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1.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911627

ABSTRACT

Several neglected infectious pathogens, such as the monkeypox virus (MPXV), have re-emerged in the last few decades, becoming a global health burden. Despite the incipient vaccine against MPXV infection, the global incidence of travel-related outbreaks continues to rise. About 472 confirmed cases have been reported in 27 countries as of 31 May 2022, the largest recorded number of cases outside Africa since the disease was discovered in the early 1970s.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Travel , Travel-Related Illness
3.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 45(5): 430-436, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450514

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the admission characteristics and hospital outcomes for patients admitted with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in Northern Queensland. METHODS: We perform a retrospective analysis of the data covering an 11-year period, 2006-2016. Length of hospital stay (LOS) is modelled by negative binomial regression and heterogeneous effects are checked using interaction terms. RESULTS: A total of 11,726 patients were admitted due to LRTI; 2,430 (20.9%) were of Indigenous descent. We found higher hospitalisations due to LRTI for Indigenous than non-Indigenous patients, with a disproportionate increase in hospitalisations occurring during winter. The LOS for Indigenous patients was higher by 2.5 days [95%CI: -0.15; 5.05] than for non-Indigenous patients. The average marginal effect of 17.5 [95%CI: 15.3; 29.7] implies that the LOS for a patient, who was admitted to ICU, was higher by 17.5 days. CONCLUSIONS: We highlighted the increased burden of LRTIs experienced by Indigenous populations, with this information potentially being useful for enhancing community-level policy making. Implications for public health: Future guidelines can use these results to make recommendations for preventative measures in Indigenous communities. Improvements in engagement and partnership with Indigenous communities and consumers can help increase healthcare uptake and reduce the burden of respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Hospitalization , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Length of Stay , Queensland/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 8: 20499361211032453, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334726

ABSTRACT

There are a great number of beneficial commensal microorganisms constitutively colonizing the mucosal lining of the lungs. Alterations in the microbiota profile have been associated with several respiratory diseases such as pneumonia and allergies. Lung microbiota dysbiosis might play an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as well as elicit other opportunistic infections associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). With its increasing prevalence and morbidity, SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant mothers is inevitable. Recent evidence shows that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) act as an entry receptor and viral spike priming protein, respectively, for SARS-CoV-2 infection. These receptor proteins are highly expressed in the maternal-fetal interface, including the placental trophoblast, suggesting the possibility of maternal-fetal transmission. In this review, we discuss the role of lung microbiota dysbiosis in respiratory diseases, with an emphasis on COVID-19 and the possible implications of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy outcome and neonatal health.

5.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 33(8): 977-978, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329095

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 40: 101988, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that was first detected in the city of Wuhan, China has now spread to every inhabitable continent, but now the attention has shifted from China to other epicentres. This study explored early assessment of the influence of spatial proximities and travel patterns from Italy on the further spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide. METHODS: Using data on the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 and air travel data between countries, we applied a stochastic meta-population model to estimate the global spread of COVID-19. Pearson's correlation, semi-variogram, and Moran's Index were used to examine the association and spatial autocorrelation between the number of COVID-19 cases and travel influx (and arrival time) from the source country. RESULTS: We found significant negative association between disease arrival time and number of cases imported from Italy (r = -0.43, p = 0.004) and significant positive association between the number of COVID-19 cases and daily travel influx from Italy (r = 0.39, p = 0.011). Using bivariate Moran's Index analysis, we found evidence of spatial interaction between COVID-19 cases and travel influx (Moran's I = 0.340). Asia-Pacific region is at higher/extreme risk of disease importation from the Chinese epicentre, whereas the rest of Europe, South-America and Africa are more at risk from the Italian epicentre. CONCLUSION: We showed that as the epicentre changes, the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 spread change to reflect spatial proximities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Air Travel/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel/statistics & numerical data
7.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 293-302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067515

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine how public trust mediates the people's adherence to levels of stringent government health policies and to establish if these effects vary across the political regimes. METHODS: This study utilizes data from two large-scale surveys: the global behaviors and perceptions at the onset of COVID-19 pandemic and the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT). Linear regression models were used to estimate the effects of public trust and strictness of restriction measures on people's compliance level. The model accounted for individual and daily variations in country-level stringency of preventative measures. Differences in the dynamics between public trust, the stringent level of government health guidelines and policy compliance were also examined among countries based on political regimes. RESULTS: We find strong evidence of the increase in compliance due to the imposition of stricter government restrictions. The examination of heterogeneous effects suggests that high public trust in government and the perception of its truthfulness double the impact of policy restrictions on public compliance. Among political regimes, higher levels of public trust significantly increase the predicted compliance as stringency level rises in authoritarian and democratic countries. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of public trust in government and its institutions during public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results are relevant and help understand why governments need to address the risks of non-compliance among low trusting individuals to achieve the success of the containment policies.

8.
Front Public Health ; 8: 579190, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955283

ABSTRACT

On March 13, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 a pandemic. Since then the virus has infected over 9.1 million individuals and resulted in over 470,000 deaths worldwide (as of June 24, 2020). Here, we discuss the spatial correlation between county population health rankings and the incidence of COVID-19 cases and COVID-19 related deaths in the United States. We analyzed the spread of the disease based on multiple variables at the county level, using publicly available data on the numbers of confirmed cases and deaths, intensive care unit beds and socio-demographic, and healthcare resources in the U.S. Our results indicate substantial geographical variations in the distribution of COVID-19 cases and deaths across the US counties. There was significant positive global spatial correlation between the percentage of Black Americans and cases of COVID-19 (Moran I = 0.174 and 0.264, p < 0.0001). A similar result was found for the global spatial correlation between the percentage of Black American and deaths due to COVID-19 at the county level in the U.S. (Moran I = 0.264, p < 0.0001). There was no significant spatial correlation between the Hispanic population and COVID-19 cases and deaths; however, a higher percentage of non-Hispanic white was significantly negatively spatially correlated with cases (Moran I = -0.203, p < 0.0001) and deaths (Moran I = -0.137, p < 0.0001) from the disease. This study showed significant but weak spatial autocorrelation between the number of intensive care unit beds and COVID-19 cases (Moran I = 0.08, p < 0.0001) and deaths (Moran I = 0.15, p < 0.0001), respectively. These findings provide more detail into the interplay between the infectious disease and healthcare-related characteristics of the population. Only by understanding these relationships will it be possible to mitigate the rate of spread and severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Spatial Analysis , Databases, Factual , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/supply & distribution , Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e212, 2020 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740026

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first detected in the city of Wuhan, China in December 2019. Although, the disease appeared in Africa later than other regions, it has now spread to virtually all countries on the continent. We provide early spatio-temporal dynamics of COVID-19 within the first 62 days of the disease's appearance on the African continent. We used a two-parameter hurdle Poisson model to simultaneously analyse the zero counts and the frequency of occurrence. We investigate the effects of important healthcare capacities including hospital beds and number of medical doctors in different countries. The results show that cases of the pandemic vary geographically across Africa with notably high incidence in neighbouring countries particularly in West and North Africa. The burden of the disease (per 100 000) mostly impacted Djibouti, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria. Temporally, during the first 4 weeks, the burden was highest in Senegal, Egypt and Mauritania, but by mid-April it shifted to Somalia, Chad, Guinea, Tanzania, Gabon, Sudan and Zimbabwe. Currently, Namibia, Angola, South Sudan, Burundi and Uganda have the least burden. These findings could be useful in guiding epidemiological interventions and the allocation of scarce resources based on heterogeneity of the disease patterns.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Poisson Distribution , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Public Health ; 8: 241, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613125

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is not only a global pandemic and public health crisis; it has also severely affected the global economy and financial markets. Significant reductions in income, a rise in unemployment, and disruptions in the transportation, service, and manufacturing industries are among the consequences of the disease mitigation measures that have been implemented in many countries. It has become clear that most governments in the world underestimated the risks of rapid COVID-19 spread and were mostly reactive in their crisis response. As disease outbreaks are not likely to disappear in the near future, proactive international actions are required to not only save lives but also protect economic prosperity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Civil Defense , Disease Outbreaks/economics , Internationality , Public Health/economics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment
11.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 64-69, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608740

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11th March, 2020. Response to this ongoing pandemic requires extensive collaboration across the scientific community in an attempt to contain its impact and limit further transmission. Mathematical modelling has been at the forefront of these response efforts by: (1) providing initial estimates of the SARS-CoV-2 reproduction rate, R0 (of approximately 2-3); (2) updating these estimates following the implementation of various interventions (with significantly reduced, often sub-critical, transmission rates); (3) assessing the potential for global spread before significant case numbers had been reported internationally; and (4) quantifying the expected disease severity and burden of COVID-19, indicating that the likely true infection rate is often orders of magnitude greater than estimates based on confirmed case counts alone. In this review, we highlight the critical role played by mathematical modelling to understand COVID-19 thus far, the challenges posed by data availability and uncertainty, and the continuing utility of modelling-based approaches to guide decision making and inform the public health response. †Unless otherwise stated, all bracketed error margins correspond to the 95% credible interval (CrI) for reported estimates.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decision Making , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Data Collection , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 57-60, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603916

ABSTRACT

Models have played an important role in policy development to address the COVID-19 outbreak from its emergence in China to the current global pandemic. Early projections of international spread influenced travel restrictions and border closures. Model projections based on the virus's infectiousness demonstrated its pandemic potential, which guided the global response to and prepared countries for increases in hospitalisations and deaths. Tracking the impact of distancing and movement policies and behaviour changes has been critical in evaluating these decisions. Models have provided insights into the epidemiological differences between higher and lower income countries, as well as vulnerable population groups within countries to help design fit-for-purpose policies. Economic evaluation and policies have combined epidemic models and traditional economic models to address the economic consequences of COVID-19, which have informed policy calls for easing restrictions. Social contact and mobility models have allowed evaluation of the pathways to safely relax mobility restrictions and distancing measures. Finally, models can consider future end-game scenarios, including how suppression can be achieved and the impact of different vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Policy , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Policy Making , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Developing Countries , Epidemiologic Methods , Humans , Models, Economic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(9)2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133599

ABSTRACT

On 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was notified of a novel coronavirus disease in China that was later named COVID-19. On 11 March 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 was declared a pandemic. The first instance of the virus in Nigeria was documented on 27 February 2020. This study provides a preliminary epidemiological analysis of the first 45 days of COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria. We estimated the early transmissibility via time-varying reproduction number based on the Bayesian method that incorporates uncertainty in the distribution of serial interval (time interval between symptoms onset in an infected individual and the infector), and adjusted for disease importation. By 11 April 2020, 318 confirmed cases and 10 deaths from COVID-19 have occurred in Nigeria. At day 45, the exponential growth rate was 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-0.10) with a doubling time of 9.84 days (95% CI: 7.28-15.18). Separately for imported cases (travel-related) and local cases, the doubling time was 12.88 days and 2.86 days, respectively. Furthermore, we estimated the reproduction number for each day of the outbreak using a three-weekly window while adjusting for imported cases. The estimated reproduction number was 4.98 (95% CrI: 2.65-8.41) at day 22 (19 March 2020), peaking at 5.61 (95% credible interval (CrI): 3.83-7.88) at day 25 (22 March 2020). The median reproduction number over the study period was 2.71 and the latest value on 11 April 2020, was 1.42 (95% CrI: 1.26-1.58). These 45-day estimates suggested that cases of COVID-19 in Nigeria have been remarkably lower than expected and the preparedness to detect needs to be shifted to stop local transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Travel-Related Illness , Travel , Bayes Theorem , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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