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Mol Med Rep ; 26(5)2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055488


COVID­19 patients with severe infection have been observed to have elevated auto­antibodies (AAs) against angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) and endothelin (ET) 1 receptor type A (ETAR), compared with healthy controls and patients with favorable (mild) infection. AT1R and ETAR are G protein­coupled receptors, located on vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, immune and endothelial cells, and are activated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and ET1 respectively. AAs that are specific for these receptors have a functional role similar to the natural ligands, but with a more prolonged vasoconstrictive effect. They also induce the production of fibroblast collagen, the release of reactive oxygen species and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (including IL­6, IL­8 and TNF­α) by immune cells. Despite the presence of AAs in severe COVID­19 infected patients, their contribution and implication in the severity of the disease is still not well understood and further studies are warranted. The present review described the major vascular homeostasis systems [ET and renin­angiotensin­aldosterone system (RAAS)], the vital regulative role of nitric oxide, the AAs, and finally the administration of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), so as to provide more insight into the interplay that exists among these components and their contribution to the severity, prognosis and possible treatment of COVID­19.

COVID-19 , Vascular Diseases , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Collagen , Endothelial Cells , Endothelins , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Nitric Oxide , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Receptor, Endothelin A , Receptors, Angiotensin , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Exp Ther Med ; 22(4): 1162, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377025


Since its outbreak, in December, 2019, in the Chinese city of Wuhan, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into an ongoing global pandemic. Due to the novel antigenic properties of this virus, the world population could not develop immunity effectively and this led to the subsequent spread of COVID-19. This caused an unprecedented emergency situation with significant negative effects on health and well-being both on an individual and societal level. Apart from health, economic and social consequences, the impact of this pandemic on mental health is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. The present review aimed to provide a comprehensive discussion of the possible neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, together with the related underlying molecular pathways. In addition, the present review focused on populations which are at a higher risk of developing psychiatric disturbances due to the COVID-19 pandemic and discussed possible routes of clinical management and therapeutics to minimize the burden associated with psychiatric disorders. Moreover, research findings exploring the prevalence of COVID-19-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms across vulnerable groups, including children, adolescents and COVID-19 survivors are presented, with particular emphasis on those with severe disease who required hospitalization and/or intensive care unit admission. Based on the available literature, the identification of potential determinants associated with PTSD across the different populations is underlined. Lessons learnt from the pandemics across the globe together with the ongoing research on COVID-19 and its impact on mental health, highlight the utmost importance for evidence-based, proactive and targeted interventions in high-risk groups aiming to mitigate the risks and manage vulnerabilities.