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1.
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology ; 32(2):118-124, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939288

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the depressive symptoms among migrant workers in South Korea amid the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Methods: This web-based cross-sectional survey involved migrant workers in South Korea to examine their depression levels using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale. Logistic regression was used to find out the factors associated with depression. Results: Migrant workers exhibited mild to severe depressive symptoms (98.4%) of which 41.7% had severe depression (n = 161). Migrant workers aged above 25 years were shown to have a significantly higher level of depression (odds ratio = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.084-4.193). Male workers (71.1%) had a higher depression level than females (28.9%). Losing a job during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic (odds ratio = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.705-8.906) and not having any social relief support (odds ratio = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.109-3.351) were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion: Migrants workers were found to be experiencing a severe level of depression. Mental healthcare should be prioritized and made accessible to vulnerable and risk groups.

2.
6th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems, ICICCS 2022 ; : 1374-1381, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922687

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the ways to provide unhindered entertainment solutions to artists and common people. The research has led to the conclusion that a new social media platform can be built for artists around the globe. The aim of the study is to merge video conferencing features with face detection and smile detection machine learning algorithms to provide an interactive environment to audience virtually over Internet. The findings of the study suggest that people from different age groups and places can find the comedy shows of common interests for enjoyment. The project can be launched as application to build a worldwide community of comedians. The paper is intended to provide a fast and efficient Machine learning model to detect smiling faces in real time environment with low latency and high accuracy. The comparison between some smile detection models is done among which our model has proven to be more effective than 2 pre-existing models with accuracy score of 91.97%. Although the accuracy of this model is less than other one having 94.87% accuracy. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
Medical Science ; 26(122):8, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1887480

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (Coronavirus infectious disease 2019) denotes an ever changing and varied disease which has crippled the health care systems throughout the world. There have been studies conducted across the globe to establish the important factors for severity and mortality associated with COVID-19. We tried to study the effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the severity as well as outcome of COVID-19. Material and methods: A total of 180 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study and were then screened for history of COPD. There were 49 patients with history of COPD and 131 patients with no history of COPD. Inflammatory markers and HRCT scores were assessed for all the patients and they were followed up to study the outcome. Result: COPD was significantly associated HRCT Score, inflammatory markers and outcome. The mean HRCT Score for patients with COPD was more in COPD group (15.39 +/- 4.65) when compared with Non-COPD group (9.39 +/- 3.98). Mortality was also significantly higher in patients with COPD (67.3%) when compared to the patients without COPD (3.3%). Conclusion: We conclude that COPD is an important factor which has to be considered while treating the patients of COVID-19 especially in the rural India where lockdown restrictions and lack of knowledge have provided hinderance in achieving optimal follow up as there is increased severity and mortality associated with it.

5.
European Journal of General Dentistry ; 11(1):58-63, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1758433

ABSTRACT

Objective: In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the use of virtual appointments increased substantially. An audit was designed to evaluate the efficacy of virtual appointments at Alder Hey Children's Hospital. Patients and clinicians satisfaction of virtual appointments were also recorded. Materials and Methods: Patients having virtual appointments were identified, and data were recorded, including demographics and outcome of the appointment. A pilot study was conducted to identify any necessary modifications to the data collection process. Data were collected over two cycles, and the results were analyzed. Results: The first cycle was performed retrospectively and there were 158 patients identified who had a virtual appointment. An outcome could be drawn from the virtual appointment in over 70% of cases. Recommendations following the first cycle were implemented. A second cycle was then completed prospectively. A total of 145 patients were identified. An outcome could be drawn in 51% of cases. Patient and clinician feedback on virtual appointments was generally positive. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that a successful outcome could be drawn in the majority of virtual appointments, and clinicians and patients had positive experiences regarding virtual clinics. This highlights the usefulness of this service, which is particularly relevant due to the increased reliance on virtual clinics during the pandemic. © 2022. The Author(s).

6.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(2):OE1-OE3, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1753945

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the coronavirus, since its start in Wuhan a city in China has spread like a wild fire and created havoc all over the globe. Initially, the disease was thought to be causing only respiratory complication, but gradually it was found to be causing multiorgan complication. Due to the hypercoagulable property of coronavirus, it has shown neurological, cardiological and endocrine complication. Recently, the effect of the virus on endocrine system has also been noted. Evidence has shown that COVID-19 can hamper the hypothalamo-pituitary axis resulting in altered adrenal response to stress. The immune-mediated damage to the endocrine glands results in subacute thyroiditis. The presence of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE 2) receptors on various tissues could be the cause of this immune mediated damage. COVID-19 has also precipitated hyperglycaemia and in few cases, uncovered the insulin resistance in previously undiagnosed cases. It is crucial to have knowledge about the impact of endocrine system, as it is the powerhouse of the body.

7.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(3):QD01-QD04, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1744635

ABSTRACT

Derangements in coagulation profile due to on-going anticoagulant medication can complicate the most primitive physiology in a woman, ovulation. Unmonitored anticoagulant therapy can lead to an array of complications, one of which is intraperitoneal haemorrhage secondary to numerous medical and surgical conditions. The resultant haemoperitoneum can cause sudden hypovolemic shock, especially in a patient with compromised cardiovascular status. This report narrates the case of a 30 years old nulliparous female patient on anticoagulant therapy, operated for multiple cardiac defects and developed massive haemoperitoneum as a consequence of ovulation. The patient presented in shock to the Emergency Department with unstable haemodynamic status. A multi-disciplinary approach to the case converged on ruptured functional ovarian cyst as a working diagnosis. Conservative management of haemoperitoneum was decided upon, whereby correcting shock and providing pro-coagulant therapy along with blood products was the main line of management. All efforts failed soon after when the cyst wall ruptured catastrophically, leading to collapse of the general condition of the patient. Surgical approach was undertaken and a ruptured ovarian cyst wall was identified to be the cause. The cyst wall was subsequently repaired electrosurgically and the patient recovered well with an uneventful postoperative period. However, the characteristic feature of this case is the lack of follow-up due to lockdown restrictions of this continuum, the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The management of such cases must be carefully titrated, keeping in mind the risks and benefits of both pro-coagulant and anti-coagulant therapy wherein one can jeopardise the effects of the other.

9.
Nonlinear Analysis-Modelling and Control ; 27(1):21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1700194

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of COVID-19 has drawn attention to the various methods of disease control. Since no proper treatment is available till date and the vaccination is restricted to certain age groups, also vaccine efficacy is still under progress, the emphasis has been given to the method of isolation and quarantine. This control is induced by tracing the contacts of the infectious individuals, putting them to the quarantine class and based on their symptoms, classifying them either as the susceptible or sick individuals and moving the sick individuals to the isolated class. To track the current pandemic situation of COVID-19 in India, we consider an extended Susceptible-Exposed-Quarantine-Infected-Isolated-Recovered (SEQ(1)IQ(2)R) compartmental model along with calculating its control reproductive number R-c . The disease can be kept in control if the value of R-c remains below one. This "threshold" value of R-c is used to optimize the period of quarantine, and isolation and have been calculated in order to eradicate the disease. The sensitivity analysis of R-c with respect to the quarantine and isolation period has also been done. Partial rank correlation coefficient method is applied to identify the most significant parameters involved in R-c. Based on the observed data, 7-days moving average curves are plotted for prelockdown, lockdown and unlock 1 phases. Following the trend of the curves for the infection, a generalized exponential function is used to estimate the data, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals are simulated to estimate the parameters. The effect of control measures such as quarantine and isolation are discussed. Following various mathematical and statistical tools, we systematically explore the impact of lockdown strategy in order to control the recent outbreak of COVID-19 transmission in India.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309103

ABSTRACT

A new beta Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection was first identified in the Wuhan City, China in December 2019 and after that it had spread rapidly throughout the globe and subsequently WHO have announced it as a pandemic. So, SARS-CoV-2 has now become a global threat to human civilization. Recent studies showed that the proteomic data of SARS-CoV-2 is closely related with other beta Coronavirus. The phylogenetic tree revealed the closeness of recently reported SAR-CoV2 with SARS-CoV by using MEGA 7 along with the suitable protocol of Neighbor joining algorithm. The spike glycoprotein plays the most important role during the onset of infection. Several mutations have been reported across the globe in the S Proteins. In this research, molecular docking between the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and ACE2 protein was carried out in PatchDock web servers. WEBnm@ calculated the molecular simulation using Normal Mode Analysis (NMA) along with lowest deformation energy value which signifies the domain motions. Also during multiple sequence analysis, variations were observed within the Spike protein reported globally. 3- Dimensional structure of protein molecules were designed using homology modeling and the structure were validated through Q mean score and Ramachandran plot. All of the designed sequences were having around 91% of the amino acid in the favored region of Ramachandran plot. In order to check the binding affinity difference between the mutated and non-mutated strains, the generated models were docked with human ACE2 molecules. The non mutated strains have given the similar ACE value. However, there were variations in ACE value of the mutated strains. This observation provides evidence of Phylogenetic diversity and evolution.

11.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(2):OE01-OE03, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1677770

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the coronavirus, since its start in Wuhan a city in China has spread like a wild fire and created havoc all over the globe. Initially, the disease was thought to be causing only respiratory complication, but gradually it was found to be causing multiorgan complication. Due to the hypercoagulable property of coronavirus, it has shown neurological, cardiological and endocrine complication. Recently, the effect of the virus on endocrine system has also been noted. Evidence has shown that COVID-19 can hamper the hypothalamo-pituitary axis resulting in altered adrenal response to stress. The immune-mediated damage to the endocrine glands results in subacute thyroiditis. The presence of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE 2) receptors on various tissues could be the cause of this immune mediated damage. COVID-19 has also precipitated hyperglycaemia and in few cases, uncovered the insulin resistance in previously undiagnosed cases. It is crucial to have knowledge about the impact of endocrine system, as it is the powerhouse of the body.

12.
Journal of Medicine (Bangladesh) ; 22(2):150-154, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1666969

ABSTRACT

With increasing incidence of Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Virus 2(SARS -CoV -2) in India, there has been growing reports of super infections in post covid 19 period. Long COVID refers to persistence of COVID19 symptoms for weeks to months. While most common manifestation of long COVID is fatigue and ill health, it may lead to development of life-threatening complications like Pulmonary Mucormycosis. We report a case of 54 year young, non-diabetic previously healthy male who had moderate COVID19 treated with low dose steroids and recovered completely, only to present with hemoptysis 3 months later on High Resolution Computed Tomography Scan of the Chest and Rhizopus fungi on bronchoalveolar lavage confirming Post Covid Pulmonary Mucormycosis in non-immunocompromised host. Patient was managed with dual antifungal therapy intravenous Liposomal Amphotericin B and Posaconazole for 3 weeks, followed by oral Posaconazole.

13.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 33(59B):36-40, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1630257

ABSTRACT

Background: Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical attention. Kounis syndrome is myocardial infarction or injury occurring in the setting of anaphylaxis and can also be due to the effects of epinephrine. Adrenaline is a common drug in the management of anaphylaxis but the electrocardiographic consequences of its administration post an attack are seldomly seen. Vasospasm is generally the cause for myocardial injury in an acute setting following the administration of epinephrine. Case Presentation: A 21-year- old female developed sudden onset breathlessness and giddiness post vaccination with the oxford -AstraZeneca COVID -19 vaccine. She was administered 0.5 ml adrenaline (1:1000) intramuscularly on the lateral aspect of the left thigh, following which she complained of chest tightness and palpitations. This was accompanied by hypotension and global ST segment depression on her Electrocardiogram. The second electrocardiogram, done after 30 minutes showed a relative resolution in ST segment depressions with sinus rhythm in the one done at 16:00 hours. Creatine Kinase- MB and Troponin I were within normal limits and the patient experienced symptomatic improvement with normalization of blood pressure post fluid challenge. Conclusion: This case report highlights the case of a young female with no comorbidities who developed transient myocardial ischemia after administration of intramuscular adrenalin in therapeutic dose in view of an anaphylactic reaction. The probable action is alpha mediated coronary vasospasm. The potential adverse effects in an acute setting are hence outlined in this case report without discouraging its use given the potential benefits outweigh the risks.

14.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 33(57B):241-246, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1614280

ABSTRACT

Ferritin overload is a frequent problem encountered in patients with beta thalassemia amounting to various complications. One of rare but important complication of ferritin overload is ferritin overload induced toxic encephalopathy. Serum ferritin has been recognised as a important marker of inflammation and cytokine storm in COVID19.We present a case of Long COVID syndrome presenting as toxic encephalopathy in a case of beta thalassemia in spite of the patient being compliant to desferroxamine therapy.This report highlights the synergistic effect of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. 2(SARS CoV 2) mediated neuroinflammation through direct viral invasion and the release of inflammatory cytokines including ferritin resulting in toxic encephalopathy in a beta thalassemia major patient who was already prone to develop hyperferritenemia.Ferritin functions as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and it's level increases in both thalassemia and COVID-19 and the index case presented here had both the conditions predisoposing him to develop toxic encephalopathy even after being compliant to deferoxamine therapy. It is important to recognise and treat this condition in order to prevent mortality and morbidity in patients of beta thalassemia who contract COVID19.

15.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 33(56A):74-78, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1614270

ABSTRACT

ECAST Or exercise collapse associated with sickle cell trait is a rare phenomenon associated with sickle cell trait and is an important presentation of sickle cell disease in sports medicine. Collapse is seen following vigorous physical activity, which is due to excessive heat, dehydration and other factors associated with physical exercise. This rare syndrome is often missed by the treating physicians as a result of a lack of knowledge about this rare entity leading to massive underreporting. It is important to identify ECAST as a cause of the collapse in young athletes to prevent mortality and morbidity and in order to provide prompt treatment. We report a case of a 25-year-old young male who was a bodybuilder and reported to the gym after a one-year-long break due to lockdown restrictions of COVID19. After a vigorous exercise session, he collapsed in the gym and was brought to the emergency department. After proper history taking and examination, he was suspected to be a case of ECAST due to a history of a similar episode three years back which was treated as a case of exertional syncope with intravenous fluid therapy and a family history of Sickle cell trait with his mother and father both having sickle cell AS Pattern. Ultimately our patient turned out to be a case of Sickle Cell Trait with evidence of AS pattern on Hb electrophoresis and a small-sized spleen visualized on CT Scan of the abdomen. The patient was managed successfully with intravenous fluids and blood transfusion and was discharged in a stable condition. He was counseled about moderating his exercise and is doing well on follow-up.

16.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 15(12):OL01-OL02, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1572927
18.
Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ; 366:645-671, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1516830

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the COVID-19 disease has gained the status of a pandemic worldwide. Till now no appropriate drug has been identified which can become the gold standard for coronavirus-2 and drugs such as Favipiravir, Hydroxychloroquine and Remdesivir used for the treatment of severe cases of COVID-19 have not yielded satisfactory results owing to many side effects. Although the entire scientific fraternity of the world is currently engaged to find a permanent cure for this deadly disease, clinical development of a new drug or vaccine precisely for SARS-CoV-2 will normally take time. Given the pressing need to quickly find effectual medications for COVID-19, existing drugs are being repositioned. The term “repositioning” or “repurposing” refers to the use of approved drugs originally used against other pathogens which can also be used against SARS-CoV-2. These therapeutics can be chosen from a wide spectrum of drugs used for cancer-induced inflammation, immune dysfunction, and coagulopathy. As all these symptoms prevail in patients affected by COVID-19, it is reasonable to consider testing above mentioned agents in a rational manner against this viral illness. The main idea behind the repositioning of the drug is to lessen the time and expenditure which is done to find a new drug and then ushering its transition from bench to bedside. For narrowing down the search as to which therapeutics can be considered for repositioning, Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be of great aid. AI can quickly detect drugs that can fight against COVID-19 pandemic. Besides, it is a cheaper, faster, and effective approach to find repurposed drugs from a vast array of therapeutics thereby minimizing the failures in clinical trials. AI-based Deep learning models can also predict drug structures that could potentially treat COVID -19 which can be a step forward in finding appropriate drugs for COVID -19. The present book chapter will comprehensively highlight all these points. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

19.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 33(46B):148-153, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1513168

ABSTRACT

With the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV2, the incidence of the disease is increasing each day with a higher infectivity rate and unpredictable morbidity and mortality. The second wave in India has higher morbidity and mortality compared to the previous wave of SARS-Cov2. With the increasing trend of screening hypoxic patients with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of thorax, treatment modalities, and investigational approaches have changed drastically. Here we report a case of a 31-year-old female who presented to a tertiary care centre in the rural area with a history of fever five days back and a history of breathlessness of 3 days duration and dry cough of 3 days duration. She was hypoxic on admission and later on diagnosed with SARS-Cov2 infection. HRCT thorax revealed a CT severity score of 25/25. She was treated according to standard treatment protocols. The patient was discharged after 46 days with normal oxygen saturation on room air. The aim of this case study is to emphasize the wholesome approach in the management of COVID-19.

20.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 33(45A):328-333, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1513166

ABSTRACT

We present a case of term pregnancy which presented with chief complaint of Breathlessness, chest pain as well as a one day history of vomiting. She tested positive for COVID19 through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swab and the symptoms were attributed to Pneumonia caused due to COVID19.However,the arterial blood gas showed metabolic acidosis with high anion gap. This was a non lactate acidosis with no hypoxemia. Most reasonably the state of pregnancy with increased energy demands along with increased metabolic maternal demand due to infection coupled with maternal starvation had resulted in this Ketoacidosis. In view of non progression of labor caesarian section was carried out and a healthy neonate was delivered. There was an initial improvement in maternal ketoacidosis post partum however optimal management of COVID19 pneumonia required oxygen support and use of corticosteroids. Thus we highlight how an unusual metabolic demands of pregnancy might mimic COVID19.

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