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1.
Molecular Frontiers Journal ; 6(1n02), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2194056

ABSTRACT

A link between outdoor pollution of particulate matter (PM) and the mortality from COVID-19 disease has been reported. The potential interaction of SARS-CoV2 emitted from an infected subject in the form of droplets or as an aerosol with PM2.5 (PM of 2.5 μm or less in aerodynamic diameter) may modulate SARS-CoV2 replication and infectivity. This may represent an important airborne route of transmission, which could lead to pneumonia and a poor outcome from COVID-19. Further studies are needed to assess the potential infectivity and severity of such transmission.

2.
Atmosphere ; 13(12):2067, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2154879

ABSTRACT

Indoor, airborne, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is a key infection route. We monitored fourteen different indoor spaces in order to assess the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. PM2.5 and CO2 concentrations were simultaneously monitored in order to understand aerosol exposure and ventilation conditions. Average PM2.5 concentrations were highest in the underground station (261 ±62.8 μgm-3), followed by outpatient and emergency rooms in hospitals located near major arterial roads (38.6 ±20.4 μgm-3), the respiratory wards, medical day units and intensive care units recorded concentrations in the range of 5.9 to 1.1 μgm-3. Mean CO2 levels across all sites did not exceed 1000 ppm, the respiratory ward (788 ±61 ppm) and the pub (bar) (744 ±136 ppm) due to high occupancy. The estimated air change rates implied that there is sufficient ventilation in these spaces to manage increased levels of occupancy. The infection probability in the medical day unit of hospital 3, was 1.6-times and 2.2-times higher than the emergency and outpatient waiting rooms in hospitals 4 and 5, respectively. The temperature and relative humidity recorded at most sites was below 27 °C, and 40% and, in sites with high footfall and limited air exchange, such as the hospital medical day unit, indicate a high risk of airborne SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

3.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2125115

ABSTRACT

Introduction COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) still causes a high rate of death globally with no definite curative treatment described. The traditional plant Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a good source of gamma-linolenic (GLA). We hypothesized that Borage plus syrup (BPS) would be beneficial in severe COVID-19 patients within an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Materials and methods A pilot single center, randomized trial with no placebo was undertaken. A total of 60 PCR-positive severe COVID-19 participants admitted to ICU from June 2020–December 2020 at Masih Daneshvari Hospital Tehran-Iran gave informed consent. The participants were randomly assigned to either Borage Plus Syrup (BPS, 5 ml for 5 days) (n = 30) or standard care (IFN-β and favipiravir) as a control group (n = 30). Pao2/Fio2, serum ferritin, CRP, bilirubin, IL-6, TNF-α, ALT, AST, PCT and serum IL-8 was measured upon admission and on release. Results All the measured parameters decreased significantly with BPS treatment. In the control group, most parameters significantly improved apart from AST and PCT. In addition, the suppression of serum TNF levels in the BPS group was greater than that seen in the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the length of ICU stay was significantly lower in the BPS group compared with the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion Our study shows that addition of BPS to the standard treatment regime of COVID-19 patients in ICU improved outcomes and reduced the length of ICU treatment. Natural products could be considered as new approaches for reducting the harmful consequences of COVID-19.

4.
Tanaffos ; 20(4):294-295, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073477
5.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 21(4): 467-477, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025954

ABSTRACT

The cytokine storm and lymphopenia are reported in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) exist in two different forms, granulocyte (G-MDSCs) and monocytic (M-MDSCs), that both suppress T-cell function. In COVID-19, the role of chemokines such as interleukin (IL)-8 in recruiting MDSCs is unclear. A recent report has correlated IL-8 and MDSCs with poor clinical outcomes in melanoma patients. In the current study, we evaluated the frequency of MDSCs and their correlation with serum IL-8 levels in severe COVID-19 patients from Iran. Thirty-seven severe patients (8 on ventilation, 29 without ventilation), thirteen moderate COVID-19 patients, and eight healthy subjects participated in this study between 10th April 2020 and 9th March 2021. Clinical and biochemical features, serum, and whole blood were obtained. CD14, CD15, CD11b, and HLA-DR expression on MDSCs was measured by flow cytometry. COVID-19 patients compared to healthy subjects had a greater frequency of M-MDSCs (12.7±13.3% vs 0.19±0.20%,), G-MDSCs (15.8±12.6% vs 0.35±0.40%,) and total-MDSCs (27.5±17.3% vs 0.55±0.41%,). M-MDSC (16.8±15.8% vs 5.4±4.8%,) and total-MDSC (33.3±18.5% vs 17.3±13.3%) frequency was higher in non- ventilated compared to moderate COVID-19 subjects. Serum IL-8 levels were higher in patients with COVID-19 than in normal healthy subjects (6.4±7.8 vs. 0.10±00 pg/mL). Ventilated patients (15.7±6.7 pg/mL), non-ventilated patients (5.7±2.7 pg/mL) and moderate patients (2.8±3.0 pg/mL) had significantly different levels of IL-8.  A negative correlation was found between the frequency of G-MDSCs and the international normalized ratio (INR) test (r=-0.39), and between the frequency of total-MDSCs and oxygen saturation (%) (r=-0.39). COVID-19 patients with severe non-ventilated disease had the highest levels of M-MDSCs. In addition to systemic MDSCs, lung, serum IL-8, and other inflammatory biomarkers should be measured.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-8 , Iran/epidemiology
6.
Minerva Med ; 113(3): 449-459, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979878

ABSTRACT

There is no justification for a therapeutic nihilism in clinical practice because current management (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to treatable traits is effective in decreasing their respiratory symptoms, increasing their exercise tolerance and capacity, improving their quality of life, preventing (and treating) many of their exacerbations and decreasing their mortality.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Quality of Life , Disease Progression , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
7.
Heliyon ; 8(2): e08957, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Circulating soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE2)2, the main receptor for SARS-CoV-2, together with components of the renin-angiotensin system promote infection and disease severity. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study followed the time-course of sACE2 levels in relation to systemic cytokines in severe and moderate COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir/dexamethasone in combination. METHODS: Peripheral blood was obtained upon admission from 30 patients (12 with moderate disease and 18 with severe disease) and 14 patients with PCR-confirmed mild COVID-19. Severe and moderate patients were treated with remdesivir (200mg/first day and 100mg/day for the remaining days) and dexamethasone (100mg/day). 6 healthy control subjects (HC) were also enrolled. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 and sACE2 levels were measured by ELISA at baseline and during treatment in severe and moderate patients and at baseline in mild and HCs. RESULTS: Baseline sACE2 levels were lower in severe (p = 0.0005) and moderate (p = 0.0022) patients than in patients with mild COVID-19 and in HC (p = 0.0023 and p = 0.0012 respectively). Treatment significantly increased sACE2 levels in patients with moderate disease (p = 0.0156) but only 50% of patients with severe disease showed enhanced levels compared to baseline. Systemic IL-6 and IL-8 levels were higher in all patient groups compared with HC and were not significantly affected over time or by remdesivir/dexamethasone treatment for 5 days. CONCLUSION: Serum sACE2 levels increase in severe COVID-19 patients as they recover over time whilst circulating cytokines are unaffected. Future studies should link these results to clinical outcomes.

9.
Front Neurol ; 12: 697079, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359206

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus disease COVID-19 was identified in December 2019. It subsequently spread across the world with over 125 M reported cases and 2.75 M deaths in 190 countries. COVID-19 causes severe respiratory distress; however, recent studies have reported neurological consequences of infection by the COVID-19 virus SARS-CoV-2 even in subjects with mild infection and no initial neurological effects. It is likely that the virus uses the olfactory nerve to reach the CNS and that this transport mechanism enables virus access to areas of the brain stem that regulates respiratory rhythm and may even trigger cell death by alteration of these neuronal nuclei. In addition, the long-term neuronal effects of COVID-19 suggest a role for SARS-CoV-2 in the development or progression of neurodegerative disease as a result of inflammation and/or hypercoagulation. In this review recent findings on the mechanism(s) by which SARS-CoV-2 accesses the CNS and induces neurological dysregulation are summarized.

10.
Front Nutr ; 8: 698617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320581

ABSTRACT

Background: During late 2019 a viral disease due to a novel coronavirus was reported in Wuhan, China, which rapidly developed into an exploding pandemic and poses a severe threat to human health all over the world. Until now (May 2021), there are insufficient treatment options for the management of this global disease and shortage of vaccines. Important aspects that help to defeat coronavirus infection seems to be having a healthy, strong, and resilient immune system. Nutrition and metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes play a crucial role on the community health situation in general and especially during this new pandemic. There seems to be an enormous impact of lifestyle, metabolic disorders, and immune status on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and recovery. For this reason, it is important to consider the impact of lifestyle and the consumption of well-defined healthy diets during the pandemic. Aims: In this review, we summarise recent findings on the effect of nutrition on COVID-19 susceptibility and disease severity and treatment. Understanding how specific dietary features might help to improve the public health strategies to reduce the rate and severity of COVID-19.

11.
Scand J Immunol ; 94(3): e13083, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273132

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease COVID-19 was first described in December 2019. The peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients have increased numbers of neutrophils which are important in controlling the bacterial infections observed in COVID-19. We sought to evaluate the cytotoxic capacity of neutrophils in COVID-19 patients. 34 confirmed COVID-19 patients (29 severe, five mild disease), and nine healthy controls were recruited from the Masih Daneshvari Hospital (Tehran, Iran) from March to May 2020. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells were isolated from whole blood and incubated with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). Bacterial growth was determined by measuring the florescence of co-cultures of bacteria and neutrophils and reported as the lag time before exponential growth. The number of viable bacteria was determined after 70 hours as colony-forming units (CFU). The immunophenotype of tested cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. Isolated neutrophils have higher surface expression of CD16 and CD62L with negative markers for PMN-MDSC. Bacterial growth in the presence of SA (22 ± 0.9 versus 9.2 ± 0.5 h, P < .01) and PA (12.4 ± 0.6 versus 4.5 ± 0.22, P < .01) was significantly reduced in COVID-19 patients. After 70 h incubation of PMN with bacteria (SA and PA), CFUs were significant increased in COVID-19 patients SA (2.6 ± 0.09 × 108 CFU/mL-severe patients and 1.4 ± 0.06 × 108 CFU/mL-mild patients, P < .001) and PA (2.2 ± 0.09 × 109 CFU/mL-severe patients and 1.6 ± 0.03 × 109 CFU/mL-mild patients, P < .001). Gentamycin proliferation assays confirmed the presence of intracellular bacteria. Reduced bacterial killing by neutrophils from COVID-19 patients may be responsible for the high bacterial yield seen in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Humans , Iran , Neutrophils/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 592727, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225860

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 112M patients and resulted in almost 2.5M deaths worldwide. The major clinical feature of severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilation is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) possibly associated with a cytokine storm. Objectives: To elucidate serum levels of TNF-α and soluble TNF-Receptor 1 (sTNFR1) in patients with severe and mild COVID-19 disease as determinants of disease severity. Methods: We determined serum TNF-α and sTNFR1 concentrations in 46 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (17 patients with severe disease within the intensive care unit [ICU] and 29 non-severe, non-ICU patients) and 15 healthy controls upon admission using ELISA. Subjects were recruited between March-May 2020 at the Masih Daneshvari Hospital Tehran, Iran. Results: Serum levels of sTNFRI were significantly higher in ICU patients (P<0.0001) and non-ICU patients (P=0.0342) compared with healthy subjects. Serum sTNFR1 were significantly higher in ICU patients than in non-ICU patients (P<0.0001). Serum TNF-α levels were greater in ICU and non-ICU patients than in the healthy subjects group (p<0.0001). The sTNFRI concentration in ICU (r=0.79, p=0.0002) and non-ICU (r=0.42, p=0.02) patients positively correlated with age although serum sTNFRI levels in ICU patients were significantly higher than in older healthy subjects. The sTNFRI concentration in ICU patients negatively correlated with ESR. Conclusions: The study demonstrates higher sTNFRI in ICU patients with severe COVID-19 disease and this be a biomarker of disease severity and mortality. Future studies should examine whether lower levels of systemic sTNFR1 at admission may indicate a better disease outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 563085, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110288

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, a vtiral pneumonia with an unknown agent was reported in Wuhan, China. A novel coronavirus was identified as the causative agent. Because of the human-to-human transmission and rapid spread; coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly increased to an epidemic scale and poses a severe threat to human health; it has been declared a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO). This review aims to summarize the recent research progress of COVID-19 molecular features and immunopathogenesis to provide a reference for further research in prevention and treatment of SARS coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection based on the knowledge from researches on SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adaptive Immunity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 294, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097189

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 93: 107407, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected 86,4 M patients and resulted in 1,86 M deaths worldwide. Severe COVID-19 patients have elevated blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL-8 and interferon (IFN)γ. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of antiviral treatment serum cytokines in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Blood was obtained from 29 patients (aged 32-79 yr) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 upon admission and 7 days after antiviral (Favipiravir or Lopinavir/Ritonavir) treatment. Patients also received standard supportive treatment in this retrospective observational study. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated to investigate lung manifestations of COVID-19. Serum was also obtained and cytokines levels were evaluated. 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. RESULTS: Anti-viral therapy significantly reduced CT scan scores and the elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In contrast, serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IFNγ were elevated at baseline in COVID-19 subjects compared to healthy subjects with IL-6 (p = 0.006) and IL-8 (p = 0.011) levels being further elevated after antiviral therapy. IL-1ß (p = 0.01) and TNFα (p = 0.069) levels were also enhanced after treatment but baseline levels were similar to those of healthy controls. These changes occurred irrespective of whether patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSION: Antiviral treatments did not suppress the inflammatory phase of COVID-19 after 7 days treatment although CT, CRP and LDH suggest a decline in lung inflammation. There was limited evidence for a viral-mediated cytokine storm in these COVID-19 subjects.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Pulmonology ; 27(6): 486-492, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, pneumonia associated with a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most frequently observed complication in COVID-19 patients with high mortality rates. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY: To observe the clinical effect of plasmapheresis on excessive inflammatory reaction and immune features in patients with severe COVID-19 at risk of ARDS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center study, we included 15 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Masih Daneshvari Hospital, in March 2020 in Tehran, Iran. COVID-19 cases were confirmed by RT-PCR and CT imaging according to WHO guidelines. Plasmapheresis was performed to alleviate cytokine-induced ARDS. The improvement in oxygen delivery (PaO2/FiO2), total number of T cells, liver enzymes, acute reaction proteins, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6), and acute phase reaction proteins including ferritin and CRP were high before plasmapheresis. After plasmapheresis, the levels of PaO2/FiO2, acute phase reactants, inflammatory mediators, liver enzymes and bilirubin were significantly reduced within a week (p < 0.05). In contrast, although the number of T helper cells decreased immediately after plasmapheresis, they rose to above baseline levels after 1 week. Nine out of fifteen patients on non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) survived whilst the six patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) died. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that plasmapheresis improves systemic cytokine and immune responses in patients with severe COVID-19 who do not undergo IMV. Further controlled studies are required to explore the efficacy of plasmapheresis treatment in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plasmapheresis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Iran , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
18.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241896, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910304

ABSTRACT

A cluster of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) underwent repeated positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA tests after they were discharged from the hospital. We referred to them as re-positive (RP) patients in this study. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of these patients in a retrospective cohort study. After being treated for COVID-19, the patients underwent 14 days of quarantine following their discharge from the Huangshi Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Huangshi Hospital of Youse. Two additional sequential SARS-CoV-2 RNA tests were performed at the end of quarantine. The median age of the 368 patients was 51 years, and 184 (50%) patients were female. A total of 23 RP patients were observed at follow-up. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, risk factors associated with RP included a higher ratio of lymphocyte/white blood cell on admission (adjusted HR 7.038; 95% CI, 1.911-25.932; P = 0.0034), lower peak temperature during hospitalization (adjusted HR, 0.203; 95% CI, 0.093-0.443; P<0.0001), and the presence of comorbidities, particularly hypertension or chronic diseases in the respiratory system (adjusted HR, 3.883; 95% CI, 1.468-10.273; P = 0.0063). Antivirus treatment with arbidol was associated with a lower likelihood of re-positive outcomes (adjusted HR, 0.178; 95% CI, 0.045-0.709; P = 0.0144).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Quarantine , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 269, 2020 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to almost 100 countries, infected over 31 M patients and resulted in 961 K deaths worldwide as of 21st September 2020. The major clinical feature of severe COVID-19 requiring ventilation is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with multi-functional failure as a result of a cytokine storm with increased serum levels of cytokines. The pathogenesis of the respiratory failure in COVID-19 is yet unknown, but diffuse alveolar damage with interstitial thickening leading to compromised gas exchange is a plausible mechanism. Hypoxia is seen in the COVID-19 patients, however, patients present with a distinct phenotype. Intracellular levels of nitric oxide (NO) play an important role in the vasodilation of small vessels. To elucidate the intracellular levels of NO inside of RBCs in COVID-19 patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. METHODS: We recruited 14 COVID-19 infected cases who had pulmonary involvement of their disease, 4 non-COVID-19 healthy controls (without pulmonary involvement and were not hypoxic) and 2 hypoxic non-COVID-19 patients subjects who presented at the Masih Daneshvari Hospital of Tehran, Iran between March-May 2020. Whole blood samples were harvested from patients and intracellular NO levels in 1 × 106 red blood cells (RBC) was measured by DAF staining using flow cytometry (FACS Calibour, BD, CA, USA). RESULTS: The Mean florescent of intensity for NO was significantly enhanced in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy control subjects (P ≤ 0.05). As a further control for whether hypoxia induced this higher intracellular NO, we evaluated the levels of NO inside RBC of hypoxic patients. No significant differences in NO levels were seen between the hypoxic and non-hypoxic control group. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates increased levels of intracellular NO in RBCs from COVID-19 patients. Future multi-centre studies should examine whether this is seen in a larger number of COVID-19 patients and whether NO therapy may be of use in these severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Partial Pressure , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasodilation , Young Adult
20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2037, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769212

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses were first discovered in the 1960s and are named due to their crown-like shape. Sometimes, but not often, a coronavirus can infect both animals and humans. An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 or SARS-CoV-2 previously known as 2019-nCoV) was identified as the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as it spread throughout China and subsequently across the globe. As of 14th July 2020, a total of 13.1 million confirmed cases globally and 572,426 deaths had been reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the ß-coronavirus family and shares extensive genomic identity with bat coronavirus suggesting that bats are the natural host. SARS-CoV-2 uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as that for SARS-CoV, the coronavirus associated with the SARS outbreak in 2003. It mainly spreads through the respiratory tract with lymphopenia and cytokine storms occuring in the blood of subjects with severe disease. This suggests the existence of immunological dysregulation as an accompanying event during severe illness caused by this virus. The early recognition of this immunological phenotype could assist prompt recognition of patients who will progress to severe disease. Here we review the data of the immune response during COVID-19 infection. The current review summarizes our understanding of how immune dysregulation and altered cytokine networks contribute to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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