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1.
Age Ageing ; 51(7)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960975

ABSTRACT

Long-term care homes play an essential role within health and social care. Successful measures to support older people at home for longer have led to increased prevalence of disability, frailty and cognitive impairment in those who live in care homes over the last two decades. The need for care home places is projected to increase for the next two decades. Modern care homes provide care for people who are predominantly over 80, have multiple long-term conditions, take multiple medicines, are physically dependent and live with cognitive impairment. Residents do better when services recognise the contributions of staff and care home providers rather than treating residents as individual patients living in a communal setting. There is a strong case given residents' frailty, multimorbidity and disability, that care should be structured around Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA). Care should be designed to allow opportunities for multiprofessional teams to come together for CGA, particularly if healthcare professionals are based outside care homes. Good data about care homes and residents are central to efforts to deliver high quality care-in some countries, these data are collected but not collated. Collating such data is a priority. Care home staff are under-recognised and underpaid-parity of pay and opportunity with NHS staff is the bare minimum to ensure that the best are recruited and retained in the sector. During the COVID-19 pandemic, residents and relatives have frequently been left out of decisions about policies that affect them, and better consultation is needed to deliver high quality care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics
2.
Age Ageing ; 51(6)2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908734

ABSTRACT

The sustainability of healthcare of older people in Europe is at stake. Many experts currently focus on the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences. But there are other elements coming up that might even have a greater impact. Healthcare systems, geriatric care and geriatric rehabilitation in particular, will face disruptive changes due to both demographic demand and a shortage of human and financial resources. This decade will be transformed by a high proportion of the older health workforce transitioning to retirement. This expertise must be retained. The brain drain of health care workers migrating from Eastern parts to Western Europe is diminishing. Discussing and deciding upon the priorities of value-based health care for older people such as equity and access is required. The acute healthcare sector in most countries focuses on fee-for-service models instead of building systemic approaches to maximise independence and autonomy of older citizens. In this commentary, we build on recent book chapters and articles on geriatric rehabililtation. Our main questions for the anniversary edition of Age and Ageing is what it is that geriatric rehabilitation could, should and must contribute in the roaring 2020s?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Geriatrics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Retirement
3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(6): e34550, 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms occur frequently in many nursing home residents with dementia. Despite the availability of multidisciplinary guidelines, neuropsychiatric symptoms are often inadequately managed. Three proven effective methods for managing neuropsychiatric symptoms were integrated into a single intervention method: the STIP-Method, a personalized integrated stepped-care method to prevent and treat neuropsychiatric symptoms. The STIP-Method comprises 5 phases of clinical reasoning to neuropsychiatric symptoms and 4 stepped-care interventions and is supported with a web application. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the facilitators and barriers in the implementation of the STIP-Method in nursing homes. METHODS: A mixed methods design within a participatory action research was used to implement the STIP-Method in 4 facilities of 2 Dutch nursing home organizations. In total, we aimed at participation of 160-200 persons with dementia and expected an intervention fidelity of 50% or more, based on earlier studies regarding implementation of effective psychosocial interventions to manage neuropsychiatric symptoms. All involved managers and professionals were trained in the principles of the STIP-Method and in using the web application. An advisory board of professionals, managers, and informal caregivers in each facility supported the implementation during 21 months, including an intermission of 6 months due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In these 6-weekly advisory board meetings, 2 researchers stimulated the members to reflect on progress of the implementation by making use of available data from patient records and the web application. Additionally, the 2 researchers invited the members to suggest how to improve the implementation. Data analysis will involve (1) analysis of facilitators and barriers to the implementation derived from verbatim text reports of advisory board meetings to better understand the implementation process; (2) analysis of patient records in accordance with multidisciplinary guidelines to neuropsychiatric symptoms: personalized, interdisciplinary, and proactive management of neuropsychiatric symptoms; (3) evaluation of the web application in terms of usability scores; (4) pre- and postimplementation analysis of patient records and the web application to evaluate the impact of the STIP-Method, such as changes in neuropsychiatric symptoms and informal caregiver burden. RESULTS: We enrolled 328 persons with dementia. Data collection started in July 2019 and ended in December 2021. The first version of this manuscript was submitted in October 2021. The first results of data analysis are expected to be published in December 2022 and final results in June 2023. CONCLUSIONS: Our study may increase understanding of facilitators and barriers to the prevention and treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia by implementing the integrated STIP-Method. The need for well-designed implementation studies is of importance to provide nursing homes with optimal tools to prevent and treat neuropsychiatric symptoms. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/34550.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869597

ABSTRACT

The most severe COVID-19 infections and highest mortality rates are seen among long-term care residents. To reduce the risk of infection, physical distancing is important. This study investigates what physical distancing measures were discussed by COVID-19 outbreak teams of Dutch long-term care organizations and what challenges they encountered. The COVID-19 MINUTES study is a qualitative multi-center study (n = 41) that collected minutes of COVID-19 outbreak teams from March 2020 to October 2021. Textual units about distancing measures were selected and analyzed using manifest content analysis for the first wave: early March-early May 2020; the intermediate period of 2020: mid-May-mid-September 2020; and the second wave: late September 2020-mid-June 2021. During all periods, COVID-19 outbreak teams often discussed distancing visitors from residents. Moreover, during the first wave they often discussed isolation measures, during the intermediate period they often discussed distancing staff and volunteers from residents, and during both the intermediate period and the second wave they often discussed distancing among residents. During all periods, less often admission measures were discussed. Challenges persisted and included unrest among and conflicts between visitors and staff, visitors violating measures, resident non-adherence to measures, and staffing issues. The discussed distancing measures and corresponding challenges may guide local long-term care and (inter)national policymakers during the further course of the COVID-19 pandemic, outbreaks of other infectious diseases, and long-term care innovations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820257

ABSTRACT

To protect nursing home residents from getting infected with COVID-19, several measures have been imposed. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of these measures on activities for Dutch nursing home residents, the conditions under which the activities could take place, and the considerations when making decisions about the (dis)continuation of activities. The study consisted of the data of the qualitative MINUTES-study. Textual units derived from documentation of an outbreak team (OT) meetings on activities, well-being, informal caregivers, and volunteers from 39 long-term care organizations were re-analyzed using a content analysis. The results shows that OTs more often discussed restarting and continuing activities than stopping activities during the COVID-19 pandemic. There were differences between time periods, but activities never completely stopped according to the minutes. Activities were offered in an adapted way, often under certain conditions, such as organizing activities at other locations (e.g., outside), with limited group size, and following specific guidelines. The main focus of the considerations made were the ability to adhere to the guidelines, the well-being of residents, ensuring safety, and balancing benefits versus risks given vaccination availability and coverage. Overall, the study showed that organizing activities for nursing home residents despite COVID-19 measures is possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Age Ageing ; 51(4)2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788478

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has particularly adversely affected older people with frailty and functional dependency. Essential regular contact with care staff has been evidenced as an important source of infection for this group. Vaccinating care staff can reduce the incidence, duration and severity of infection, preventing onward transmission to older people and minimising the harm associated with discontinuity caused by staff absence. Voluntary vaccination programmes for staff are more likely to be effective when associated with information and education, community engagement and financial incentives, but programmes using all of these approaches have failed to establish consistently high vaccination rates among care staff during the pandemic. Mandatory vaccination, proposed as a solution in some countries, can increase vaccination rates. It is only ethical if a vaccine is effective and cost-effective, the risk associated with vaccinating care workers is proportionate to the risk reduction achieved through vaccination, and where all efforts to encourage voluntary vaccination have been exhausted. Even when these conditions have been met, careful attention is required to ensure that the penalties associated with conscientious objection are proportionate and to ensure that implementation is equitable in a way that does not disadvantage particular groups of staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Support , Vaccination
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776237

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 posed enormous challenges for nursing home staff, which may have caused stress and mental health problems. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of mental health problems among nursing home staff and investigate the differences in job demands, work functioning and mental health between staff with and without COVID contact or COVID infection and across different levels of COVID worries. In this cross-sectional study, 1669 employees from 10 nursing home organizations filled in an online questionnaire between June and September 2020. The questionnaire measured the participants' characteristics, COVID contact, infection and worries, job demands, work functioning, depressive symptoms and burnout. Differences were investigated with multilevel models to account for clustering at the organization level. Of the participants, 19.1% had high levels of depressive symptoms and 22.2% burnout. Job demands, work functioning, depressive symptoms and burnout differed between participants who never worried and participants who often or always worried about the COVID crisis. Differences were smaller for participants with and without COVID contact or infection. Most models improved when clustering was accounted for. Nursing homes should be aware of the impact of COVID worries on job demands, work functioning and mental health, both at the individual and organizational level.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Nursing Staff , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Health , Nursing Homes , Nursing Staff/psychology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613759

ABSTRACT

Social distancing measures imposed because of the COVID-19 pandemic presented challenges to the health and wellbeing of people with dementia, family carers, and healthcare professionals. This study investigated the impact of these measures on all involved in the care for people with dementia. For this qualitative study, 20 family carers and 20 healthcare professionals from home care and long-term care (LTC) participated in a semi-structured interview. Interviews were analysed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. For people with dementia, the social distancing measures resulted in a deterioration of physical health. The impact on their emotional state and behaviour depended on the stage of dementia. Family carers experienced difficulty coping with visiting restrictions, anxiety regarding safety, and changes in carer burden. Healthcare professionals had an increased workload, and felt guilty about adhering to restrictive measures. Differences between home care and LTC were reported (i.e., societal initiatives focussed on LTC, scarcity of activities for community-dwelling people with dementia, use of personal protective equipment more intrusive for home care). The social distancing measures had a negative impact on persons with dementia, their family carers, and healthcare professionals. More attention is needed for community-dwelling people with dementia and family carers in times of social isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e053235, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Nursing homes are hit relatively hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. Dutch long-term care (LTC) organisations installed outbreak teams (OTs) to coordinate COVID-19 infection prevention and control. LTC organisations and relevant national policy organisations expressed the need to share experiences from these OTs that can be applied directly in COVID-19 policy. The aim of the 'COVID-19 management in nursing homes by outbreak teams' (MINUTES) study is to describe the challenges, responses and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Dutch nursing homes. In this first article, we describe the MINUTES Study and present data characteristics. DESIGN: This large-scale multicentre study has a qualitative design using manifest content analysis. The participating organisations shared their OT minutes and other meeting documents on a weekly basis. Data from week 16 (April) to week 53 (December) 2020 included the first two waves of COVID-19. SETTING: National study with 41 large Dutch LTC organisations. PARTICIPANTS: The LTC organisations represented 563 nursing home locations and almost 43 000 residents. RESULTS: At least 36 of the 41 organisations had one or more SARS-CoV-2 infections among their residents. Most OTs were composed of management, medical staff, support services staff, policy advisors and communication specialists. Topics that emerged from the documents were: crisis management, isolation of residents, personal protective equipment and hygiene, staff, residents' well-being, visitor policies, testing and vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: OT meeting minutes are a valuable data source to monitor the impact of and responses to COVID-19 in nursing homes. Depending on the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, data collection and analysis will continue until November 2021. The results are used directly in national and organisational COVID-19 policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 13(1): 291-304, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525643

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe a guidance on the management of post-acute COVID 19 patients in geriatric rehabilitation. METHODS: The guidance is based on guidelines for post-acute COVID-19 geriatric rehabilitation developed in the Netherlands, updated with recent insights from literature, related guidance from other countries and disciplines, and combined with experiences from experts in countries participating in the Geriatric Rehabilitation Special Interest Group of the European Geriatric Medicine Society. RESULTS: This guidance for post-acute COVID-19 rehabilitation is divided into a section addressing general recommendations for geriatric rehabilitation and a section addressing specific processes and procedures. The Sect. "General recommendations for geriatric rehabilitation" addresses: (1) general requirements for post-acute COVID-19 rehabilitation and (2) critical aspects for quality assurance during COVID-19 pandemic. The Sect. "Specific processes and procedures", addresses the following topics: (1) patient selection; (2) admission; (3) treatment; (4) discharge; and (5) follow-up and monitoring. CONCLUSION: Providing tailored geriatric rehabilitation treatment to post-acute COVID-19 patients is a challenge for which the guidance is designed to provide support. There is a strong need for additional evidence on COVID-19 geriatric rehabilitation including developing an understanding of risk profiles of older patients living with frailty to develop individualised treatment regimes. The present guidance will be regularly updated based on additional evidence from practice and research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Geriatrics , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Age Ageing ; 51(1)2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475765

ABSTRACT

Care homes enable people with advanced physical and cognitive impairment to live well with 24-h support from staff. They are a feature of care systems in most countries. They have proved pivotal to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response. We searched Age and Ageing for care-home articles published since 2015. From these we collated 42 into the Age and Ageing care-home collection. This collection draws together important papers that show how Age and Ageing is helping to shape and grow care-home research. The  collection outlines the technical issues that researchers face by grouping together important feasibility trials conducted in the sector. It looks at the challenges of measuring quality of life and working with routine data in care homes. It brings together observational studies considering loneliness, functional dependency, stroke outcomes, prescribing and acute deterioration. Health services research in care homes is represented by two studies that demonstrate realist evaluation as a way to make sense of service innovations. Papers are included that consider: non-pharmacological strategies for residents with dementia, end-of-life care, sexuality and intimacy and the care-home workforce. Given the importance of the COVID-19 pandemic in care homes, all of the care home COVID-19 papers published in Age and Ageing to date are included. Finally, a group of papers that present innovative approaches to research in care homes, each of which give voice to residents and/or staff, are collated and presented as a way of moving towards a more resident and care home centred research agenda.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Aging , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Brain Sci ; 11(7)2021 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325601

ABSTRACT

Observational pain scales can help to identify pain in persons with dementia who may have difficulty expressing pain verbally. The Pain Assessment in Impaired Cognition-15 (PAIC15) covers 15 items that indicate pain, but it is unclear how probable pain is, for each summed score (range 0-45). We aimed to determine sensitivity and specificity of cut-offs for probable pain on the PAIC15 against three standards: (1) self-report when able, (2) the established Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) cut-off of 2, and (3) observer's overall estimate based on a series of systematic observations. We used data of 238 nursing home residents with dementia who were observed by their physician in training or nursing staff in the context of an evidence-based medicine (EBM) training study, with re-assessment after 2 months in 137 residents. The area under the ROC curve was excellent against the PAINAD cut-off (≥0.8) but acceptable or less than acceptable for the other two standards. Across standards and criteria for optimal sensitivity and specificity, PAIC15 scores of 3 and higher represent possible pain for screening in practice, with sensitivity and specificity against self-report in the 0.5 to 0.7 range. While sensitivity for screening in practice may be too low, a cut-off of 4 is reasonable to indicate probable pain in research.

13.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323212

ABSTRACT

The recognition and treatment of pain in nursing home residents presents challenges best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. This approach is also recommended in the applicable Dutch guideline; however, translating guidelines into practical strategies is often difficult in nursing homes. Nevertheless, a better understanding of guideline implementation is key to improving the quality of care. Here we describe and qualitatively evaluate the implementation process of the multidisciplinary guideline 'Recognition and treatment of chronic pain in vulnerable elderly' in a Dutch nursing home. The researchers used interviews and document analyses to study the nursing home's implementation of the guideline. The project team of the nursing home first filled out an implementation matrix to formulate goals based on preferred knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors for the defined target groups. Together with experts and organizations, pharmacotherapy audit meetings were organized, an expert pain team was appointed, a policy document and policy flowchart were prepared, and 'anchor personnel' were assigned to disseminate knowledge amongst professionals. Implementation was partially successful and resulted in a functioning pain team, a pain policy, the selection of preferred measurement instruments, and pain becoming a fixed topic during multidisciplinary meetings. Nevertheless, relatively few professionals were aware of the implementation process.

14.
Age Ageing ; 50(3): 605-607, 2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028708

ABSTRACT

Older multi-morbid persons often fall seriously ill due to COVID-19. To be able to participate in a social life again, they often need special rehabilitation measures. Geriatric rehabilitation is a multi-professional service geared to these needs. Paradoxically, however, capacities in geriatric rehabilitation are currently being reduced despite increasing demand. The reasons are manifold and are not only due to the current situation. This article highlights the current situation leading to the COVID rehabilitation paradox and shows ways to learn from it for the future.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Health Services for the Aged , Aged , Delivery of Health Care , Forecasting , Humans , Pandemics , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nutrire ; 46(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1015910

ABSTRACT

PurposeConsidering the COVID-19 pandemic, vitamin D is a target of research and speculation. Lockdown or home isolation reduces sunlight exposition and increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency. Special attention is needed for older people at risk of both severe forms of COVID-19 and vitamin D deficiency. This review aims to highlight the association of vitamin D and COVID-19 in two instances, the direct influence of vitamin D on the immune system, and the indirect risks for other vitamin D deficiency-related diseases, such as musculoskeletal properties in older persons.MethodsWe performed a narrative review.ResultsWhether vitamin D deficiency is associated with COVID-19 poor prognosis, and if vitamin D supplementation may improve the post-infection outcomes is still unclear. In any case, the pandemic generates indirect burden, such as the sequence: home isolation, low sunlight exposition, vitamin D deficiency, and fragility fractures.ConclusionTherefore, it is time to debate how to optimize vitamin D status in older people, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Trials ; 21(1): 510, 2020 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global health challenge of dementia is exceptional in size, cost and impact. It is the only top ten cause of death that cannot be prevented, cured or substantially slowed, leaving disease management, caregiver support and service innovation as the main targets for reduction of disease burden. Institutionalization of persons with dementia is common in western countries, despite patients preferring to live longer at home, supported by caregivers. Such complex health challenges warrant multicomponent interventions thoroughly implemented in daily clinical practice. This article describes the rationale, development, feasibility testing and implementation process of the LIVE@Home.Path trial. METHODS: The LIVE@Home.Path trial is a 2-year, multicenter, mixed-method, stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial, aiming to include 315 dyads of home-dwelling people with dementia and their caregivers, recruited from 3 municipalities in Norway. The stepped-wedge randomization implies that all dyads receive the intervention, but the timing is determined by randomization. The control group constitutes the dyads waiting for the intervention. The multicomponent intervention was developed in collaboration with user-representatives, researchers and stakeholders to meet the requirements from the national Dementia Plan 2020. During the 6-month intervention period, the participants will be allocated to a municipal coordinator, the core feature of the intervention, responsible for regular contact with the dyads to facilitate L: Learning, I: Innovation, V: Volunteering and E: Empowerment (LIVE). The primary outcome is resource utilization. This is measured by the Resource Utilization in Dementia (RUD) instrument and the Relative Stress Scale (RSS), reflecting that resource utilization is more than the actual time required for caring but also how burdensome the task is experienced by the caregiver. DISCUSSION: We expect the implementation of LIVE to lead to a pathway for dementia treatment and care which is cost-effective, compared to treatment as usual, and will support high-quality independent living, at home. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04043364. Registered on 15 March 2019.


Subject(s)
Caregivers/psychology , Cost of Illness , Critical Pathways , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Activities of Daily Living , Adaptation, Psychological , Aged , Caregivers/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Dementia/economics , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Humans , Institutionalization/statistics & numerical data , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Norway , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
17.
Age Ageing ; 49(5): 701-705, 2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-247828

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected care home residents internationally, with 19-72% of COVID-19 deaths occurring in care homes. COVID-19 presents atypically in care home residents and up to 56% of residents may test positive whilst pre-symptomatic. In this article, we provide a commentary on challenges and dilemmas identified in the response to COVID-19 for care homes and their residents. We highlight the low sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction testing and the difficulties this poses for blanket screening and isolation of residents. We discuss quarantine of residents and the potential harms associated with this. Personal protective equipment supply for care homes during the pandemic has been suboptimal and we suggest that better integration of procurement and supply is required. Advance care planning has been challenged by the pandemic and there is a need to for healthcare staff to provide support to care homes with this. Finally, we discuss measures to implement augmented care in care homes, including treatment with oxygen and subcutaneous fluids, and the frameworks which will be required if these are to be sustainable. All of these challenges must be met by healthcare, social care and government agencies if care home residents and staff are to be physically and psychologically supported during this time of crisis for care homes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Delivery of Health Care , Homes for the Aged , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quarantine , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Health Services Needs and Demand , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Homes for the Aged/standards , Humans , Long-Term Care/methods , Long-Term Care/standards , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Nursing Homes/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Quarantine/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
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