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Lancet HIV ; 8(11): e701-e710, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Factors affecting outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people living with HIV are unclear. We assessed the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and severe outcomes among people living with HIV. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study using data from the PISCIS cohort of people with HIV in Catalonia (Spain) between March 1 and Dec 15, 2020. We linked PISCIS data with integrated health-care, clinical, and surveillance registries through the Public Data Analysis for Health Research and Innovation Program of Catalonia (PADRIS) to obtain data on SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, chronic comorbidities, as well as clinical and mortality outcomes. Participants were aged at least 16 years in care at 16 hospitals in Catalonia. Factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses and severe outcomes were assessed using univariable and multivariable Cox regression models. We estimated the effect of immunosuppression on severe outcomes (hospital admission for >24 h with dyspnoea, tachypnoea, hypoxaemia, asphyxia, or hyperventilation; or death) using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. FINDINGS: We linked 20 847 (72·8%) of 28 666 participants in the PISCIS cohort with PADRIS data; 13 142 people had HIV. 749 (5·7%) people with HIV were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2: their median age was 43·5 years (IQR 37·0-52·7), 131 (17·5%) were female, and 618 (82·5%) were male. 103 people with HIV (13·8%) were hospitalised, seven (0·9%) admitted to intensive care, and 13 (1·7%) died. SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was more common among migrants (adjusted hazard ratio 1·55, 95% CI 1·31-1·83), men who have sex with men (1·42, 1·09-1·86), and those with four or more chronic comorbidities (1·46, 1·09-1·97). Age at least 75 years (5·2, 1·8-15·3), non-Spanish origin (2·1, 1·3-3·4), and neuropsychiatric (1·69, 1·07-2·69), autoimmune disease (1·92, 1·14-3·23), respiratory disease (1·84, 1·09-3·09), and metabolic disease (2·59, 1·59-4·23) chronic comorbidities were associated with increased risk of severe outcomes. A Kaplan-Meier estimator showed differences in the risk of severe outcomes according to CD4 cell count in patients with detectable HIV RNA (p=0·039) but no differences were observed in patients with undetectable HIV RNA (p=0·15). INTERPRETATION: People living with HIV with detectable HIV viraemia, chronic comorbidities, and some subpopulations could be at increased risk of severe outcomes from COVID-19. These groups should be prioritised in clinical management and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programmes. FUNDING: Fundació "la Caixa". TRANSLATIONS: For the Catalan, Spanish and Russian translations of the Summary see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain/epidemiology
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