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1.
Tanaffos ; 19(4):274-290, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057731

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel form of the coronavirus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). SARS-CoV-2 raised in China and has broadcast to 261 countries globally. SARS-CoV-2 a member of beta-coronavirus family and has an almost matching genome sequence to a bat coronavirus, pointing to the bat as the natural host before it was transmitted to humans. SARS-CoV-2 uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that used by SARS-CoV and principally infects the respiratory tract. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough and fatigue whilst small populations of patients have gastrointestinal symptoms. The old people and people with underlying metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are more affected to infection and have worse outcomes. These may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and a cytokine storm. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of disease and the pharmacologic approaches that may control COVID-19. Copyright ©2020 NRITLD, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Iran.

2.
Tanaffos ; 20(4):294-295, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012086
3.
European Respiratory Journal ; 58:2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1703292
4.
European Respiratory Journal ; 58:2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1702939
5.
PUBMED; 2020.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-292827

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has led to a worldwide pandemic. One week after initial symptoms develop, a subset of patients progresses to severe disease, with high mortality and limited treatment options. To design novel interventions aimed at preventing spread of the virus and reducing progression to severe disease, detailed knowledge of the cell types and regulating factors driving cellular entry is urgently needed. Here we assess the expression patterns in genes required for COVID-19 entry into cells and replication, and their regulation by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors, throughout the respiratory tract using samples collected from the upper (nasal) and lower airways (bronchi). Matched samples from the upper and lower airways show a clear increased expression of these genes in the nose compared to the bronchi and parenchyma. Cellular deconvolution indicates a clear association of these genes with the proportion of secretory epithelial cells. Smoking status was found to increase the majority of COVID-19 related genes including ACE2 and TMPRSS2 but only in the lower airways, which was associated with a significant increase in the predicted proportion of goblet cells in bronchial samples of current smokers. Both acute and second hand smoke were found to increase ACE2 expression in the bronchus. Inhaled corticosteroids decrease ACE2 expression in the lower airways. No significant effect of genetics on ACE2 expression was observed, but a strong association of DNA- methylation with ACE2 and TMPRSS2- mRNA expression was identified in the bronchus.

6.
TANAFFOS Journal of Respiratory Disease, Thoracic Surgery, Intensive Care and Tuberculosis ; 19(4):274-290, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1217260

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel form of the coronavirus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). SARS-CoV- 2 raised in China and has broadcast to 261 countries globally. SARS-CoV-2 a member of beta-coronavirus family and has an almost matching genome sequence to a bat coronavirus, pointing to the bat as the natural host before it was transmitted to humans. SARS-CoV-2 uses the same receptor, angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that used by SARS-CoV and principally infects the respiratory tract. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough and fatigue whilst small populations of patients have gastrointestinal symptoms. The old people and people with underlying metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are more affected to infection and have worse outcomes. These may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and a cytokine storm. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of disease and the pharmacologic approaches that may control COVID-19.

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