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Fundam Clin Pharmacol ; 36(1): 160-170, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314051


BACKGROUND/AIM: SARS-CoV-2 is one of the coronavirus families that emerged at the end of 2019. It infected the respiratory system and caused a pandemic worldwide. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) have been safely used as antibacterial agents for decades. The antiviral activity of FQs was observed. Moreover, substitution on the C-7 position of ciprofloxacin enhanced its antiviral activity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the antiviral activity of 7-(4-(N-substituted-carbamoyl-methyl)piperazin-1yl)-chalcone in comparison with ciprofloxacin against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vero cells were infected with SARS-CoV-2. After treatment with ciprofloxacin and the chalcone at the concentrations of 1.6, 16, 160 nmol/L for 48 h, SARS-CoV-2 viral load was detected using real-time qPCR, SARS-CoV-2 infectivity was determined using plaque assay, and the main protease enzyme activity was detected using in vitro 3CL-protease inhibition assay. The activity of the chalcone was justified through molecular docking within SARS-CoV-2 Mpro , in comparison with ciprofloxacin. RESULTS: The new chalcone significantly inhibited viral load replication where the EC50 was 3.93 nmol/L, the plaque formation ability of the virus was inhibited to 86.8% ± 2.47. The chalcone exhibited a significant inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The docking study into SARS-CoV-2 Mpro active site justified the importance of adding a substitution to the parent drug. Additionally, the assessment of the drug-likeness properties indicated that the chalcone might have acceptable ADMET properties. CONCLUSION: The new chalcone might be useful and has new insights for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro .

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chalcones , Ciprofloxacin , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Chalcones/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Vero Cells
RSC Adv ; 10(45): 26895-26916, 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752449


The global outbreak of COVID-19 viral infection is associated with the absence of specific drug(s) for fighting this viral infection. About 10 million people are already infected, about 500 000 deaths all over the world to date. Great efforts have been made to find solutions for this viral infection, either vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, or small molecule drugs; this can stop the spread of infection to avoid the expected human, economic and social catastrophe associated with this infection. In the literature and during clinical trials in hospitals, several FDA approved drugs for different diseases have the potential to treat or reduce the severity of COVID-19. Repurposing of these drugs as potential agents to treat COVID-19 reduces the time and cost to find effective COVID-19 agents. This review article summarizes the present situation of transmission, pathogenesis and statistics of COVID-19 in the world. Moreover, it includes chemistry, mechanism of action at the molecular level of the possible drug molecules which are liable for redirection as potential COVID-19 therapeutic agents. This includes polymerase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, malaria drugs, lipid lowering statins, rheumatoid arthritis drugs and some miscellaneous agents. We offer research data and knowledge about the chemistry and biology of potential COVID-19 drugs for the research community in this field.