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1.
Qatar Med J ; 2022(4): 54, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233599

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with multiple comorbidities who have coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have high morbidity and mortality. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been shown to have an enhanced effect on coronavirus in an earlier study. METHODS: We conducted this comparative observational study to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 disease on G6PD deficiency based on the hematologic parameters, COVID-19-related hospitalizations, and mortality in the state of Qatar between January 2020 and May 2020 at four designated COVID-19 facilities. We identified 41 patients with G6PD deficiency who had documented COVID-19 infection. We compared the results with 241 patients with COVID-19 infection who tested negative for G6PD deficiency.: Results: Comparing the COVID-19 positive G6PD deficient with COVID-19 positive G6PD normal activity showed that G6PD normal group had higher white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), lymphocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes counts versus the G6PD deficient group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: When compared with COVID-19 patients with normal G6PD, patients with COVID-19 infection and G6PD deficiency had lower total WBC, ANC, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts. However, no evidence of increased hemolysis, thrombosis, morbidity, or mortality was observed in COVID-19 patients with G6PD deficiency.

2.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281455, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study is to identify the clinical predictors of mortality among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia during first and second waves in a treatment center in northwestern Nigeria. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 195 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between April 2020 to March 2021 at a designated COVID-19 isolation center in Kano State, Northwest Nigeria. Data were summarized using frequencies and percentages. Unadjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals and p-values were obtained. To determine independent determinants of mortality, we performed a stepwise multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of 195 patients studied, 21(10.77%) patients died. Males comprised 158 (81.03%) of the study population. In the adjusted stepwise logistic regression analysis, age>64 years (OR = 9.476, 95% CI: 2.181-41.165), second wave of the pandemic (OR = 49.340, 95% CI:6.222-391.247), cardiac complications (OR = 24.984, 95% CI: 3.618-172.508), hypertension (OR = 5.831, 95% CI:1.413-24.065) and lowest systolic blood pressure while on admission greater than or equal to 90mmHg were independent predictors of mortality (OR = 0.111, 95%CI: 0.021-0.581). CONCLUSION: Strategies targeted to prioritize needed care to patients with identified factors that predict mortality might improve patient outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Nigeria/epidemiology , Hospitalization
3.
Qatar medical journal ; 2022(4), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147528

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with multiple comorbidities who have coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have high morbidity and mortality. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been shown to have an enhanced effect on coronavirus in an earlier study. Methods: We conducted this comparative observational study to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 disease on G6PD deficiency based on the hematologic parameters, COVID-19-related hospitalizations, and mortality in the state of Qatar between January 2020 and May 2020 at four designated COVID-19 facilities. We identified 41 patients with G6PD deficiency who had documented COVID-19 infection. We compared the results with 241 patients with COVID-19 infection who tested negative for G6PD deficiency.: Results: Comparing the COVID-19 positive G6PD deficient with COVID-19 positive G6PD normal activity showed that G6PD normal group had higher white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), lymphocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes counts versus the G6PD deficient group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: When compared with COVID-19 patients with normal G6PD, patients with COVID-19 infection and G6PD deficiency had lower total WBC, ANC, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts. However, no evidence of increased hemolysis, thrombosis, morbidity, or mortality was observed in COVID-19 patients with G6PD deficiency.

6.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(6): e883, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094192

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: The coronavirus-19 is an ongoing global pandemic resulting in millions of deaths worldwide. For a patient population at higher risk of infection, telemedicine is a promising means of providing safe and alternative care routes while minimizing their risk of exposure. This study gives insight into patients' experiences and satisfaction with telemedicine during this pandemic. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 297 patients (RR: 85%) at the National Center for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR), Qatar. Data was collected through electronic medical records of the eligibe patient population, and phone calls were made whereby the physician read a standard introductory script followed by a survey questionnaire. We focused on patients' experience with telemedicine services amid the pandemic. This was done using a six-point Likert scoring system of seven questions that were scaled from 1 to 6. Results: More than 80% of patients somewhat to strongly agreed that telemedicine met their healthcare needs, improved their confidence in their healthcare system, and were generally satisfied with the quality of care provided. Nearly all patients (90%) understood their physicians' recommendations over the phone. In addition, more than half of the patients (89%) felt they could freely communicate their concerns. Patients also showed an inclination towards face-to-face consultations at 68%; however, 90% were willing to participate in future teleconsultations. Conclusion: Our study indicates an overall positive experience among patients towards the use of telemedicine. Telemedicine is a safe, futuristic approach toward patient care management and, thus, provides healthcare professionals a platform to implement further patient and physician education. Even though our data also showed that patients liked in-person visits to some degree, this needs to be looked into more in future studies.

7.
Turk J Pharm Sci ; 19(2): 202-212, 2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835328

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) that emerged in China, is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2); the disease has been declared by the World Health Organization as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The unavailability of approved therapeutic agents or vaccines is of great concern. This study performed molecular docking and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) analysis of some compounds isolated from Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine) Prance ex F. White (Chrysobalanaceae) against three targets of SARS-CoV-2 proteins (3C-like protease, spike protein, and papain-like protease). Materials and Methods: Phytoconstituents isolated from N. macrophylla were screened against key targets of SARS-CoV-2 using Auto Dock Vina, while the ADMET analysis was performed using swiss ADME and pkCSM ADMET descriptors algorithm protocols. Results: The in silico computational studies revealed that the compounds (catechin, catechin-3-rhamnoside, quercetin, and epicatechin) isolated from N. macrophylla can effectively bind with high affinity and lower energy values to the three target proteins of SARS-CoV-2. ADMET analysis was used to predict important pharmacokinetic properties of the compounds, such as aqueous solubility, blood-brain barrier, plasma protein binding, CYP2D6 binding, intestinal absorption, and hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: The findings of this study have shown that N. macrophylla contains potential leads for SARS-CoV-2 inhibition and thus, should be studied further for development as therapeutic agents against COVID-19.

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 204, 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was a lack of information about prognostic accuracy of time to sputum culture conversion (SCC) in forecasting cure among extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the prognostic accuracy of SCC at various time points in forecasting cure among XDR-TB patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 355 eligible pulmonary XDR-TB patients treated at 27 centers in Pakistan between 01-05-2010 and 30-06-2017. The baseline and follow-up information of patients from treatment initiation until the end of treatment were retrieved from electronic nominal recording and reporting system. Time to SCC was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method, and differences between groups were compared through log-rank test. Predictors of time to SCC and cure were respectively evaluated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards and binary logistic regression analyses. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 226 (63.6%) and 146 (41.1%) patients respectively achieved SCC and cure. Median time to SCC was significantly shorter in patients who achieved cure, 3 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.47-3.53), than those who did not (median: 10 months, 95% CI: 5.24-14.76) (p-value < 0.001, Log-rank test). Patient's age > 40 years (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.632, p-value = 0.004), baseline sputum grading of scanty, + 1 (HR = 0.511, p-value = 0.002), + 2, + 3 (HR = 0.523, p-value = 0.001) and use of high dose isoniazid (HR = 0.463, p-value = 0.004) were significantly associated with early SCC. Only SCC at 6 month of treatment had statistically significant association with cure (odds ratio = 15.603, p-value < 0.001). In predicting cure, the sensitivities of SCC at 2, 4 and 6 months were respectively 41.8% (95%CI: 33.7-50.2), 69.9% (95%CI: 61.7-77.2) and 84.9% (95%CI: 78.1-90.3), specificities were respectively, 82.8% (95%CI: 76.9-87.6), 74.6% (95%CI: 68.2-80.4) and 69.4% (95%CI: 62.6-75.5) and prognostic accuracies were respectively 65.9% (95%CI: 60.7-70.8), 72.7% (95%CI: 67.7-77.2) and 75.8% (95%CI: 71.0-80.1). CONCLUSION: In forecasting cure, SCC at month 6 of treatment performed better than SCC at 2 and 4 months. However, it would be too long for clinicians to wait for 6 months to decide about the regimen efficacy. Therefore, with somewhat comparable prognostic accuracy to that SCC at 6 month, using SCC at 4 month of treatment as a prognostic marker in predicting cure among XDR-TB patients can decrease the clinicians waiting time to decide about the regimen efficacy.


Subject(s)
Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sputum , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
9.
Library Philosophy and Practice ; : 1-18, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1156247

ABSTRACT

Virtual reference services (VRS) is increasingly being implemented and used to muster increase real time interaction between library users and the libraries. While the implementation and the use of the VRS in academic libraries is growing rapidly in todays world, particularly in the developed countries, in the developing countries, the development has recorded a medium of success. This study presents an extensive synthesis of literature on VRS from different electronic databases, including EbscoHost, Elsevier, Emerald, Google Scholar, JSTOR, Science Direct and Taylor & Francis Online. Consequently, four commonly used VRS communication technologies that can help ease the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in meeting library users information needs are presented. The paper also look at the plethora of challenges of VRS implementation and use in developing countries and makes recommendations for a way forward. As a contribution to this area of research, the study argues that there may be a space for the extension of social media tools such as Facebook Express Wi-Fi, Facebook Free Basic Model and Twitter in the academic libraries VRS. This is unarguably because of its immense occupation of the real time information space in COVID-19 pandemic era, whose second wave return explicitly spells out that its end is far from sight.

10.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(5): e04071, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148801

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is known to the world for many years. It is associated with various complications and rarely with pulmonary embolism. However, due to its commonalities of presenting features with COVID 19, it can easily be missed and may be life threatening.

11.
Int Health ; 14(1): 18-52, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096533

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to rise and second waves are reported in some countries, serological test kits and strips are being considered to scale up an adequate laboratory response. This study provides an update on the kinetics of humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and performance characteristics of serological protocols (lateral flow assay [LFA], chemiluminescence immunoassay [CLIA] and ELISA) used for evaluations of recent and past SARS-CoV-2 infection. A thorough and comprehensive review of suitable and eligible full-text articles was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Wordometer and medRxiv from 10 January to 16 July 2020. These articles were searched using the Medical Subject Headings terms 'COVID-19', 'Serological assay', 'Laboratory Diagnosis', 'Performance characteristics', 'POCT', 'LFA', 'CLIA', 'ELISA' and 'SARS-CoV-2'. Data from original research articles on SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection ≥second day postinfection were included in this study. In total, there were 7938 published articles on humoral immune response and laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. Of these, 74 were included in this study. The detection, peak and decline period of blood anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgG and total antibodies for point-of-care testing (POCT), ELISA and CLIA vary widely. The most promising of these assays for POCT detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 3 postinfection and peaked on the 15th day; ELISA products detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG at days 2 and 6 then peaked on the eighth day; and the most promising CLIA product detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 1 and peaked on the 30th day. The most promising LFA, ELISA and CLIA that had the best performance characteristics were those targeting total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies followed by those targeting anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG then IgM. Essentially, the CLIA-based SARS-CoV-2 tests had the best performance characteristics, followed by ELISA then POCT. Given the varied performance characteristics of all the serological assays, there is a need to continuously improve their detection thresholds, as well as to monitor and re-evaluate their performances to assure their significance and applicability for COVID-19 clinical and epidemiological purposes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Kinetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 27, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032966

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: as the epidemiological trend of COVID-19 infection continue to evolve with increasing prevalence and incidence globally, management of cases in low-resource health care settings require basic detailed clinical and laboratory characteristics. This study retrospectively described the clinical and laboratory characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases admitted into the isolation centre of ATBUTH, Bauchi. METHODS: clinical and laboratory data of 84 confirmed COVID-19 cases admitted into the isolation centre of ATBUTH, Bauchi according to NCDC guidelines were used. Diagnosis was based on nasal and nasopharyngeal swab positive result of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) result. Data extracted includes demographic, clinical presentations and laboratory characteristics. RESULTS: the 84 COVID-19 patients comprised of 72% (59) males and 28% (25) females with mean age of 41.0±10.5 years, majority of the patients were within age-group 21-40 years. Forty-one percent presented with mild to moderate symptoms, 3.6% (3) presented with severe symptoms while 58.3% (49) were asymptomatic with mean body temperature of 36.60C ± Sá. The common clinical manifestations were fever 23.4% (19) and cough 20.7% (17). About 29.3% of the patients had comorbidities, 17.1% (14) were hypertensive while 12.2% of the diabetic. Thirty percent (10) of the patients with DM required intensive care unit (ICU) admission with 10% mortality. Biochemical parameters were within normal range for all the patients. However, haematological parameters showed increased neutrophil (10, 43.5%) and lymphocyte count (19 (59.4%). CONCLUSION: the study findings revealed high number of asymptomatic cases, similarity in clinical manifestation and relatively normal laboratory characteristics. More experience with increase in number of patients may provide additional information. Interrupting community transmission will require early detection and contact trace of asymptomatic cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria , Patient Isolation , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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