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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1167, 2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections are among the main causes of death. Although there are many respiratory viruses, diagnostic efforts are focused mainly on influenza. The Respiratory Viruses Network (RespVir) collects infection data, primarily from German university hospitals, for a high diversity of infections by respiratory pathogens. In this study, we computationally analysed a subset of the RespVir database, covering 217,150 samples tested for 17 different viral pathogens in the time span from 2010 to 2019. METHODS: We calculated the prevalence of 17 respiratory viruses, analysed their seasonality patterns using information-theoretic measures and agglomerative clustering, and analysed their propensity for dual infection using a new metric dubbed average coinfection exclusion score (ACES). RESULTS: After initial data pre-processing, we retained 206,814 samples, corresponding to 1,408,657 performed tests. We found that Influenza viruses were reported for almost the half of all infections and that they exhibited the highest degree of seasonality. Coinfections of viruses are frequent; the most prevalent coinfection was rhinovirus/bocavirus and most of the virus pairs had a positive ACES indicating a tendency to exclude each other regarding infection. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of respiratory viruses dynamics in monoinfection and coinfection contributes to the prevention, diagnostic, treatment, and development of new therapeutics. Data obtained from multiplex testing is fundamental for this analysis and should be prioritized over single pathogen testing.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Rhinovirus , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
2.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135329

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is an important prophylactic measure in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), however, the immune response is often impaired. Here, we examined the T cell immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in 148 KTRs after three or four vaccine doses including 35 KTRs with subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The frequency of spike-specific T cells was lower in KTRs compared to immunocompetent controls and correlated with the level of spike-specific antibodies. Positive predictors for detection of vaccine-induced T cells were detection of spike-specific antibodies, heterologous immunization with mRNA and a vector vaccine and longer time past transplant. In vaccinated KTRs with subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection, the T-cell response was greatly enhanced and was significantly higher than in vaccinated KTRs without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, the data show a correlation between impaired humoral and T-cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and provide evidence for greater robustness of hybrid immunity in KTRs.

3.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 255, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presentation of peptides and the subsequent immune response depend on the MHC characteristics and influence the specificity of the immune response. Several studies have found an association between HLA variants and differential COVID-19 outcomes and have shown that HLA genotypes are associated with differential immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, particularly in severely ill patients. Information, whether HLA haplotypes are associated with the severity or length of the disease in moderately diseased individuals is absent. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing-based HLA typing was performed in 303 female and 231 male non-hospitalized North Rhine Westphalian patients infected with SARS-CoV2 during the first and second wave. For HLA-Class I, we obtained results from 528 patients, and for HLA-Class II from 531. In those patients, who became ill between March 2020 and January 2021, the 22 most common HLA-Class I (HLA-A, -B, -C) or HLA-Class II (HLA -DRB1/3/4, -DQA1, -DQB1) haplotypes were determined. The identified HLA haplotypes as well as the presence of a CCR5Δ32 mutation and number of O and A blood group alleles were associated to disease severity and duration of the disease. RESULTS: The influence of the HLA haplotypes on disease severity and duration was more pronounced than the influence of age, sex, or ABO blood group. These associations were sex dependent. The presence of mutated CCR5 resulted in a longer recovery period in males. CONCLUSION: The existence of certain HLA haplotypes is associated with more severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/genetics , HLA-DQ Antigens/genetics , Prognosis , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , HLA-DRB1 Chains
4.
Frontiers in aging ; 3, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2092781

ABSTRACT

We provide follow-up data on the humoral immune response after COVID-19 vaccinations of two distinct cohorts aged below 60 and over 80 years to screen for age-related differences in the longevity and magnitude of the induction of the antibody responses post booster-vaccinations. While anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG and neutralization capacity waned rapidly after the initial vaccination schedule, additional boosters highly benefitted the humoral immune responses especially in the elderly cohort, including the neutralization of Omikron variants. Thus, adjusted COVID-19 booster vaccination schedules are an appropriate tool to overcome limitations in the success of vaccinations.

5.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 105(1): 115800, 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004017

ABSTRACT

Molecular testing of SARS-CoV-2 RNA is essential during the pandemic. Here, we compared the results of different respiratory specimens including anterior nasal swabs, pharyngeal swabs, saliva swabs, and gargle lavage samples to nasopharyngeal swabs on two automated SARS-CoV-2 test systems. Samples were collected and tested simultaneously from a total of 36 hospitalized symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Detection and quantification of SARS-CoV-2 was performed on cobas®6800 (Roche) and NeuMoDx™ (Qiagen) systems. Both assays showed reliable detection and quantification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, with nasopharyngeal swabs showing the highest sensitivity. SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in other respiratory specimens were lower (mean 2.5 log10 copies/ml) or even undetectable in up to 20%. These data clearly indicate that not all respiratory materials are equally suitable for the management of hospitalized patients, especially, in the late phase of COVID-19, when the viral phase subsides and inflammation becomes the predominant factor, making detection of even lower viral loads increasingly important.

6.
Clin Transplant ; : e14790, 2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001623

ABSTRACT

Modification of vaccination strategies is necessary to improve the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). This multicenter observational study analyzed the effects of the third SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in previously seronegative KTRs with the focus on temporary mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) dose reduction within propensity matched KTRs. 56 out of 174 (32%) previously seronegative KTRs became seropositive after the third vaccination with only three KTRs developing neutralizing antibodies against the omicron variant. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that initial antibody levels, graft function, time after transplantation and MMF trough levels had an influence on seroconversion (P < .05). After controlling for confounders, the effect of MMF dose reduction before the third vaccination was calculated using propensity score matching. KTRs with a dose reduction of ≥33% showed a significant decrease in MMF trough levels to 1.8 (1.2-2.5) µg/ml and were more likely to seroconvert than matched controls (P = .02). Therefore, a MMF dose reduction of 33% or more before vaccination is a promising approach to improve success of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in KTRs.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917858

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We describe a diagnostic procedure suitable for scheduling (re-)vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) according to individual state of humoral immunization. METHODS: To clarify the relation between quantitative antibody measurements and humoral ex vivo immune responsiveness, we monitored 124 individuals before, during and six months after vaccination with Spikevax (Moderna, Cambridge, MA, USA). Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) protein receptor-binding domain (S1-AB) and against nucleocapsid antigens were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay (Roche). Virus-neutralizing activities were determined by surrogate assays (NeutraLISA, Euroimmune; cPass, GenScript). Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture (full virus NT) served as an ex vivo correlate for humoral immune responsiveness. RESULTS: Vaccination responses varied considerably. Six months after the second vaccination, participants still positive for the full virus NT were safely determined by S1-AB levels ≥1000 U/mL. The full virus NT-positive fraction of participants with S1-AB levels <1000 U/mL was identified by virus-neutralizing activities >70% as determined by surrogate assays (NeutraLISA or cPas). Participants that were full virus NT-negative and presumably insufficiently protected could thus be identified by a sensitivity of >83% and a specificity of >95%. CONCLUSION: The described diagnostic strategy possibly supports individualized (re-)vaccination schedules based on simple and rapid measurement of serum-based SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels. Our data apply only to WUHAN-type SARS-CoV-2 virus and the current version of the mRNA vaccine from Moderna (Cambridge, MA, USA). Adaptation to other vaccines and more recent SARS-CoV-2 strains will require modification of cut-offs and re-evaluation of sensitivity/specificity.

8.
J Virol Methods ; 307: 114569, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895294

ABSTRACT

Determination of neutralizing antibody titers is still considered the gold standard for infection protection. A full virus neutralization test (VNT) with replication-competent, infectious SARS-CoV-2, is labor-intensive and requires Biosafety Level 3 certified laboratories. Therefore, several commercial SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization tests (sVNTs) have been developed that aim to detect neutralizing antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike glycoprotein (S). Neutralizing antibodies to the RBD block its interaction with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor protein. Here, we compared a full virus neutralization test (VNT) with two SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization tests (sVNT) and validated them in two cohorts of i) convalescent SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals and ii) COVID vaccinated individuals. The sVNTs showed highly different results both, compared to the VNT-titers and also between the two cohorts. This indicates that currently, sVNT provide a qualitative instead of a quantitative measurement of neutralizing antibodies. The findings in this work show that the cutoff levels for sVNTs might need to be readjusted for convalescent and vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
9.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(5)2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810078

ABSTRACT

The C30 endopeptidase (3C-like protease; 3CLpro) is essential for the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2) since it plays a pivotal role in viral replication and transcription and, hence, is a promising drug target. Molecules isolated from animals, insects, plants, or microorganisms can serve as a scaffold for the design of novel biopharmaceutical products. Crotamine, a small cationic peptide from the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, has been the focus of many studies since it exhibits activities such as analgesic, in vitro antibacterial, and hemolytic activities. The crotamine derivative L-peptides (L-CDP) that inhibit the 3CL protease in the low µM range were examined since they are susceptible to proteolytic degradation; we explored the utility of their D-enantiomers form. Comparative uptake inhibition analysis showed D-CDP as a promising prototype for a D-peptide-based drug. We also found that the D-peptides can impair SARS-CoV-2 replication in vivo, probably targeting the viral protease 3CLpro.

10.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 840008, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792984

ABSTRACT

Background: In children and adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI), elevations of serum liver enzyme activities are frequently observed in clinical practice. However, epidemiological data particularly in the pediatric population are very limited. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of hepatic involvement, to identify the viruses and to analyze risk factors in children and adolescents with ARTI in a real-world setting. Methods: We report on a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional study with 1,010 consecutive patients aged 1-17 years with ARTI who consulted a physician within 5 days after onset of symptoms. Laboratory blood tests and PCR virus detection in nasopharyngeal lavage were performed at first presentation and after 3-7 days. Patients with elevated activities of serum liver enzymes (ASAT, ALAT, and γ-GT) were determined in local laboratories and values were normalized by dividing by the individual upper limit of the normal range (ULN). The resulting index (<1 means below ULN, >1 means above ULN) allowed to compare results from laboratories with different reference ranges. Results: Laboratory test results of 987 patients were available at first visit. 11.1% (95% CI: 9.2-13.3%) exhibited an elevation of ASAT, ALAT, and/or γ-GT activities. Virus DNA or RNA was identified in nasopharyngeal lavages of 63% of the patients. 12.2% of patients with positive PCR and 9.7% of those with negative PCR (p = 0.25) had elevated serum liver enzyme activities. The highest rates were observed in patients with a positive result for influenza B virus (24.4%) followed by human metapneumovirus (14.6%), and human coronavirus (others than SARS-CoV-2) (13.6%). The rate of children and adolescents with ARTI and elevation of serum liver enzyme activities correlated with the virus species and with overweight of the patients but did not differ in patients with or without previous medication intake. Conclusion: Elevated enzyme activities are present in about 10% of children and adolescents with ARTI. In our cohort, these elevations were mild to moderate; probably resulting from an inflammation process with hepatic involvement.

11.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787243

ABSTRACT

Background In children and adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI), elevations of serum liver enzyme activities are frequently observed in clinical practice. However, epidemiological data particularly in the pediatric population are very limited. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of hepatic involvement, to identify the viruses and to analyze risk factors in children and adolescents with ARTI in a real-world setting. Methods We report on a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional study with 1,010 consecutive patients aged 1–17 years with ARTI who consulted a physician within 5 days after onset of symptoms. Laboratory blood tests and PCR virus detection in nasopharyngeal lavage were performed at first presentation and after 3–7 days. Patients with elevated activities of serum liver enzymes (ASAT, ALAT, and γ-GT) were determined in local laboratories and values were normalized by dividing by the individual upper limit of the normal range (ULN). The resulting index (<1 means below ULN, >1 means above ULN) allowed to compare results from laboratories with different reference ranges. Results Laboratory test results of 987 patients were available at first visit. 11.1% (95% CI: 9.2–13.3%) exhibited an elevation of ASAT, ALAT, and/or γ-GT activities. Virus DNA or RNA was identified in nasopharyngeal lavages of 63% of the patients. 12.2% of patients with positive PCR and 9.7% of those with negative PCR (p = 0.25) had elevated serum liver enzyme activities. The highest rates were observed in patients with a positive result for influenza B virus (24.4%) followed by human metapneumovirus (14.6%), and human coronavirus (others than SARS-CoV-2) (13.6%). The rate of children and adolescents with ARTI and elevation of serum liver enzyme activities correlated with the virus species and with overweight of the patients but did not differ in patients with or without previous medication intake. Conclusion Elevated enzyme activities are present in about 10% of children and adolescents with ARTI. In our cohort, these elevations were mild to moderate;probably resulting from an inflammation process with hepatic involvement.

12.
Kidney360 ; 2(9): 1491-1498, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776854

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with kidney failure on dialysis or after renal transplantation have a high risk for severe COVID-19 infection, and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is the only expedient prophylaxis. Generally, immune responses are attenuated in patients with kidney failure, however, systematic analyses of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients on dialysis and in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are still needed. Methods: In this prospective, multicentric cohort study, antibody responses to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 [BioNTech/Pfizer] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) were measured in 32 patients on dialysis and in 28 KTRs. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and neutralization capacity were evaluated and compared with controls (n=78) of a similar age range. Results: After the first vaccination, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were nearly undetectable in patients with kidney failure. After the second vaccination, 93% of the controls and 88% of patients on dialysis but only 37% of KTRs developed SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG above cutoff. Moreover, mean IgG levels were significantly lower in KTRs (54±93 BAU/ml) compared with patients on dialysis (503±481 BAU/ml; P<0.01). Both KTRs and patients on dialysis had significantly lower IgG levels compared with controls (1992±2485 BAU/ml; P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively). Importantly, compared with controls, neutralizing antibody titers were significantly lower in KTRs and patients on dialysis. After the second vaccination, 76% of KTRs did not show any neutralization capacity against SARS-CoV-2, suggesting impaired seroprotection. Conclusions: Patients with kidney failure show a significantly weaker antibody response compared with controls. Most strikingly, only one out of four KTRs developed neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 after two doses of vaccine. These data suggest that vaccination strategies need modification in KTRs and patients on dialysis.Clinical Trial registry name and registration number: Vaccination Against COVID-19 in Chronic Kidney Disease, NCT04743947.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunity , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(3): 1096-1103, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718376

ABSTRACT

We used enzyme-linked immunoassay methods to measure the prevalence and the levels of antibody responses to the nucleocapsid (N) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and four seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV 229E, and HCoV-NL63) in a cohort of 115 convalescent plasma donors infected with SARS-CoV-2 (1-61 days after symptom onset) compared to antibody levels in 114 individuals with no evidence of a recent infection with SARS-CoV-2. In the humoral response to the four seasonal coronaviruses, only HCoV-HKU1- and HCoV-229E-assays showed slightly elevated antibody levels in the COVID group compared to the control group. While in the COVID-group the levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies correlated significantly with disease severity, no association was found in the levels of antibodies against the seasonal coronaviruses. The most striking result in both groups was that the levels of antibodies against all tested coronaviruses, including the new SARS-CoV-2 showed a highly significant correlation with each other. There seems to be an individual predisposition to a weaker or stronger humoral immune response against all known seasonal human coronaviruses including the new SARS-CoV-2, which could lead to a definition of low and high responders against human coronaviruses with potential impact on the assessment of postinfection antibody levels and protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , COVID-19/therapy , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2065-2072, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has led to the development of various vaccines. Real-life data on immune responses elicited in the most vulnerable group of vaccinees older than age 80 years old are still underrepresented despite the prioritization of the elderly in vaccination campaigns. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study with 2 age groups, young vaccinees below the age of 60 years and elderly vaccinees over the age of 80 years, to compare their antibody responses to the first and second dose of the BNT162b2 coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination. RESULTS: Although the majority of participants in both groups produced specific immunoglobulin G antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, titers were significantly lower in elderly participants. Although the increment of antibody levels after the second immunization was higher in elderly participants, the absolute mean titer of this group remained lower than the <60 years of age group. After the second vaccination, 31.3% of the elderly had no detectable neutralizing antibodies in contrast to the younger group, in which only 2.2% had no detectable neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed differences between the antibody responses raised after the first and second BNT162b2 vaccination, in particular lower frequencies of neutralizing antibodies in the elderly group. This suggests that this population needs to be closely monitored and may require earlier revaccination and/or an increased vaccine dose to ensure stronger long-lasting immunity and protection against infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 746644, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497092

ABSTRACT

Prophylactic vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is one of the most important measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, break-through infections following vaccination against this virus have been reported. Here, we describe the humoral immune response of break-through infections in fully vaccinated individuals of old age from an outbreak in a nursing home. In cooperation with the local health authority, blood samples from fully vaccinated and infected as well as fully vaccinated and uninfected residents of the nursing home were collected 4 weeks after the onset of the outbreak. The humoral immune response was determined in a neutralisation assay with replication-competent virus isolates and by a quantitative ELISA. In this outbreak a total of 23 residents and four health care workers were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Four residents were unvaccinated, including one with a severe course of disease who later severe disease course who later succumbed to infection. Despite their old age, all vaccinated residents showed no or only mild disease. Comparison of the humoral immune response revealed significantly higher antibody levels in fully vaccinated infected individuals compared to fully vaccinated uninfected individuals (p < 0.001). Notably, although only a minority of the vaccinated uninfected group showed neutralisation capacity against SARS-CoV-2, all vaccinated and infected individuals showed high-titre neutralisation of SARS-CoV-2 including the alpha and beta variant. Large SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks can occur in fully vaccinated populations, but seem to associate with mild disease. SARS-CoV-2 infection in fully vaccinated individuals is a strong booster of the humoral immune response providing enhanced neutralisation capacity against immune evasion variants.

16.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(10): e1009928, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484868

ABSTRACT

Non-specific protective effects of certain vaccines have been reported, and long-term boosting of innate immunity, termed trained immunity, has been proposed as one of the mechanisms mediating these effects. Several epidemiological studies suggested cross-protection between influenza vaccination and COVID-19. In a large academic Dutch hospital, we found that SARS-CoV-2 infection was less common among employees who had received a previous influenza vaccination: relative risk reductions of 37% and 49% were observed following influenza vaccination during the first and second COVID-19 waves, respectively. The quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine induced a trained immunity program that boosted innate immune responses against various viral stimuli and fine-tuned the anti-SARS-CoV-2 response, which may result in better protection against COVID-19. Influenza vaccination led to transcriptional reprogramming of monocytes and reduced systemic inflammation. These epidemiological and immunological data argue for potential benefits of influenza vaccination against COVID-19, and future randomized trials are warranted to test this possibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cross Protection/physiology , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Imidazoles/immunology , Incidence , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Netherlands/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital , Poly I-C/immunology , Proteomics , Risk Factors , Sequence Analysis, RNA
17.
Am J Transplant ; 22(2): 634-639, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434623

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are extremely vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and show an impaired immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We analyzed factors related to vaccination efficiency in KTRs. In a multicenter prospective observational study (NCT04743947), IgG antibodies levels against SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 subunit and their neutralization capacity after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were analyzed in 225 KTRs and compared to 176 controls. After the vaccination, 56 (24.9%) KTRs became seropositive of whom 68% had neutralizing antibodies. This immune response was significantly lower compared to controls (239 [78-519] BAU/ml versus 1826 [560-3180] BAU/ml for KTRs and controls, p < .0001). The strongest predictor for an impaired response was mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) treatment. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that MMF-free regimen was highly associated with seroconversion (OR 13.25, 95% CI 3.22-54.6; p < .001). In contrast, other immunosuppressive drugs had no significant influence. 187 out of 225 KTRs were treated with MMF of whom 26 (13.9%) developed antibodies. 23 of these seropositive KTRs had a daily MMF dose ≤1 g. Furthermore, higher trough MMF concentrations correlated with lower antibody titers (R -0.354, p < .001) supporting a dose-dependent unfavorable effect of MMF. Our data indicate that MMF dose modification could lead to an improved immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination
18.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 107, 2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, the pandemic disease caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, may take highly variable clinical courses, ranging from symptom-free and pauci-symptomatic to fatal disease. The goal of the current study was to assess the association of COVID-19 clinical courses controlled by patients' adaptive immune responses without progression to severe disease with patients' Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genetics, AB0 blood group antigens, and the presence or absence of near-loss-of-function delta 32 deletion mutant of the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5). PATIENT AND METHODS: An exploratory observational study including 157 adult COVID-19 convalescent patients was performed with a median follow-up of 250 days. The impact of different HLA genotypes, AB0 blood group antigens, and the CCR5 mutant CD195 were investigated for their role in the clinical course of COVID-19. In addition, this study addressed levels of severity and morbidity of COVID-19. The association of the immunogenetic background parameters were further related to patients' humoral antiviral immune response patterns by longitudinal observation. RESULTS: Univariate HLA analyses identified putatively protective HLA alleles (HLA class II DRB1*01:01 and HLA class I B*35:01, with a trend for DRB1*03:01). They were associated with reduced durations of disease instead decreased (rather than increased) total anti-S IgG levels. They had a higher virus neutralizing capacity compared to non-carriers. Conversely, analyses also identified HLA alleles (HLA class II DQB1*03:02 und HLA class I B*15:01) not associated with such benefit in the patient cohort of this study. Hierarchical testing by Cox regression analyses confirmed the significance of the protective effect of the HLA alleles identified (when assessed in composite) in terms of disease duration, whereas AB0 blood group antigen heterozygosity was found to be significantly associated with disease severity (rather than duration) in our cohort. A suggestive association of a heterozygous CCR5 delta 32 mutation status with prolonged disease duration was implied by univariate analyses but could not be confirmed by hierarchical multivariate testing. CONCLUSION: The current study shows that the presence of HLA class II DRB1*01:01 and HLA class I B*35:01 is of even stronger association with reduced disease duration in mild and moderate COVID-19 than age or any other potential risk factor assessed. Prospective studies in larger patient populations also including novel SARS-CoV-2 variants will be required to assess the impact of HLA genetics on the capacity of mounting protective vaccination responses in the future.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , COVID-19/etiology , HLA Antigens/genetics , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Mutation , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Transfusion ; 60(6): 1119-1122, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388414

ABSTRACT

Oral swabs, sputum, and blood samples from 18 asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were examined using RT-PCR testing in order to assess the risk of transfusion-related transmission. In asymptomatic patients as well as patients with flu-like symptoms and fever, no SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected in the blood or serum despite a clearly positive result in all throat swabs. As patients with symptoms of infectious disease will not be admitted to blood donation, the risk for transfusion transmission of SARS-CoV-2 seems to be negligible.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Donors , Blood Safety , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Donor Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transfusion Reaction/virology , Young Adult
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 645989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389177

ABSTRACT

We describe the unique disease course and cure of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient with SCID and graft failure. In absence of a humoral immune response, viral clearance was only achieved after transfusion of convalescent plasma. This observation underscores the necessity of the humoral immune response for SARS-CoV-2 clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/complications , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Graft Rejection/complications , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/immunology , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/virology , Sustained Virologic Response , Viral Load , Virus Replication
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