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Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:938-939, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008904


Background: The impact of immunosuppressants on COVID-19 vaccination response and durability in patients with immune-mediated infammatory diseases (IMID) is yet to be fully characterized. Humoral response may be attenuated in these patients especially those on B cell depleting therapy and higher doses of corticosteroids, but data regarding other immunosuppressants are scarce. Objectives: We aimed to investigate antibody and T cell responses and durability to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines (BNT162b and/or mRNA 1273) in IMID patients on immunomodulatory maintenance therapy other than B-cell depleting therapy and corticosteroids. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study examined the immuno-genicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in adult patients with IMIDs (psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, infammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis) with or without maintenance immunosuppressive therapies (anti-TNF, methotrexate/azathioprine [MTX/AZA], anti-TNF + MTX/AZA, anti IL12/23, anti-IL-17, anti-IL23) compared to healthy controls. Automated ELISA for IgGs to spike trimer, spike receptor binding domain (RBD) and the nucleocapsid (NP) and T-cell release of 9 cytokines (IFNg, IL2, IL4, IL17A, TNF) and cytotoxic molecules (sFasL, GzmA, GzmB, Perforinin) in cell culture supernatants following stimulation with spike or NP peptide arrays were conducted at 4 time points: T1=pre vaccination, T2=me-dian 26 days after dose 1, T3=median 16 days after dose 2 and T4=median 106 days after dose 2. Neutralization assays against four SARS-CoV-2 variants (wild type, delta, beta and gamma) were conducted at T3. Results: We followed 150 subjects: 26 healthy controls and 124 IMID patients: 9 untreated, 44 on anti-TNF, 16 on anti-TNF with MTX/AZA, 10 on anti-IL23, 28 on anti-IL12/23, 9 on anti-IL17, 8 on MTX/AZA (Table 1). Most patients mounted antibody and T cell responses with increases from dose 1 to dose 2 (100% sero-conversion at T3) and some decline by T4, with variability within groups. Antibody levels and neutralization efficacy was lower in anti-TNFgroups (anti-TNF, anti-TNF + MTX/AZA) compared to controls and waned by T4 (Figure 1). T cell responses were not consistently different between groups. Pooled data showed a higher antibody response to mRNA-1273 compared to BNT162b. Conclusion: Following 2 doses of mRNA vaccination there is 100% seroconver-sion in IMID patients on maintenance therapy. Antibody levels and neutralization efficacy in anti-TNF group are lower than controls, and wane substantially by 3 months after dose 2. These fndings highlight the need for third dose in patients undergoing treatment with anti-TNF therapy and continued monitoring of immunity in these patient groups, taking into consideration newer variants and additional vaccine doses.

Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1006, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967392


BACKGROUND Little is known about the impact of immunosuppressants on COVID-19 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID). Although humoral response may be attenuated in patients using immunomodulators (IMM) and TNFinhibitors (anti-TNF), data regarding cellular response are scarce and conflicting. This study was aimed to identify immune response to COVID-19 vaccination in IMID patients. METHODS A prospective observational multicentre cohort study was conducted to examine the immunogenicity of mRNA vaccines to SARS-CoV-2 in adult IMID patients using immunosuppressive therapy (anti-TNF, IMM, anti-TNF+IMM, anti-IL12/23, anti-IL-17, anti-IL-23) or no therapy as compared to healthy controls (HC). Patient details and vaccination history were recorded. Blood samples were drawn at 3 time points: before, 3-4 weeks after first and 2 weeks after second vaccination. Humoral immune response to S and RBD proteins were assessed by ELISA. Neutralization was tested against 4 variants of SARS-CoV-2 by surrogate neutralization ELISA. Cellular immune responses were determined based on analysis of 9 secreted cytokines and cytotoxic molecules after stimulation of PBMC with S peptide pools. Response to N protein was used to assess SARS-CoV-2 exposure. RESULTS A total of 159 subjects (133 IMID patients and 26 HC) were included in this study (median age 42 years [IQR 30-53], 52% male). Of 133 IMID patients, 87 had inflammatory bowel disease, 23 psoriatic arthritis, 18 psoriasis, 11 ankylosing spondylarthritis and 4 rheumatoid arthritis. Of these, 44 used anti-TNF, 9 IMM, 18 anti-TNF+IMM, 33 anti-IL-12/23, 9 anti-IL-17, 10 anti-IL-23 therapy and 10 no therapy. All subjects received 2 doses of mRNA vaccines (2x Pfizer, 2x Moderna or mixed) between December 2020 and September 2021. The vast majority of subjects had minimal binding antibody and T cell responses to N, indicating they were COVID-19 naïve. After dose 1, anti-TNF group had lower IL-2 vs untreated IMID (p<0.01), and the anti-IL-23 group had lower IFN-g vs HC (p<0.01), though there was wide variation in responses within groups. Following dose 2, median responses between groups were mostly similar, but antibody responses were significantly lower in patients on anti-TNF as compared to HC in subjects that received two doses of Pfizer (p=0.01). Pooled data for all subjects combined show a higher response to Moderna over Pfizer in ELISA, neutralization and T cell readouts, and a lower response for those over 60 years of age after dose 2. Longer follow-up is in process to monitor the durability of these responses over time and after third dose. CONCLUSION Immune responses after 2 doses of mRNA vaccines in immunocompromised IMID patients largely reach the level of that of HC albeit antibody responses in the anti-TNF group are weaker and with wide variability between subjects within some groups