using linear regression model. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was applied to identify the predictive value of inflammatory markers and CT score on survival. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 54.2 ± 15.2 years; 65% were male. Increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (ß =0.69, odds ratio [OR] =1.50), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (ß =0.019, OR = 1.01), and decreased lymphocyte to C-reactive protein ratio (LCR) (ß = -0.35, OR = 0.62) were significantly associated with a higher CT score and increased odds of death (P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase level was also positively related with extensive lung involvement and death (ß =1.15, OR = 1.52, P < 0.05). The LCR threshold for identifying survivors from nonsurvivors was 0.53 (area under curve [AUC] =0.82, 78% sensitivity and 74% specificity). Lung involvement ≥50% on chest CT was an excellent predictor of death (AUC = 0.83, 81% sensitivity and 79% specificity). CONCLUSION: Daily-performed laboratory tests that represent inflammation have great value for predicting the amount of disease burden and risk of mortality. Moreover, their cost-effectiveness and feasibility turn them into ideal prognostic markers.

2.
The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 53(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601740

ABSTRACT

Background Chest CT scan has an important role in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 infection. A major concern in radiologic assessment of the patients is the radiation dose. Research has been done to evaluate low-dose chest CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary lesions with promising findings. We decided to determine diagnostic performance of ultra-low-dose chest CT in comparison to low-dose CT for viral pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results 167 patients underwent both low-dose and ultra-low-dose chest CT scans. Two radiologists blinded to the diagnosis independently examined ultra-low-dose chest CT scans for findings consistent with COVID-19 pneumonia. In case of any disagreement, a third senior radiologist made the final diagnosis. Agreement between two CT protocols regarding ground-glass opacity, consolidation, reticulation, and nodular infiltration were recorded. On low-dose chest CT, 44 patients had findings consistent with COVID-19 infection. Ultra-low-dose chest CT had sensitivity and specificity values of 100% and 98.4%, respectively for diagnosis of viral pneumonia. Two patients were falsely categorized to have pneumonia on ultra-low-dose CT scan. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of ultra-low-dose CT scan were respectively 95.7% and 100%. There was good agreement between low-dose and ultra-low-dose methods (kappa = 0.97;P < 0.001). Perfect agreement between low-dose and ultra-low-dose scans was found regarding diagnosis of ground-glass opacity (kappa = 0.83, P < 0.001), consolidation (kappa = 0.88, P < 0.001), reticulation (kappa = 0.82, P < 0.001), and nodular infiltration (kappa = 0.87, P < 0.001). Conclusion Ultra-low-dose chest CT scan is comparable to low-dose chest CT for detection of lung infiltration during the COVID-19 outbreak while maintaining less radiation dose. It can also be used instead of low-dose chest CT scan for patient triage in circumstances where rapid-abundant PCR tests are not available.

3.
Urol J ; : 6863, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506903

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In late December 2019, a series of unexplained cases of pneumonia were reported in Wuhan, China. On January 12, 2020, the World Health Organization temporarily named the virus responsible for the emerging cases of pneumonia as the 2019 coronavirus. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to Covid-19 has rapidly spread around the world, and while no specific treatment or vaccine has been reported, mortality rates remain high. One of the suggested treatments for cellular damage in the pathogenesis of ARDS caused by the coronavirus is the administration of high doses of intravenous vitamin C. Considering the paucity of literature on the therapeutic effects of high doses of intravenous vitamin C in patients with ARDS resulting from the coronavirus, this study was conducted to assess this therapeutic supplement in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed as a single-center clinical trial in patients with a documented diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. 54 eligible patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 symptoms, based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, were included in the investigation and randomly divided into two groups. The control group consisted of 26 patients who received standard treatment, whereas the treatment group was comprised of 18 patients administered intravenous vitamin C at a dose of 2 g every 6 hours for 5 days in addition to standard treatment. Demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, length of hospital stay, and mortality rates were reviewed and collected. Oxygen saturation, respiratory rates, serum C Reactive Protein (CRP) levels, lymphopenia and lung parenchymal involvement on CT were investigated at the time of admission and on the sixth day after hospitalization. Finally, all variables were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software and a significant statistical difference was defined for all variables, P <0.05. RESULTS: Of these variables, the amount of oxygen saturation in the vitamin C group increased significantly from 86±5% on the first day of hospitalization to 90±3% on the sixth day of hospitalization (P value=0.02). Also, the respiratory rate in the vitamin C group decreased significantly from 27±3 on the first day of hospitalization to 24±3 on the sixth day of hospitalization (P value=0.03). Lung CT scans of patients in the two groups reported by two radiologists were also compared. Based on the report of the radiologists, the rate of lung involvement in the vitamin C group was significantly lower than in the control group at the end of treatment (P value=0.02). CONCLUSION: Due to the effectiveness of high doses of intravenous vitamin C on reducing lung involvement and improving clinical symptoms, further studies with a larger sample size are recommended to demonstrate the effects of this drug supplement.

5.
Acad Radiol ; 28(1): 8-17, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023392

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Cardiac indices can predict disease severity and survival in a multitude of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Herein, we hypothesized that CT-measured cardiac indices are correlated with severity of lung involvement and can predict survival in patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven patients with confirmed COVID-19 who underwent chest CT were enrolled. Cardiac indices including pulmonary artery-to-aorta ratio (PA/A), cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and EAT density, inferior vena cava diameter, and transverse-to-anteroposterior trachea ratio were measured by non-enhanced CT. Logistic regression and Cox-regression analyses evaluated the association of cardiac indices with patients' outcome (death vs discharge). Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the extent of lung involvement (based on CT score) and cardiac indices. RESULTS: Mean (±SD) age of patients was 54.55 (±15.3) years old; 65.5% were male. Increased CTR (>0.49) was seen in 52.9% of patients and was significantly associated with increased odds and hazard of death (odds ratio [OR] = 12.5, p = 0.005; hazard ratio = 11.4, p = 0.006). PA/A >1 was present in 20.7% of patients and displayed a nonsignificant increase in odds of death (OR = 1.9, p = 0.36). Furthermore, extensive lung involvement was positively associated with elevated CTR and increased PA/A (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: CT-measured cardiac indices might have predictive value regarding survival and extent of lung involvement in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and could possibly be used for the risk stratification of these patients and for guiding therapy decision-making. In particular, increased CTR is prevalent in patients with COVID-19 and is a powerful predictor of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart , Lung , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/pathology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(11): 787-793, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chest computed tomography (CT) scan has been used widely to diagnose COVID-19 in Iran. OBJECTIVES: To trace the footsteps of COVID-19 in Iran by exploring the trend in using chest CT scans and its economic impact on radiology departments. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the number of imaging examinations from 33 tertiary radiology departments in 9 large cities of Iran was collected from September 23, 2019 to March 20, 2020 (Months 1 to 6) and the corresponding months in 2018-2019. RESULTS: A 50.2% increase was noted in the chest CT scan utilization in 2019-2020 compared to 2018-2019. This increase was +15%, +15%, +27%, +2%, +1% in Months 1-5 of 2019-2020, respectively. In Month 6 of 2019-2020, a 251% increase in the acquisition of chest CT scans was observed compared to the Month 6 of 2018-2019. Following negative balance of revenue from Month 1 to 5 with respect to the inflation rate, the total income in Month 6 was further 1.5% less than the same Month in 2018-19. CONCLUSION: The observed peak in chest CT utilization in Month 3 prior to the surge in Month 6 could be explained by the seasonal influenza. However, unawareness about an emerging viral disease, i.e. COVID-19, might have underutilized chest CT in Months 4 and 5 before the official announcement in Month 6. The unbalanced increase in the workload of radiology departments in the shortage of cardiothoracic radiologists with the simultaneous decrease in income initiated a vicious cycle that worsened the economic repercussions of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Radiology Department, Hospital/economics , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Iran , Pandemics/economics , Radiologists/supply & distribution , Radiology Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 90: 107174, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adipose tissue is a biologically active organ with pro-immunogenic properties. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in COVID-19 and its correlation with other inflammatory biomarkers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One-hundred patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-CRP ratio (LCR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were evaluated on admission. EAT volume and density were measured by computed tomography. Patients were followed until death or discharge. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed and ROC curve analysis was used to assess the ability of inflammatory markers in predicting survival. The relationship between EAT and other inflammatory markers was also investigated. RESULTS: The mean ± SD age of patients was 55.5 ± 15.2 years old; 68% were male. Univariate analysis revealed that increased lung involvement, blood urea nitrogen, LDH and NLR, and decreased platelet count were significantly associated with death. After adjustment, LDH was independently predictive of death (OR = 1.013, p-value = 0.03). Among inflammatory markers, LCR had the best ability for predicting survival with 79.7% sensitivity and 64.3% specificity at an optimal cut-off value of 20.8 (AUC = 0.744, 95% CI = 0.612-0.876, p-value = 0.004). EAT volume demonstrated positive correlation with NLR and PLR (p = 0.001 and 0.01), and a negative correlation with LCR (p = 0.02). EAT density was significantly different between decedents and survivors (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Routine laboratory tests that represent status of inflammation can be used as cost-effective prognostic markers of COVID-19. Also, the significant association between EAT volume and other inflammatory biomarkers might explain the more severe disease in obese patients.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/pathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lymphocytes/immunology , Pericardium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Biomarkers/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Inflammation , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Survival Analysis
8.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(4): 2249-2257, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893272

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency has been reported as a key factor in the development of infectious diseases such as respiratory tract infections and inflammatory processes like acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the impact of vitamin D on the severity and outcome of COVID-19 is still not fully known. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of serum vitamin D concentration on the extent of lung involvement and final outcome in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Seventy-three subjects with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were investigated in this study. The patients had been admitted to our academic hospital from February 28, 2020 to April 19, 2020. Demographic and clinical data, serum 25(OH)D levels, and findings of initial chest computed tomography were recorded. Linear and binary logistic regression, cox regression and ROC curve tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 55.18 ± 14.98 years old; 46.4% were male. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in the deceased (13.83 ± 12.53 ng/ mL compared with discharged patients (38.41 ± 18.51 ng/mL) (P < 0.001). Higher levels of 25(OH)D were associated with significantly less extent of total lung involvement (ß = - 0.10, P = 0.004). In addition, vitamin D deficiency [25(OH) D < 25 ng/mL] was associated with a significant increase in the risk of mortality (hazard ratio = 4.15, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that serum vitamin D status might provide useful information regarding the clinical course, extent of lung involvement and outcome of patients with COVID-19. However, further studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
9.
Acad Radiol ; 28(12): 1654-1661, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856340

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) remains the gold standard for confirmation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) despite having many disadvantages. Here, we investigated the diagnostic performance of chest computed tomography (CT) as an alternative to RT-PCR in patients with clinical suspicion of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 27,824 patients with clinical suspicion of COVID-19 infection who underwent unenhanced low-dose chest CT from 20 February, 2020 to 21 May, 2020 were evaluated. Patients were recruited from seven specifically designated hospitals for patients with COVID-19 infection affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. In each hospital, images were interpreted by two independent radiologists. CT findings were considered as positive/negative for COVID-19 infection based on RSNA diagnostic criteria. Then, the correlation between the number of daily positive chest CT scans and number of daily PCR-confirmed cases and COVID-19-related deaths in Tehran province during this three-month period was assessed. The trends of admission rate and patients with positive CT scans were also evaluated. RESULTS: A strong positive correlation between the numbers of daily positive CT scans and daily PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases (r = 0.913, p < 0.001) was observed. Furthermore, in hospitals located in regions with a lower socioeconomic status, the admission rate and number of positive cases within this three-month period was higher as compared to other hospitals. CONCLUSION: Low-dose chest CT is a safe, rapid and reliable alternative to RT-PCR for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in high-prevalence regions. In addition, our study provides further evidence for considering patients' socioeconomic status as an important risk factor for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 130(7-8): 629-634, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761202

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Currently, there are known contributing factors but no comprehensive methods for predicting the mortality risk or intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore risk factors for mortality and ICU admission in patients with COVID­19, using computed tomography (CT) combined with clinical laboratory data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID­19 (n = 63) from university hospitals in Tehran, Iran, were included. All patients underwent CT examination. Subsequently, a total CT score and the number of involved lung lobes were calculated and compared against collected laboratory and clinical characteristics. Univariable and multivariable proportional hazard analyses were used to determine the association among CT, laboratory and clinical data, ICU admission, and in­hospital death. RESULTS: By univariable analysis, in­hospital mortality was higher in patients with lower oxygen saturation on admission (below 88%), higher CT scores, and a higher number of lung lobes (more than 4) involved with a diffuse parenchymal pattern. By multivariable analysis, in­hospital mortality was higher in those with oxygen saturation below 88% on admission and a higher number of lung lobes involved with a diffuse parenchymal pattern. The risk of ICU admission was higher in patients with comorbidities (hypertension and ischemic heart disease), arterial oxygen saturation below 88%, and pericardial effusion. CONCLUSIONS: We can identify factors affecting in­hospital death and ICU admission in COVID-19. This can help clinicians to determine which patients are likely to require ICU admission and to inform strategic healthcare planning in critical conditions such as the COVID­19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
11.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(9): 1366-1376, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-718568

ABSTRACT

We investigated significant predictors of poor in-hospital outcomes for patients admitted with viral pneumonia during the COVID-19 outbreak in Tehran, Iran. Between February 22 and March 22, 2020, patients who were admitted to three university hospitals during the COVID-19 outbreak in Tehran, Iran were included. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and chest CT scan findings were gathered. Two radiologists evaluated the distribution and CT features of the lesions and also scored the extent of lung involvement as the sum of three zones in each lung. Of 228 included patients, 45 patients (19.7%) required ICU admission and 34 patients (14.9%) died. According to regression analysis, older age (OR = 1.06; P < 0.001), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 88% (OR = 2.88; P = 0.03), and higher chest CT total score (OR = 1.10; P = 0.03) were significant predictors for in-hospital death. The same three variables were also recognized as significant predictors for invasive respiratory support: SpO2 < 88% (OR = 3.97, P = 0.002), older age (OR = 1.05, P < 0.001), and higher CT total score (OR = 1.13, P = 0.008). Potential predictors of invasive respiratory support and in-hospital death in patients with viral pneumonia were older age, SpO2 < 88%, and higher chest CT score.

12.
Iranian journal of kidney diseases ; 14(4):267-277, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-641888

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the presentation and outcome of COVID-19 in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We included 43 patients with a past history of CKD and confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients were evaluated for demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data and findings of initial chest computed tomography (CT) and were followed until either death or discharge occurred. Then, study variables were compared based on final outcome and stage of CKD. RESULTS: Mean age +/- SD of patients was 60.65 +/- 14.36 years;65.1% were male. Five of 43 patients (11.6%) died on follow-up and the rest were discharged. Disease outcome did not differ across CKD stages (P > .05). More than half of the patients (58.1%) presented with severe disease on admission. Clinical symptoms were similar to those of non-CKD individuals. Mean duration of hospitalization was higher in those who died, although not significant (16.6 +/- 8.38 vs. 11 +/- 6.26, P > .05). The only hematologic parameter that significantly differed between survivors and non-survivors was lactase dehydrogenase level (P < .05). Ground-glass opacification and reticular pattern were the most frequent patterns on CT and pleural effusion existed in about one-fifth of all patients. A greater lower zone score was noted in deceased patients (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Patients with CKD are vulnerable to a more severe form of COVID-19 and experience a higher mortality rate than the general population;however, higher CKD stage is not related to worse prognosis or different imaging manifestation compared with lower stage.

13.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 22(5): e13406, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With COVID-19 pandemic, concerns about kidney transplant recipients are rising. However, the incidence, clinical course, outcome, and predictive factors of disease severity are obscured. METHODS: We describe clinical and laboratory manifestations, radiologic findings, clinical course, and finally outcome of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: Of 2493 kidney transplant recipients under follow-up in our clinic, 19 cases (4 cases diagnosed based on radiologic findings) were admitted. The mean age of patients was 47.6 ± 12.4 years, and the mean time from transplantation was 115.6 ± 70.3 months. Lymphopenia and eosinopenia were 84.2% and 78.9%, respectively. Nine patients did not survive the hospital course. History of acute rejection during the past 12 months, diabetes, higher N/L ratio, lower platelet count, elevated N/L x CRP, higher levels of LDH, positive D-dimer, higher troponin, and prolonged PT were associated with mortality. Among patients with positive COVID-19 test, history of acute rejection, low platelet count, and positive D-dimer were associated with poor outcome. Treatment with cyclosporine was associated with better clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Low rate of admission in transplant recipients specially in the very first years of transplantation might be due to protective effects of immunosuppressive agents against cytokine storm or modification of immunity function. We suggest evaluation of T-cell number, function, and cytokine profile as a guide to manage COVID-19 mainly in patients with higher risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Immunocompromised Host , Iran/epidemiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data
14.
Eur Urol ; 78(2): 281-286, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186662

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel and highly contagious disease caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Older adults and patients with comorbidities and immunosuppressive conditions may experience severe signs and symptoms that can lead to death. This case series assesses the clinical course, imaging features, and outcomes for 12 patients with COVID-19 and a history of kidney transplantation. Patients were evaluated for symptoms, laboratory data, imaging findings, and outcomes from February 2020 to April 2020. Fever, cough, and dyspnea were the most common clinical symptoms, noted in 75% (nine/12), 75% (nine/12), and 41.7% (five/12) of the patients, respectively. Most of the patients had a normal white blood cell count, while 33.3% (four/12) had leukopenia and 8.3% (one/12) had leukocytosis. A combination of consolidation and ground glass opacity was the most predominant (75%) pattern of lung involvement on computed tomography (CT). Eight patients died of severe COVID-19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome and four were discharged. All recovered cases had a unilateral peripheral pattern of involvement limited to only one zone on initial chest CT. It seems that CT imaging has an important role in predicting COVID-19 outcomes for solid organ transplant recipients. Future studies with long-term follow up and more cases are needed to elucidate COVID-19 diagnosis, outcome, and management strategies for these patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Graft Rejection/complications , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
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