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Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39 Suppl 133(6): 57-65, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780514


OBJECTIVES: To analyse the frequency and characteristics of post-COVID-19 syndrome in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) affected by acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: By the first week of April 2021, all centres included in the Big Data Sjögren Consortium were contacted asking for patients included in the Registry diagnosed with SARSCoV-2 infection according to the ECDC guidelines. According to the NICE definitions, symptoms related to COVID-19 were classified as acute COVID-19 (signs and symptoms for up to 4 weeks), ongoing symptomatic COVID-19 (presence of signs and symptoms from 4 to 12 weeks) and post-COVID-19 syndrome (signs and symptoms that continue for > 12 weeks not explained by an alternative diagnosis after a protocolized study). RESULTS: We identified 132 patients who were followed a mean follow-up of 137.8 days (ranging from 5 days to 388 days) after being diagnosed with COVID-19. In the last visit, 75 (57%) patients remained symptomatic: 68 (52%) remained symptomatic for more than 4 weeks fulfilling the NICE definition for ongoing symptomatic post-COVID-19, and 38 (29%) remained symptomatic for more than 12 weeks fulfilling the definition of post-COVID-19 syndrome. More than 40% of pSS patients reported the persistence of four symptoms or more, including anxiety/depression (59%), arthralgias (56%), sleep disorder (44%), fatigue (40%), anosmia (34%) and myalgias (32%). Age-sex adjusted multivariate analysis identified raised LDH levels (OR 10.36), raised CRP levels (OR 7.33), use of hydroxychloroquine (OR 3.51) and antiviral agents (OR 3.38), hospital admission (OR 8.29), mean length of hospital admission (OR 1.1) and requirement of supplemental oxygen (OR 6.94) as factors associated with a higher risk of developing post-COVID-19 syndrome. A sensitivity analysis including hospital admission in the adjusted model confirmed raised CRP levels (OR 8.6, 95% CI 1.33-104.44) and use of hydroxychloroquine (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.00-6.47) as the key independent factors associated with an enhanced risk of developing post-COVID-19 syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that analyses the frequency and characteristics of post-COVID-19 syndrome in patients affected by a systemic autoimmune disease. We found that 57% of patients with pSS affected by COVID-19 remain symptomatic after a mean follow-up of 5 months. The risk of developing post-COVID-19 syndrome in patients who required hospitalisation was 8-times higher than in non-hospitalised patients, with baseline raised CRP levels and the use of hydroxychloroquine being independent risk factors for post-COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Sjogren's Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sjogren's Syndrome/diagnosis , Sjogren's Syndrome/drug therapy , Sjogren's Syndrome/epidemiology
Int Nurs Rev ; 68(4): 461-470, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258943


AIM: To describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stress, resilience and depression in health professionals from a public hospital in Barcelona, Spain after the first peak of pandemic. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic in Spain has pushed boundaries in health systems and, especially, for health professionals. Analysis of resilience as an individual resource and it is essential to understand the mechanisms that make staff react unfavourably to stressors caused by the pandemic. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed. PARTICIPANTS: Health professionals supervised by the nursing department, including registered nurses, health care assistants, health technicians, final year nurse student nurses, foreign nurses, and other nurse-related health workers. METHODS: The study complies with the STROBE checklist for cross-sectional studies. An online survey was administered to all health professionals supervised by the nursing department between 6 and 27 May 2020. The survey included the ER-14 Resilience Scale, the widely-used PHQ-9 depression scale, the Spanish version of the Nursing Stress Scale, and an ad-hoc questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic and occupational variables. RESULTS: A total of 686 participants answered the survey. Resilience was high or very high in health professionals, with an inverse correlation with stress and depression scores. Personal on fixed shifts showed better resilience. The most stressed health professionals were full-time registered nurses, followed by health care assistants. Up to 25% of nursing professionals had depression. CONCLUSION: Our study showed a high degree of resilience among nurse professionals despite the overwhelming nature of the COVID-19 pandemic. Relevant signs of depression and stress were detected among participants. Occupational factors heavily influenced nurses' resilience, stress and depression. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING & HEALTH POLICY: Government policy shifts are needed in Spain to improve nurses' workforce conditions, enhance the ratio of nurses to patient numbers, and avoid workforce losses. Maintaining the resilience of health professionals would assist in improving their health and their capacity to possible future emergency situations.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires