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PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254246, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320544


CONTEXT: Patients on maintenance dialysis are more susceptible to COVID-19 and its severe form. We studied the mortality and associated risks of COVID-19 infection in dialysis patients in the state of Qatar. METHODS: This was an observational, analytical, retrospective, nationwide study. We included all adult patients on maintenance dialysis therapy who tested positive for COVID-19 (PCR assay of the nasopharyngeal swab) during the period from February 1, 2020, to July 19, 2020. Our primary outcome was to study the mortality of COVID-19 in dialysis patients in Qatar and risk factors associated with it. Our secondary objectives were to study incidence and severity of COVID-19 in dialysis patients and comparing outcomes between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Patient demographics and clinical features were collected from a national electronic medical record. Univariate Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate potential risk factors for mortality in our cohort. RESULTS: 76 out of 1064 dialysis patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 (age 56±13.6, 56 hemodialysis and 20 peritoneal dialysis, 56 males). During the study period, 7.1% of all dialysis patients contracted COVID-19. Male dialysis patients had double the incidence of COVID-19 than females (9% versus 4.5% respectively; p<0.01). The most common symptoms on presentation were fever (57.9%), cough (56.6%), and shortness of breath (25%). Pneumonia was diagnosed in 72% of dialysis patients with COVID-19. High severity manifested as 25% of patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit, 18.4% had ARDS, 17.1% required mechanical ventilation, and 14.5% required inotropes. The mean length of hospital stay was 19.2 ± -12 days. Mortality due to COVID-19 among our dialysis cohort was 15%. Univariate Cox regression analysis for risk factors associated with COVID-19-related death in dialysis patients showed significant increases in risks with age (OR 1.077, CI 95%(1.018-1.139), p = 0.01), CHF and COPD (both same OR 8.974, CI 95% (1.039-77.5), p = 0.046), history of DVT (OR 5.762, CI 95% (1.227-27.057), p = 0.026), Atrial fibrillation (OR 7.285, CI 95%(2.029-26.150), p = 0.002), hypoxia (OR: 16.6; CI 95%(3.574-77.715), p = <0.001), ICU admission (HR30.8, CI 95% (3.9-241.2), p = 0.001), Mechanical ventilation (HR 50.07 CI 95% (6.4-391.2)), p<0.001) and using inotropes(HR 19.17, CI 95% (11.57-718.5), p<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, only ICU admission was found to be significantly associated with death [OR = 32.8 (3.5-305.4), p = 0.002)]. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to be conducted at a national level in Qatar exploring COVID-19 in a dialysis population. Dialysis patients had a high incidence of COVID-19 infection and related mortality compared to previous reports of the general population in the state of Qatar (7.1% versus 4% and 15% versus 0.15% respectively). We also observed a strong association between death related to COVID-19 infection in dialysis patients and admission to ICU.

COVID-19/mortality , Renal Dialysis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qatar/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors
Transplant Proc ; 53(8): 2438-2446, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316649


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on kidney transplant, mortality, and risk factors associated with infection acquisition and severe illness in kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19. METHODS: Of 693 kidney transplant recipients who reported to our center, 249 were tested for COVID-19 by throat and nasal swab reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Of these, 43 recipients tested positive and 206 recipients tested negative. Among the 43 positive recipients, 9 were treated within an isolation facility, 25 were admitted to the hospital, and 9 were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Risk factors associated with positive results and ICU admission were evaluated. RESULTS: COVID-19 was found in 6% of transplant recipients. Asian ethnicity (p = .003), history of hypertensive nephropathy (p = .01), AB blood group (P = .04), and higher tacrolimus trough levels (P = .007) were more frequent in the COVID-19 positive than in the COVID-19 negative group. ICU admission was more frequent in recipients presenting with fever, shortness of breath, and acute allograft dysfunction. Renal replacement therapy was required in 3 (7%) of 43 recipients, and mortality was reported in 1 (2.3%) recipient. Acute allograft dysfunction was an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 (odds ratio, 93.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-3710.94; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Higher tacrolimus targets may be associated with COVID-19 development. Acute kidney injury during the COVID-19 course may be a sign of severe disease. Prognostication of COVID-19 severity in kidney transplant recipients is crucial for early recognition of critical illness and may ensure early intervention.

COVID-19/complications , Kidney Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
World J Nephrol ; 9(2): 9-17, 2020 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976466


Coronavirus disease 2019 has spread across the world and has been classified as a pandemic. It has overwhelmed the healthcare systems. Specifically, it has overstretched the intensive care units and renal replacement therapy services in many countries. In this paper, we discuss the reconfiguration of nephrology services in the State of Qatar during the current pandemic. We highlight the key strategies that have been implemented to ensure that renal replacement therapy capacity is not constrained in either the intensive care or ambulatory setting. Some innovative approaches for the safe delivery of ambulatory care to dialysis and kidney transplant patients are also discussed.