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PLOS Glob Public Health ; 3(5): e0001851, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317900


Estimates of SARS-CoV-2 transmission rates have significant public health policy implications since they shed light on the severity of illness in various groups and aid in strategic deployment of diagnostics, treatment and vaccination. Population-based investigations have not been conducted in Ghana to identify the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2. We conducted an age stratified nationally representative household study to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and identify risk factors between February and December 2021. Study participants, 5 years and older regardless of prior or current infection COVID-19 infection from across Ghana were included in the study. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, contact with an individual with COVID-19-related symptoms, history of COVID-19-related illness, and adherence to infection prevention measures were collected. Serum obtained was tested for total antibodies with the WANTAI ELISA kit. The presence of antibodies against SAR-COV-2 was detected in 3,476 of 5,348 participants, indicating a seroprevalence of 67.10% (95% CI: 63.71-66.26). Males had lower seroprevalence (65.8% [95% CI: 63.5-68.04]) than females (68.4% [95% CI: 66.10-69.92]). Seroprevalence was lowest in >20 years (64.8% [95% CI: 62.36-67.19]) and highest among young adults; 20-39 years (71.1% [95% CI 68.83,73.39]). Seropositivity was associated with education, employment status and geographic location. Vaccination status in the study population was 10%. Exposure is more likely in urban than rural areas thus infection prevention protocols must be encouraged and maintained. Also, promoting vaccination in target groups and in rural areas is necessary to curb transmission of the virus.

Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21582, 2022 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160317


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic devastated countries worldwide, and resulted in a global shutdown. Not all infections are symptomatic and hence the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community is unknown. The paper presents the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in the Greater Accra Metropolis, describing the evolution of seroprevalence through time and by age group. Three repeated independent population-based surveys at 6-week intervals were conducted in from November 2020 to July 2021. The global and by age-groups weighted seroprevalences were estimated and the risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity were assessed using logistic regression. The overall age-standardized SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence for both spike and nucleocapsid increased from 13.8% (95% CI 11.9, 16.1) in November 2020 to 39.6% (95% CI 34.8, 44.6) in July 2021. After controlling for gender, marital status, education level, and occupation, the older age group over 40 years had a higher odds of seropositivity than the younger age group (OR 3.0 [95% CI 1.1-8.5]) in the final survey. Pupils or students had 3.3-fold increased odds of seropositivity (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.1-8.5]) compared to the unemployed. This study reinforces that, SARS-CoV-2 infections have been significantly higher than reported.

COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Ghana/epidemiology , Pandemics , Antibodies, Viral