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1.
Chest ; 162(4):A2492-A2493, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060953

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare illness characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the lung parenchyma. Cases often present with fever, severe dyspnea, bilateral infiltrates, and eosinophilia on BAL exams. The cause of eosinophilic pneumonia is unknown, but is thought to be related to inhalational exposure of an irritant or toxin. Most cases are responsive to steroid treatment. This case demonstrates acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a patient who recently recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50 year old female with a history of multiple sclerosis, seizure disorder secondary to MS, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and a distant history of tobacco smoking and opiate dependence on chronic suboxone therapy, presented with dyspnea secondary to respiratory failure. The patient was urged to present by her husband after findings of hypoxia to 79% on room air with cyanosis of the lips and fingers. She recently recovered from COVID-19 1 month prior, at which time she had symptoms of cough productive of red mucus, fever, and exhaustion;but states she never returned to her baseline. With ongoing hypoxia, the patient was intubated for mechanical ventilation. Subsequent bronchoscopy with BAL resulted in a elevated eosinophil count to 76%, with fungal elements and PCR positive for HSV-1. The patient was initiated on high dose glucocorticoid therapy in addition to Acyclovir and Voriconazole. A CT with IV contrast revealed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli involving the segmental and subsegmental branches throughout both lungs and extension into the right pulmonary artery;the patient was started on anticoagulation. Shortly after beginning glucocorticoid therapy, the patient had significant improvement and was able to be weaned off ventilation to simple nasal cannula. She was able to be safely discharged home with two liters of supplemental oxygen and steroid taper. DISCUSSION: Acute Eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare condition with an unknown acute disease process. The diagnostic criteria for acute eosinophilic pneumonia includes: a duration of febrile illness less than one month, hypoxia with an SpO2 <90%, diffuse pulmonary opacities, and otherwise absence of inciting causes of pulmonary eosinophilia (including asthma, atopic disease, or infection). Diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia is attained after meeting clinical criteria with a BAL sample demonstrating an eosinophilia differential of >25%. The mainstay of treatment for this condition is glucocorticoid therapy with most cases resolving rapidly after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than 200 cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia have been reported in medical literature. It is imperative to keep a wide differential as critical illness may be rapidly improved with appropriate therapy. The cause of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is largely unknown, it is unclear what role COVID-19 may have played in the development of this pneumonia. Reference #1: Allen J. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Apr;27(2):142-7. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-939517. PMID: 16612765. Reference #2: Nakagome K, Nagata M. Possible Mechanisms of Eosinophil Accumulation in Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Biomolecules. 2020 Apr 21;10(4):638. doi: 10.3390/biom10040638. PMID: 32326200;PMCID: PMC7226607. Reference #3: Yuzo Suzuki, Takafumi Suda, Eosinophilic pneumonia: A review of the previous literature, causes, diagnosis, and management, Allergology International, Volume 68, Issue 4, 2019, Pages 413-419, ISSN 1323-8930 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Tayler Acton No relevant relationships by Calli Bertschy No relevant relationships by Stewart Caskey No relevant relationships by Shekhar Ghamande No relevant relationships by Tyler Houston No relevant relationships by Zenia Sattar No relevant relationships by Heather Villarreal

2.
Chest ; 162(4):A285, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060550

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Studies on COVID-19 Infections Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Beyond conventional risk factors, studies suggest acute viral infections, including influenza, are a potential risk factor for development of acute cardiovascular (CV) related events such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stroke. On Mar 31st, 2020, the Texas state governor instated a shelter-in-place or quarantine order. With social distancing and masking the exposure respiratory viral illnesses dropped. This study seeks to evaluate the impact of reduced viral infections on CV related events. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients admitted to 18 affiliated Baylor Scott & White Texas hospitals in north and central Texas from January 20th, 2020 to Jun 1st, 2020 and between January 20th, 2019 to Jun 1st, 2019. We defined the pre-quarantine period as January 20, 2020 – March 31, 2020. The quarantine period was defined as April 1, 2020 – Jun 1st, 2020. We investigated ACS and stroke risk associated with lab-confirmed respiratory virus panel- PCR (RVP) positivity using a self-controlled case series. RVP positivity was reviewed to determine the presence or absence of increased risk interval. Risk intervals were identified as 7 days after respiratory specimen collection and associated control intervals were one year before and one year after the risk intervals. RESULTS: There were 3,782 patients who had ACS or stroke from January 20th, 2020 to June 1st, 2020. Average monthly rate of positive viral infection was significantly lower during the state mandate social distancing period than before social distancing mandate (5.5 ± 4.6 vs 19.7 ± 4.2, p<0.0001). During the prequarantine period, for stroke, there was a significant difference in positive RVP between the prequarantine and quarantine period (10.8% vs 0%, P=0.009). For ACS, there was a significant difference in positive RVP between the prequarantine and quarantine period (16.2% vs 1%, P<0.001). Rhinovirus infections accounted for 67% of patients of stroke prequarantine. Influenza accounted for 40% of infections in patients with ACS. Admissions for CV related events were higher in the pre-quarantine period compared to the quarantine period (893 vs 695 strokes;1,227 vs 967 ACS). Patients in the pre-quarantine and quarantine were similar in age and gender. For stroke, there was no significant difference in the type of stroke between the two time periods with ischemic stroke occurring in 67% of patients. For ACS, there was no significant difference in type with non ST-elevation MI occurring in 44% of patients. There was no statistical difference of survival to discharge or readmission at 30 days between the two periods. CONCLUSIONS: In our multicenter study, we note significant decline in cardiovascular events due to viral illness. This study strengthens the association between viral infections and cardiovascular events. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study reveals implications of cardiovascular events following viral illness. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Tayler Acton no disclosure on file for Alex Arroliga;No relevant relationships by Jason Ettlinger No relevant relationships by Shekhar Ghamande No relevant relationships by Mufaddal Mamawala No relevant relationships by Abirami Subramanian No relevant relationships by Heath White

3.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880914
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